The Fire Alarm System Engineering Essay

We are moving into a period that security and safety became one of the required requirements in all areas of life, in the middle of technology revolution which is designed to make life easier and better, technology has been acquired by man in many areas of his life, and because of this and also to make places where we live, work or even relax is more secure and safe through the use of a fire alarm system.

As mentioned previously we will design a fireplace alarm system that may alert user when there is an indication of any fire situation. The main aim of all manufacturers is to achieve the best and the cheapest systems.

Fire alarm system is an automated system which detects if there an indication of a fireplace situation by sensing temperatures or sensing a smoke, that happen to be an signs of the changing in the environment that surrounds the system.

Fire alarm system can be viewed as as a manual system which turned on by an individual or an computerized system which triggers by itself, or it could be considered both programmed and manual system.

The general structures of the fire systems involves the receptors itself, the controlling device (microcontroller or computers or any reasoning circuits), and the alarm speaker systems (buzzers) and occasionally it may contain a car dialling devices to call the police or who owns the building.

Fire security alarm systems provides a number of of the following

Notifies the occupants.

Controls all the flame alarm components in a building.

Notifies individuals in the encompassing area.

Summons the flames service.

Project Description and Aims

The primary goal of this project is to design a PIC microcontroller structured fireplace and over temperature monitoring and security alarm; the system can realize your desire to detect smoke cigars and continuously gauge the temperature at any desired area and screen it by using an LCD (liquid crystal screen) display screen.

And when the temperature explains a certain degree a enthusiast will be turned on in order to reduce the temps and cool the place. But if that doesn't work and the temperature still increasing an alarm will be triggered to be able to alert the folks on the encompassing area and the supporter will be handicapped in order to lower the ability of starting a open fire.

Also this alarm will be triggered in tow more ways, either by the take box switch which will activate the hearth alarm manually or by the smoking detector that will identify any kind of smoke which is often a sign for the lifestyle of fireplace.

This open fire system can be considered as a manual programmed system, it is based on many ways to alert people that participating in in a certain place -where the system is turned on - for a fire situation; the first method is sensing the temp of the region if any increasing of the heat range over the certain level is found by the controller it will be viewed on the LCD and the fan will be triggered, if the heat range still increasing that will indicate a flames situation therefore the microcontroller will switch on the alarm, the second method is by pulling the switch field physically by any user, and lastly when the smoke cigarettes sensor will discover a smoke cigarettes in the environment the microcontroller will receive the read and can activate the security alarm and display the effect on the LCD.

Main system components:

PIC microcontroller as the system brain.

LCD to show results from PIC microcontroller

Temperature sensor to measure the air Heat range.

Smoke detector detects if there a smoke in the air.

Alarm which alert in the flames situation.

Switch used for manually activate or deactivate system.

Fan to decrease the air Temperatures.

1. 3 System Block Diagram:

fir blo. JPG

Figure (1. 1) System Block Diagram

PIC microcontroller as shown in the shape (1. 1) is serves as a the mind of the machine, which will get inputs from three parts the first one is the temp sensor, which measure the temperature of a certain area and pass it to the PIC microcontroller which will detects the temps whether it's more than a certain degree or not, if the temp degree is less than the certain degree them PIC will screen the degree on the LCD, if the temp degree is over then the PIC microcontroller will display the temperature level and will position the fan to work until the temperature decrease to the standard degree.

But if the temperatures level still increasing then the PIC will look at a fire situation activate the system automatically including change the fan off and will put the security alarm on to notify visitors to a flame situation, alarm can not be put on if there is not a driving a car circuit PIC may not have the ability to turn the alarm on.

The second suggestions is from smoking detector which picks up if there a smoking in the air, and send the result consistently to the PIC whether there a smoking or not. Along with the PIC will find the result if there is no smoke PIC will display the result on the LCD, but when there is smoke cigarettes PIC will screen the effect on the LCD and will turn the security alarm on to notify people to a open fire situation.

The third source is from the turn by which customer will be able to activate or deactivate the fire system by hand. If the system detects a smoke cigars or increasing in the temps and assumed a open fire situation and there is absolutely no fire the user can deactivate the system manually, and if the user find himself in a flame situation however the system hasn't found it yet he can activate the system manually.

1. 4 Plan to implement

As shown in the stop diagram first the LCD display must be linked to the PIC in order to display the desired data, then the reading of the heat range sensor will be given to the PIC microcontroller through the ADC (analog to digital) peripheral of the PIC as input then it'll be refined in the PIC microcontroller so that it can be shown on the LCD display screen, then we will interface the smoke detector with the PIC microcontroller and screen its position on the LCD display screen.

