The history of robotics


The project provides brief launch to the annals of robotics while going on to demonstrate the various types of robots that are designed and their classification. A detailed description of the various mechanical systems and travelling mechanisms has been provided. The widely used robotic designs have also been looked into and their characteristics have been discussed. Finally, the fabrication process of the robotic gripper has been examined and described. Grippers are fundamental components in robotized assemblage system.

1. Introduction

The design and engineering of highly dexterous automatic robot hands has been a major research and development objective for at least the past two decades. Many of the above robot hands have the overall objective of attaining a high amount of dexterity in a multitude of situations, and this generality in their aim may sometimes lower their effectiveness in specific classes of applications. This job focuses on the introduction of a universal robot gripper.

The gripper utilizes a2minimal amount of hardware, and can be employed in a wide variety of pick-and-place applications with minimal changes to the mechanised and control program configurations. The gripper is the mechanised interface between your robot and its environment. The automatic robot performs the pick-and-place functions necessary for assembly tasks. As with other peripheral equipment, grippers should have sufficient versatility to cope with the variety of parts an assembly robot must handle. This task focuses on approaches for fabrication of a highly effective gripping device. The main section of the project addresses the release for fabrication of grippers.

2. History

Machines and mechanization will be the ancestors of today's robots. The ancients started with things such as normal water clocks and irrigation equipment. Later, windmills and normal water wheels transformed gears and equipment to help produce a product. These early machines did tasks with or without individuals help. Industrialization used heavy mechanization to mass produce goods. In the 20th century, machines required some form of "intelligence. " They were in a position to work independently, solve problems and do solutions. Cybernetics engaged improving robot intellect. Today, robots explore sea floor surfaces, wander inside caves, explore and study other planets and build autos.

Leonardo da Vinci created many robot-like sketches and designs in the 1500's.

The word robot first appeared on the net in the 1920 play R. U. R. (Rossum's Common Robots) by Karl Kapek, a Czechoslovakian playwright. Robota is Czechoslovakian for worker or serf (peasant). Typical of early technology fiction, the robots take over and exterminate the human race.

1954: The first programmable robot is designed by George Devol, who coins the term Universal Automation. He later shortens this to Unimation, which becomes the name of the first automatic robot company (1962).

Isaac Asimov popularized the term robotics through many science-fiction books and short experiences. Asimov is a visionary who envisioned in the 1930's the positronic brain for managing robots; this pre-dated digital personal computers by several decades. Unlike early robots in research fiction, robots do not threaten humans since Asimov invented the three regulations of robotics
  1. A robot may well not harm a human or, through inaction, allow a individuals to come to harm.
  2. A robot must obey the orders distributed by human beings, except when such requests conflict with the First Regulation.
  3. A robot must protect its own existence so long as it does not discord with the First or Second


  • Joseph Engleberger and George Devoe were the fathers of commercial robots. Their company, Unimation, built the first commercial robot, the PUMA (Programmable Universal Manipulator Arm, a later version shown below), in 1961.

1980s: The automatic robot industry gets into a phase of rapid progress. Many institutions present programs and classes in robotics. Robotics training are distributed across mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer technology departments.

3. Types and classification of robots.

Industrial robots are available commercially in a variety of sizes, styles, and configurations. They are designed and fabricated with different design configurations and an alternative number of axes or degrees of freedom. These factors of a robot's design impact its working envelope

4. Common Automatic robot Designs

4. 1. Cartesian

Robots that have three linear (prismatic joints P, as opposed to rotational R joints) axes of movement (X, Y, Z). Intended for get and place responsibilities and move heavy tons. They can trace out rectangular amounts in 3D space.

4. 2. Cylindrical

The positions of these robots are managed by a level, an position, and a radius (that is, two P bones and one R joint). These robots are generally used in assembly duties and can track out concentric cylinders in 3D space.

