Two Hole Paper Punch Anatomist Essay

The product I've chosen to manufacture is the two-hole paper punch. The product is one which is widely used in homes, colleges and businesses all over the world for the purpose of punching holes in paper to permit for attaching multiple bedding together in an organised fashion. Such examples of devices used in conjunction with the two-hole punch are the engagement ring binder folder and treasury tags.

Component Parts

On close inspection of existing two-hole punch products like the one in Fig. 1 it can be observed that there is six important component parts to the part. A few of these components are being used in corresponding pairs and for this reason they can be considered as a unitary part in regards to the manufacturing of the merchandise.

Therefore the element parts can be categorised in four teams the following

  • Base Plate ( To which everything is fastened)
  • Lever Handel ( The complete mechanism works from the behavior of this part)
  • Punchers ( Creates the slots in the newspaper)
  • Springs ( Resets the device for next use)

Possible Materials

There are many materials which could be used to help make the components of this product however the question is which ones are affordable and also offer good quality.

At this aspect I am considering using Perspex for the lever cope with and Aluminium for the base plate. Stronger materials will be necessary for the puncher heads to ensure a enduring sharpness over repeated use. Stainless steel could be a possibility in cases like this. As well as the springs will need to be strong also for the same reasons of repeated use so I would consider using some other variation of material here too.


The material we now know as Perspex started out life, when the first acrylic acid was produced, in 1843. Methacrylic acid was formulated in 1865 and the effect between methacrylic acid and methanolresults in the coumpound called metyl methacylate. In 1877 Two German chemists discovered the polymerization process that turns methyl methacrylate into polymethyl methacrylate. In 1933 another German chemist known as Otto Rohmpatented and registered the name PLEXIGLAS. Then in 1936 the first commercially practical creation of acrylic cup started. During World Warfare II acrylic wine glass was used for submarine periscopes, and windshields, canopies, and weapon turrets for airplanes.

From a chemical type point of view it is the polymer of methyl methacrylate that comes under the trade titles of Plexiglas or Perspex.

Perspex is frequently used as a light or shatter-resistant option to glass. It is often favoured due to its modest properties, easy handling and handling, and low cost. However when packed it behaves in a brittlemanner which is especially the truth when subjected to an impact pressure. Also in comparison with wine glass it is more susceptible to scratching.


Aluminium is a silvery-white andductilemember of theboron groupofmetals. It has the symbolAl and itsatomic numberis 13. And yes it is not soluble in normal water. Aluminium is themost considerable metalin theEarth'scrust, and the third most abundant aspect therein, next to oxygenand silicon. It makes up around 8% of the Earth's sound surface by weight. Aluminium is too reactive chemically that occurs as a free metal normally. Instead, it is found blended in over 270diverseminerals. The principle learning resource of aluminium isbauxiteore.

Aluminium is amazing for its ability to resistcorrosiondue to the trend ofpassivationand the metal's low thickness.

Aluminium is a very soft, durable, lightweight, malleablemetalwith visual appearance which range from silvery to uninteresting grey which will depend on the surface feel. Aluminium is non-magnetic and non-sparking. Additionally it is insoluble in alcohol, though using forms it could be soluble in normal water. Theyield strengthof 100 % pure aluminium is 7-11MPa, while aluminium alloyshave produce strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the densityandstiffnessofsteel. It isductile, and easilymachined, cast, drawnandextruded.

Corrosionresistance can be excellent scheduled to a slim surface covering ofaluminium oxidethat forms when the metal is exposed to air, effectively preventing furtheroxidation. The best aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant anticipated togalvanicreactions with alloyedcopper. This corrosion resistance is also often greatly reduced when many aqueous salts are present, particularly in the occurrence of dissimilar metals.

Aluminium atoms are arranged in aface-centred cubic(fcc) composition.