After an interface must be achieved through a driving a vehicle circuit to activate and deactivate the siren with a control transmission from the PIC microcontroller, and then to help make the interconnection of the yank box switch.

Also a driving a car circuit has to be implemented to regulate the system cooling lover from the PIC microcontroller.

1. 5 Software Approach

Since our company is creating a PIC microcontroller based mostly system, first we need tools to program and write the program for the PIC microcontroller, so should use a PIC code compiler that is productive and simple to use, so we've chosen to use (MikroBasic) compiler.

Chapter Two

Theoretical Background


In this section we will explain all system hard ware components and why we used them.

Several hardware components are required to combine the ability of sensing the heat degree and detecting smoke in the air with activating the machine for fire l

In this chapter we will bring in all the job components with a short about each part.

The project main components are

PIC microcontroller as the system brain.

LCD to display results from PIC microcontroller

Temperature sensor to gauge the air Heat.

Smoke detector detects if there a smoking in the air.

Alarm which alert in the fireplace situation.

Switch used for personally activate or deactivate system.

Fan to decrease the air Temperature.

2. 2 PIC microcontroller

A microcontroller is an integrated circuit consists of simple CPU which associated with support functions such as timers, serial and analog I/O, crystal oscillator, its memory is divided to ROM, RAM, EEPROM, PIC is designed for small or dedicated applications.

PIC used to reduce size and cost comparing to the model that uses segregated CPU, recollection, and I/O devices PIC also offers a benefit of managing non digital electronic digital systems.

PIC became popular in both commercial coders and hobbyists thats as a result of low cost availableness, easy to program and reprogram with adobe flash memory (EEPROM) capability. F:\Enas\yacoub\PIC\pic_pl. jpg

Figure 2. 1 (PIC microcontroller)

2. 2-1 Types of the PIC's Pins:

The Must Pins


which mean get good at clear and it active high which mean this pin works using 1but if its written as M-CLR which means that it is active low works using 0, the function of the pin is to reset the PIC which signify reset to the program counter to return to the beginning of the executed code. It is the PIN no. 1 in the PIC and most of enough time it is connected to the Vcc 'reasoning 1' to let the PIC work.


It is defined as a regular fluctuation between a couple of things based on changing in energy, regularity of which oscillator works is usually dependant on a quartz crystal which vibrates at a rate of recurrence is determined by it thickness when current is put on it. Oscillator can combine inductors, resistors, and/or capacitors to look for the frequency. A couple of two types of oscillator: interior oscillator, exterior oscillator such as quartz crystals.

Power resource:

The main function of power supply is to provide system with fixed voltage needed, the typical voltage for nearly PICs is (5 V) which shows that there is a restriction on the voltage, for example if the PIC was provided with (5. 5-6 V) it will damage, less than (2. 5 V) PIC won't work, (significantly less than 4. 5 plus more than 2. 5) this can be a float value which mean it isn't a known value for the PIC. Usually no. of power pins is 4; 2 pins are grounded (VSS), the other two are 5 volt (VDD).

The Optional Pins

These pins are split into groupings that are called jacks. Each interface has a configuration register inside the PIC and it is called TRISE register; which a data path register that control buttons the path of data (suggestions or productivity) of each pin of that port. For instance having TRISA cleared (0 which is the default) will configure all pins of PORTA as productivity.

PIC Microcontroller (16F876A) which is best described as the mind of the system, this part were chosen for its convenience for the job because all the components in this job must be interfaced with each in virtually any quick and simple approach to conserve time and effort, for instance we've used an LCD display as a real human interface to display the system position, which much is better to connect the LCD to the PIC microcontroller somewhat than facing an external interfacing hardware design.

2. 2-2 PIC 16F876A:

PIC16F876A High-Performance RISC CPU:

Only 35 single-word instructions

All single-cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-cycle.

Operating acceleration: DC - 20 MHz

Clock suggestions DC - 200 ns teaching cycle.

Up to 8K x 14 words of Display Program Memory.

Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Recollection (RAM)

Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Storage.

Those features result as a result of PIC technology "CMOS Technology"

Low-power, high-speed Flash/EEPROM technology.

Fully static design.

Wide working voltage range (2. 0V to 5. 5V).

Commercial and Industrial temperature amounts.

Low-power ingestion.