4. 3. Spherical

Spherical robots have two rotational R axes and one translational P (radius) axis. The robots' end-effectors can trace out concentric spheres in 3D space.

4. 4. Articulated

The positions of articulated robots are controlled by three perspectives, via R joints. These robots resemble the real human arm (these are anthropomorphic). They will be the most versatile robots, but also the most difficult to program.

4. 5 SCARA (Selective Conformity Articulated Automatic robot Arm)

SCARA robots are a mixture of the articulated and cylindrical robots, providing the benefits associated with each. The automatic robot arm device can move up and down, and at an angle throughout the axis of the cylinder just as in a cylindrical robot, but the arm itself is jointed like a revolute coordinate automatic robot to allow correct and rapid placement. The robot involves three R and one P joints; a good example is shown below.

We will mainly deal with robotic biceps and triceps; some other interesting types of robots are mobile robots, humanoid robots, and parallel robots.

4. 6. Mobile robots

Mobile robots have tires, legs, or other methods to navigate around the workspace in order. Mobile robots are applied as clinic helpmates and lawn mowers, among other prospects. These robots require good detectors to "see" the workspace, avoid collisions, and complete the job.

4. 7. Parallel robots

Most of the robots discussed up to now are serial robots, where bones and links are made in a serial fashion from the bottom, with one journey leading out to the end-effector. On the other hand, parallel robots have many "legs" with energetic and passive joints and links, supporting the strain in parallel. Parallel robots are designed for higher tons with greater correctness, higher speeds, and lighter automatic robot weight; however, a significant drawback is usually that the workspace of parallel robots is severely restricted compared to comparable serial robots. Parallel robots are used in expensive airfare simulators, as machining tools, and can be utilized for high-accuracy, high-repeatability, high-precision robotic surgery.

5. Mechanical programs -- the hardware base

A robot contains two main parts: the automatic robot body plus some form of artificial brains (AI) system. A number of body parts can be called a automatic robot. Articulated arms are used in welding and painting; gantry and conveyor systems move parts in factories; and huge robotic machines move earth deep inside mines. One of the most interesting areas of robots generally speaking is their habit, which takes a form of cleverness. The simplest tendencies of a automatic robot is locomotion. Typically, wheels are used as the root mechanism to produce a robot move in one point to the next. And some pressure such as electricity is required to make the wheels turn under order.

5. 1. Motors

A variety of electric motors provide power to robots, permitting them to move materials, parts, tools, or professional devices with various programmed movements. The efficiency score of a electric motor describes how much of the electricity consumed is converted to mechanised energy. Let's look into some of the mechanised devices that are currently being used in modern robotics technology.

DC electric motor:

Permanent-magnet, direct-current (PMDC) motors require only two leads, and use an set up of fixed- and electro-magnets (stator and rotor) and switches. These form a commutator to make motion via a spinning magnetic field.

AC motor unit:

AC motors pattern the power at the input-leads, to constantly move the field. Given a sign, AC and DC motors perform their action to the best of their potential.

Stepper electric motor:

Stepper motors are just like a brushless DC or AC engine. They move the rotor by applying power to different magnets in the engine in sequence (stepped). Steppers are created for fine control and will not only spin on demand, but can spin at any number of steps-per-second (up to their maximum quickness).


Servomotors are closed-loop devices. Given a sign, they adjust themselves until they match the transmission. Servos are being used in radio control airplanes and vehicles. These are simple DC motors with gearing and a opinions control system.

5. 2 Driving mechanisms

Gears and chains:

Gears and chains are mechanised platforms that provide a strong and correct way to transmit rotary motion from one place to another, possibly changing it along the way. The quickness change between two gears is based upon the amount of tooth on each products. When a powered gear undergoes a complete rotation, it pulls the string by the number of teeth on that items.

Gears 're normally found in transmissions to convert an electric motor's or in this case the drive shaft's broadband and low torque to a shaft's requirements for low quickness high torque.

