Steering system

Steering and suspension system Report

The steering system is one of the major parts of any automotive machine as without this it would only have the ability to travel in straight lines rather than having the ability to negotiate converts and manoeuvres. Since its invention steering systems have advanced at an unbelievable rate numerous technological advancements such as electricity assisted steering and different methods and plans of steering systems.

A steering system works by transforming rotational action to linear motion. This is carried out via the driver turning the steering wheel in a rotational movement which turns a steering column that travels to the engine motor bay to among the wheels. By the end of the steering column is a gearing system.

There are a few different types of steering mechanism but the most frequent steering gear established, is a rack and pinion layout. The pinion items is switched by the steering column which rests on top of a toothed flat products which is transferred laterally in a linear movement with the rotational movement of the steering column, this triggers the steering rack to go which when mounted on the steering pivots via tie rods onto the steering wheel hub assembly triggers both of the tires to turn. Inside a rack and pinion system the gear ratios play a large part in how easy an automobile is to steer. If the percentage is high the tyre will be better to turn but it will have to be rotated more to receive the wheels to move, where as if the percentage were too low the steering wheel would not have to be relocated much but it might be very hard to turn, which would make generating manoeuvres really hard.

In 1810 a German inventor called Rudolph Ackermann discovered that is the steering pivots were helped bring into lines with the centre of the steering wheel axle the car would flip better as both tires would be turning at different perspectives. This works better than both wheels turning the same angle since there is alot more tyre scrub on the tires as one is travelling an additional distance than the exterior wheel. The Ackermann create is very useful for automobiles cornering at high rates of speed as it helps to keep tyre temps low, but its disadvantage is the fact that it just a little restricts performance in low swiftness manoeuvres (image plus some info from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ackermann_steering_geometry) Another steering device is a recirculating ball system that uses the motion of the steering to lift a block along rather such as a bolt making and pulling a nut along. The block has teeth trim into it that build relationships a gear attached to the pitman arm. So when the stop is lifted the apparatus turns the pitman arm, which when

Attached to the link rods causes a linear trend that is used in the wheels. The function of the recirculating balls makes this whole process smoother. The wheel being changed pushes balls through the worm items that drives the steering rack along this removes the backlash/play that could occur if a standard equipment were used as the balls are always in contact while the gears would have a moment where the teeth aren't connected as the motion is reversed. The balls also reduce friction in the machine and therefore also reduce wear. (Image plus some info from http://auto. howstuffworks. com/steering3. htm) One of the main advancements in steering technology is the technology of power aided steering which greatly helps the drivers as it creates the steering a lot lighter when compared to a standard steering system. That is done with the addition of a hydraulic system and somewhat altering the prevailing designs of the original steering system.

A driven rack and pinion system appears like this:

When the tyre is transformed not only the pinion shaft is rotated, however the spool/rotary valve is rotated too which directs high pressure hydraulic liquid from the power steering pump through the spool valve and in to the relevant ability cylinder, this assists the pinion gear in moving the rack with less pressure required by the drivers. When the steering wheel is flipped the spool valve produces the pressure from the contrary side and works the high pressure fluid to the relevant area of the energy cylinder steering the car in the opposite path. A design constraint of a electric power steering system is that it must only work on a cylinder when the drivers is moving the tyre. This is controlled by the spool/rotary valve, inside the rotary valve there's a torsion bar which retains the valve shut down until the driver offers torque to the tyre, in which case it twists and emits fluid into the correct vitality cylinder, a lot more torque the driver adds the greater the valve starts. There are a variety of drawbacks to power assisted steering including the high repair costs if it breaks as well as the fact that it is run with a drive belt linked to the engine unit therefore slightly lowering the cars overall performance and fuel overall economy. (http://automobile. howstuffworks. com/steering4. htm)

There's a new method of steering being developed on the market right now called drive by line. This technique could replace all of the mechanised parts, from the steering wheel and the steering gears to even the accelerator brake and clutch. It works by swapping the shafts and mechanised systems with electrical systems that take the moves the driver makes at the steering wheel and sends those to a motor that will convert the rims, this helps you to save room inside the engine motor bay and means the car will be flexible to everyone the drives it. As of now the drive by cable system is not road legal because if the electrics fail the drivers will haven't any control over anything the car does. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Steer-by-wire)

Generally in most modern cars there are a variety of basic safety features worked in to the steering mechanisms in a car to guarantee the driver remains safe throughout a collision. Beginning with the steering wheel you have the airbag that inflates within milliseconds to stop the driver hitting the steering wheel. The steering column also offers some basic safety mechanisms fitted into it such as it may have a collapsible section that will crumble as opposed to the steering column heading towards the driver, the steering column may also be designed so that the universal joints permit the steering column to collapse up into a opposite 'Z' shape after impact (see picture of steering column from a Hyundai accent (http://hyundai. co. in/accentwebsite/images/protection/sf_008. gif)). In more aged vehicles that didn't have these features if the impact was sufficient enough to the front end the driver would be impaled on the steering column.

The function of the suspension in a car is to enhance the handling and passenger and drivers comfort whilst the vehicle is in action. The are many types of suspension system some remain used today while others have become outdated mostly due to new research and improved designs.

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