Stainless Steel

Inmetallurgystainless metal, also acknowledged asinox steelorinoxfrom France "inoxidable", is defined as asteelalloywith a minimum of 10. 5or 11% chromiumcontent by mass. Stainless does not stain, corrode, or rust as easily as regular steel (itstains less, but it isn't stain-proof). Additionally it is calledcorrosion-resistant steelorCRESwhen the alloy type and class are not complete. There will vary grades and surface coatings of stainless steel to suit the surroundings to that your material will come in contact with in its lifetime. Stainless steel is utilized where in fact the properties of material, and resistance to corrosion are both required.

Stainless material differs from carbon metallic by the quantity of chromium present. Carbon metallic rusts when exposed to air and moisture content. This iron oxide film (the rust) is lively and accelerates corrosion by forming more flat iron oxide. Stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to form a unaggressive film of chromium oxide, which inhibits further surface corrosion and blocks corrosion from growing in to the metal's internal framework.

Carbon Steel

Carbon material, also calledplain carbon metallic, issteelwhere the mainalloyingconstituent iscarbon. Carbon metal is thought as steel that does not have any bare minimum carbon content specified. The term "carbon metal" could also be used in mention of metal which is notstainless metal; in this use carbon steel may include alloy steels.

Steel with a low carbon content has properties much like iron. As the carbon content goes up, the steel becomes harder and more powerful but lessductileand more challenging toweld. Generally, higher carbon content decreases the melting point and its own temperature resistance. Carbon content influences the yield durability of metallic because carbon atoms fit into theinterstitialcrystallinelatticesites of thebody-centered cubic(BCC) design of the iron atoms. The interstitial carbon reduces the freedom ofdislocations, which has a hardening influence on the iron. To get dislocations to go, a higher enough stress level must be employed in order for the dislocations to "break away". It is because the interstitial carbon atoms cause a few of the iron BCC lattice cells to distort.

Mild and low carbon steel

Mild material is the most typical form of material because its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are appropriate for many applications. Low carbon metallic contains about 0. 05-0. 15% carbonand slight steel contains 0. 16-0. 29%carbon, it is therefore neither brittle norductile. Mild metallic has a relatively low tensile durability, but it is cheap and malleable; surface hardness can be increased throughcarburizing.

It is often used when large levels of material are needed, for example asstructural metal. The thickness of mild steel is roughly 7. 85g/cm3(0. 284lb/in3)and theYoung's modulusis 210, 000MPa (30, 000, 000psi).

Background Research

Production Process

The Objective of this section is to specify the materials and take a look at the possible production processes for every of my four component parts. There's always more than one way to handle a job yet still obtain a successful result. However some methods are more cost effective than others. I would like to present multiple solutions to making each of my parts and after that choose the best balance of quality, time and market.

Base Plate - Aluminium


The first creation process option to be evaluated is the thought of the multiple-use-mold casting process Inside the permanent-mold casting process a re useful mold is machined from grey cast-iron, material, graphite or other such materials. The mildew is first pre-heated, and molten steel is poured within the action of gravity exclusively. After solidification, the mold is opened up and, the product is removed. The mildew is then reclosed and another casting is poured. Aluminium is frequently cast by this process.

There are numerous advantages for this technique. The mold is reusable. A good surface finish off is obtained provided the mold is in good shape. Dimensional accuracy can usually be placed within 0. 13-. 25 mm. By selectively warming or cooling various parts of the mildew, or by varing the width of the mildew wall structure, directional solidification can be marketed so as to produce audio, defect-free castings with the desired mechanical properties.

However there are some drawbacks to this process too. The mildew life depends upon a number of factors

  • The allow being cast. The higher the melting point, the shorter the mold life.
  • The mold materials. Grey cast iron has about the best resistance to thermal exhaustion and also machines easily. Thus it is used most regularly for everlasting molds.
  • The pouring heat range. Higher pouring temps reduce mildew life, increase shrinkage problems, and induce longer cycle times.
  • Mold temperature. In case the temps is too low, mis works are produced, and temperature variations form in the mildew. If the temperatures is too high, excessive pattern times effect, and mildew erosion is aggravated.