Gears essentially allow positive engagement between pearly whites so high pushes can be transmitted while still going through essentially rolling contact.

The basic rules of gearing says a common normal (the type of action) to the tooth profiles at their point of contact must in every positions of the contacting teeth; go through a fixed point on the line-of-centers called the pitch point. Consequently any two curves or profiles engaging the other person and satisfying the law of gearing are conjugate curves, and the relative rotation swiftness of the gears will be constant.

A gear coach is a set or system of gears assemble to transfer rotational torque in one part of a mechanical system to another.

Gear trains consists

  • Driving gears - it is mounted on the type shaft
  • Driven gears or Motor unit gears - it is attached to the outcome shaft
  • Idler gears - it is interposed between the driving and powered gear in order to keep up the route of the output shaft the same as the source shaft or to improve the distance between your drive and powered gears. A substance gear train refers to two or more gears that are used to transmit action.

Alternatively pinion is the smaller of the two gears (typically on the engine) drives a equipment on the end result shaft. A equipment or steering wheel is the bigger of the two gears.

Gears are usually used for one of four different reasons
  1. To reverse the direction of rotation
  2. To increase or decrease the acceleration of rotation
  3. To move rotational action to a different axis
  4. To keep the rotation of two axis synchronized

Pulleys and belts:

Pulleys and belts, two other types of mechanical programs used in robots, work the same manner as gears and chains. Pulleys are rims with a groove around the border, and belts are the plastic loops that easily fit into that groove.


A gearbox performs on the same principles as the gear and chain, with no string. Gearboxes require closer tolerances, since rather than using a large loose string to transfer drive and adapt for misalignments, the gears mesh immediately with one another. Examples of gearboxes can be found on the transmission in a car, the timing device in a grandfather clock, and the paper-feed of your printer.

Power supplies

Power supplies are generally provided by two types of battery pack. Primary batteries are being used once and then discarded; secondary batteries operate from a (mostly) reversible chemical response and can be recharged many times. Principal batteries have higher denseness and a lower self-discharge rate. Extra (rechargeable) batteries have less energy than main batteries, but can be recharged up to thousand times depending on the chemistry and environment. Usually the first use of your rechargeable battery gives 4 hours of continuous procedure in an software or automatic robot.

There are literally hundreds of types and styles of batteries designed for use in robots. Batteries are classified by their chemistry and size, and rated by their voltage and capacity. The voltage of a battery depends upon the chemistry of the cell, and the capacity by both chemistry and size.

6. Degrees of freedom

The term amount of freedom pertains to locating or positioning of your body in space. A body in space has six amount of independence since it can translate linearly along three mutually perpendicular axis and rotational activities a comparable three axes. Three linear movements allow the body on the end effectors of the automatic robot to move a desired position in space and three rotational activities allow the body to be focused about this position.

The term degree of movements pertains to the number of axis in which the robot may move around in one particular automatic robot configuration.

Regardless of the configuration of a automatic robot, activity along each axis will result in either a rotational or a translational movement. The amount of axes of movement (examples of flexibility) and their design, with their sequence of procedure and framework, will permit movements of the automatic robot to any point within its envelope. Robots have three arm movements (up-down, in-out, side-to-side). In addition, they can have as many as three additional wrist motions on the finish of the robot's arm: yaw (laterally), pitch (along), and rotational (clockwise and counterclockwise).

7. Mechanical design of the Gripper

7. 1. Standard Design Description

The mechanical design of the robotic gripper needed to address the required interaction between the robot and the environment in order to grasp and hold the object securely and execute the procedure. When things to be grasped are of different condition and size the friction method is normally used whereby the part is fixed from moving by the friction present between your fingers and the thing. In this way the hands exert sufficient pressure to carry the part against gravity, acceleration and any force that may arise during the holding part of the work pattern.