2. 3 Liquid Crystal Screen (LCD)

2. 3-1 Description and Mechanism of LCD

LCD is the in short supply of a Liquid Crystal Display which is a thin, flat panel. LCD is an electronically displayer for information that can be a text, symbols, amounts, images or moving pictures. It can be used as a monitor for computers, TVs, game playing devices, calculators, etc. body (3. 13) shows a 16-2 LCD.

Character LCD

Figure (2. 2) LCD

2. 3-2 LCD Basics:

Simple LCDs contains liquid crustal cell surrounded by conductive electrode, upper and lower goblet, upper and lower polarizer, as shown on the shape.

Figure 2. 3 (LCD structure)

LCD exhibits utilize two mattress sheets of polarizing materials with a liquid crystal between them. When a power current exceeded through the liquid crystal triggers the crystals to align. Because of that light will not be able to go through them. Therefore, each crystal is like a shutter, either allowing light to feed or obstructing the light as you can plainly see in figure (3. 14).

Because its low electrical power consumption which allows it to be used in battery driven electronic digital equipment it made of a variety of pixels filled with liquid crystal skin cells, to create image in shades or monochrome pixels must be arrayed in front of source of light.

Among to its light in weight engineering, its portability, and its capability to be stated in much larger display screen sizes than are sensible building of cathode ray pipe (CRT) display technology that happen to be LCD's major features. Also its low electrical energy consumption allows it to be utilized in battery-powered electronic equipment.

Since all the functions such as screen RAM, persona generator and liquid crystal driver, required for traveling a dot-matrix liquid crystal screen are internally provided on one chip, the very least system can be interfaced with this controller\ drive.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Screen) screen that will be used to display the temperature and to display the status of the machine, we've chosen an LCD display screen since it's the best way to see an individual about the machine status in an agreeable and simple way.

2. 4 Temperature Sensor:

Which is a device used to sense temp also called measurement temperature device. Temperature receptors can be grouped into two types contact and non-contact receptors.

2. 4-1 Contact sensors

Which measure its temperature as the environment's heat, by considering that the sensor and the thing are in the in thermal equilibrium which means that there is absolutely no flow temp between them.

2. 4-2 Non-contact sensors

Which receives thermal glowing electricity of infrared radiation radiates from some area, then its measure it as the heat range of this area.

Temperature Sensor (LM35 DZ) this sensor has been chosen because of its high quality, sensitivity, low cost as well as easy and simple output user interface.

Features of temperature Sensor (LM35 DZ)

Calibrated immediately in Celsius (Centigrade)

0. 5C accuracy

Rated for full -55 to +150C range

For remote applications this sensor is suitable

It can operate from 4 to 30 volts

The current drain is significantly less than 60 A

2. 5 Smoke Detector

It's been used to identify smoke cigarettes in the air and fed back the effect to the system. A couple of two methods to detect smoking in the air

Photoelectric method which also called optical recognition. By emitting gadgets from a matter such as liquid metals or gases that from electromagnetic radiation electrons energy would be absorptive, then your emitted consumer electronics will be detected by the detector. The procedure is done as a light beam which goes in entry to the light sensor regarding no smoke cigarettes, but if there smoking light will mirror in perspectives then light beams will be spread to the light sensor which will consider it as a smoke cigars setuation.

http://upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f5/Photoelectric_impact. svg/275px-Photoelectric_effect. svg. png http://upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/OpticalSmokeDetector. png/250px-OpticalSmokeDetector. png

Ionization by converting an ion into molecule by detatching or adding charges "electrons". The basic principle of this method is that a chamber which include two electrodes with air between them and there is a small constant current will be permitted but if there a smoke cigarettes gets into the ionic chamber then the small current will be interrupted which will indicate a open fire situation.

http://upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/68/Smokealarm. JPG/250px-Smokealarm. JPG

http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Smoke cigarettes_detector

2. 6 Switch

This is an electrical power device used to go away or not go current. It can be used to activate the system by hand by any consumer in any disaster circumstance. Or deactivate the system manually by an individual in if the machine activate automatically and there is no emergency circumstance.

2. 7 Buzzer or siren

Is also known as a beeper which can be an digital camera which consists volume of receptors or switches, has many applications such as car horn, clock security alarm etc. . .

That is utilized to see the persons at the encompassing area and inform them about position of the fire security alarm.

2. 8 Driving a car circuit

Which can be an electrical circuit by which an electronic device can control another device, generating circuit for example may be used to amplify current.

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