This is achieved by having a mechanised design that incorporates multiple fingertips and multiple joints per finger, through the installation of proximity and make sensors on the gripper, and through the job of ground breaking and useful control system structures for the gripper components. The gripper is installed on a standard six degree-of-freedom commercial robot, and the gripper and automatic robot control programs are integrated in a fashion that allows easy program of the gripper within an industrial pick-and-place operation.

The gripper or the finish effector constitutes the finish of the kinematic string of an professional robot and makes possible the relationships with the work environment. Although widespread grippers with wide clamping runs can be used for varied thing shapes, in many cases they need to be modified to specific work-pieces styles.

A robotic end effector is the "hands" of the robot's arm. By attaching a tool to the automatic robot flange (wrist), the robotic arm can then perform designated responsibilities. Types of robotic end-effector include robotic grippers, robotic tool changers, robotic collision receptors etc.

In many case, the robotic end effector requires additional vitality supplies to use. It depends upon the type of functions the end-effector perform, the favorite you are the pneumatic, because it is simpler to source air to the finish of a automatic robot arm and. The only real down sides of pneumatics are that it has a slightly lower capacity to weight ratio than hydraulics and it is not as controllable or easy to give food to as electricity.

For certain applications some degree of sensory opinions from the gripper is necessary. For illustrations, the insertion or gripping causes dimension, proximity sensor to identify the occurrence of objects between the jaws of the gripper, collision recognition unit which connects between the robot flange and the end effector so that if high force is applied to the tool the automatic robot arm will stop.

7. 2 Robot -End Effectors:

End Effectors is the part that is linked to the previous joint of an manipulator which generally manages objects, makes link with other machines or performs the required tasks. Robot company generally do not design or sell end effectors. The hands of the robot has provision for connecting special end effectors that are specifically created for an objective.

The robot end-effector or end-of-arm tooling is the bridge between your automatic robot arm and the surroundings around it. With regards to the task, the actions of the gripper vary. A robotic end-effector which is attached to the wrist of the automatic robot arm is a tool that allows the general-purpose robot to hold materials, parts and tools to execute a specific job. The end-effectors are also known as the grippers.

There are numerous kinds of end-effectors to perform different work functions. The various types of grippers can be divided into the next major categories.

  • Mechanical grippers
  • Hooking or lifting grippers
  • Grippers for scooping or ladling powders or molten material or plastics
  • Vacuum cups
  • Magnetic grippers
  • Others: Adhesive or Electrostatic Grippers

The grippers can be categorized into,

  • Part handling grippers
  • Tools managing grippers
  • Special grippers

The part controlling grippers are used to understand and hold things that must be transported from one indicate another placed for some assembly operations. The part managing applications include machine loading and unloading, picking parts from a conveyor and moving parts, etc.

There are grippers to hold tools like welding firearm or aerosol painting gun to perform a specific process. The robot side may carry a deburring tool.

The grippers of the robot may be specialised device like distant center conformity (RCC) to put in an external mating element into an interior member, viz. inserting a plug into a opening.

The other kind of end-effectors uses some physical main like magnetism or vacuum technology to hold the object firmly.

7. 2. 1 Classification of End-effectors:

An end effector of any automatic robot can be selected to obtain several fingers, joints and degrees of freedom. Any combination of the factors offers different grasping modalities to the end-effector.

The general end-effectors can be grouped based on the kind of grasping modality the following,

  • Mechanical fingers
  • Special tools
  • Universal fingers

7. 2. 1. 1 Mechanical Fingertips:

They are being used to perform some special jobs. Gripping by mechanical type fingertips is less functional and less dexterous than keeping by universal fingertips as the grippers with mechanical hands have fewer numbers of joints and reduced flexibility.

The grippers can be sub grouped matching to finger classifications like two, three and five-finger types. The two-finger gripper is typically the most popular.

Robot end-effectors can be grouped on the basis of the function of gripping as external and internal gripping. The inner gripping system grips the inner surface of objects with open fingers whereas the exterior gripper grips the exterior surface of the object with closed hands.

Robot end-effectors are also categorised in line with the number of examples of freedom (DOF) contained in the gripper buildings. Typical mechanical grippers belong to the class of 1 1 DOF. A number of grippers can be found with more than 2 DOF.

Using some special tooling action, robot grippers can be designed to retain objects by electromagnetic action or under the action of vacuum. Electromagnets and vacuum cups are typical devices in this category. Usually, if the items to be dealt with are too large and ferromagnetic in characteristics, electromagnetic grippers may be employed. In a few applications where the things are too slender to be managed, they can be organised by vacuum grippers.

7. 2. 1. 2 Universal Fingers:

Usually include multipurpose grippers of more than three fingertips and or even more than one joint on each finger which provide the capacity to perform a multitude of grasping and manipulating tasks.

7. 2. 1. 3 Mechanised Gripper:

A mechanised gripper is an end-effector that uses mechanised fingers actuated by way of a mechanism to grasp an thing. The fingers will be the appendages of the gripper that truly makes contact with the object. The fingers are either mounted on the device or an integral part of mechanism.

7. 3. Types Of Grippers

7. 3. 1. The Clapper

The Clapper can be built using metallic, plastic or lumber. It consists of a wrist joint. Linked to the wrists are 2 plastic material plates. Underneath plate is anchored to the wrist and the most notable plate is hinged. A small spring-loaded solenoid is put between your two plates. When solenoid is lively, the gripper is finished and when solenoid is not dynamic, the gripper is open up.

The selection of solenoid is important. It must fit between your 2 flaps and should have a flat bottom to help mounting. It must operate within the voltage found in your automatic robot (usually 6V or 12 V). If solenoid doesn't have mounting flanges opposite the plunger, mount it in the heart of underneath flap using household cement

7. 3. 2. The Two Pincher Gripper

The two-pincher gripper consists of two movable fingertips, slightly like the claw of any lobster.

In today's industry the two-finger mechanised grippers with an individual degree of independence will be the most normal used device. The fingers have symmetrical motions with regards to the gripper axis. A particular group of grippers for industrial robots has two examples of freedom and an individual driving electric motor. The relative positions of the component elements be based upon the frictional coefficients between work part and hands and on the initial position of the task piece with regards to the gripper's body.

7. 4 Development and Fabrication of the Two Pincher Gripper

8. Scope FOR EVEN MORE Work

9. Summary:

The Robotic Gripper is actually a vital part of robot design. In its background it was simple and sometimes ineffective but day by day modern advancements have been inputted to such robotic systems which have proved to be highly efficient, effective and flexible.

A flurry of improvements and developments is on the agenda in framework of robotics designs of the future. Major manufacturers are constantly striving to improve existing technology as R&D divisions focus on figuring out ways and means to conjure up better and simpler forms of robots.

Other such solutions that contain been significantly improved in robotic designs are in
  • Agriculture
  • Automobile
  • Construction
  • Entertainment
  • Health attention: clinics, patient-care, surgery, research, etc.
  • Laboratories: science, anatomist, etc.
  • Law enforcement: security, patrol, etc.
  • Manufacturing
  • Military: demining, surveillance, strike, etc. 1`
  • Mining, excavation, and exploration
  • Transportation: air, surface, rail, space, etc.
  • Utilities: gas, drinking water, and electricity

With such innovations in technology the continuing future of robotics design seems appealing.

10. Sources:


  • Stan Gibilisco, Concise encyclopedia of Robotics
  • Klafter D Richard; Robotic Anatomist An Integrated Methodology, 1st Edition, 1989.
  • Craig J John, Benefits to Robotics Technicians and Control, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, Inc, 2005.
  • Schilling J Robert, Fundamentals of Robotics Examination and Control, 1st Model, Prentice Hall, 1990.

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