Mold intricacy is often restricted because the rigid cavity does not have any collapsibility to compensate for the shrinkage of the casting. As being a best alternative, it's quite common practice to open up the mildew and take away the casting soon after solidification, thereby preventing any tearing that might occur on subsequent cooling-down. Long term molds are usually going at the start of the run and are then maintained at a reasonably uniform temperature as a means of handling the chilling rate of the material being cast. Since the mold goes up in heat range as a casting is poured and sufficient time is allowed for solidification, it may be necessary to provide a cool-down delay before another casting is poured. Refractory washes tend to be put on the mold wall space to avoid the casting from sticking and to prolong the mold life. Mold costs are generally high so that high-volume production is necessary to justify the trouble.


Milling is a simple machining process by which a surface is produced progressively by the removal of potato chips from a workpiece given into a revolving cutter in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the cutter. Sometimes the workpiece remains stationary, and the cutter is fed to the work. In almost all conditions a multiple-tooth cutter is utilized so the material removal rate is high. Usually the the required surface is obtained in one go of the cutter or work and, because very good surface carry out can be obtained, milling is particularly well suited to and widely used for mass-production work. Various kinds milling machines are being used ranging from relatively simple and versatile machines that are used for general-purpose machining in job shops and tool-and-die work to highly professional machines for mass creation. Unquestionably, more level surfaces are made by milling than by some other machining process.

The trimming tool used in milling is recognized as the milling cutter. Similarly spaced peripheral teeth will intermittently participate and machine the workpiece. This is called interrupted slicing.

Milling functions can be labeled into two wide categories called peripheral milling and face milling. Each has many modifications.

In peripheral milling the surface is produced by tooth on the periphery of the cutter body. The top is parallel to the axis of rotation of the cutter. Both level and formed surfaces can be made by this technique, the cross portion of the causing surface corresponding to the axial contour of the cutter. This method is often called slab milling and it is usually performed on horizontal spindle machines. In slab milling, the tool rotates at a certain rpm while work feeds past the tool.

Water Jet Cutting

Awater plane cutter or perhaps waterjetis a machine with the capacity of trimming intometaland other materials through a jet ofwaterat high speed and pressure. The process is, theoretically, the same aswater erosionfound in nature however it is greatly accelerated and concentrated. It is commonly used during production of parts for equipment and other such devices. This is the preferred process when the materials included are very sensitive to the extreme conditions that friction triggers in other methods. Water jet trimming has found applications in an array of industries. Types of they are mining and aerospacewhere it is utilized for procedures such as shaping, reducing and carving.

One important benefit of the water jet cutter its function to process materials without interfering with the material's natural structure as there is no "heat-affected zone"/ Haz. Lessening the effects of high temperature allows metals to be prepared without altering inner charachteristics.

Water aircraft cutters also have the capability to produce rather specific slices in a material. When specialized software applications and 3-D machining tools are widely-used, complex 3-D designs can be created.

The nozzle can be modified and adjusted to provide the required lowering width. Typical abrasive reductions are made with a nozzle in the range of 1 1. 016 to at least one 1. 27mm, but is often as thin as 0. 508mm. Non-abrasive slices are normally 0. 178 to 0. 33mm, but is often as small as 0. 076mm, which is around the width of your human wild hair. Small cutters ike these can make really small fine detail possible in a broad range of jobs.

Waterjets can handle correctness of 0. 13 mm, and repeatability to within the tolerance of 0. 03 mm.

Water jet clipping is a "green" technology. Nno dangerous waste materials is produced which reduces waste materials costs. Large pieces of recyclable scrap material are cut off using this method which would have been otherwise lost using traditional lowering methods. Waste drinking water is usually clean enough to filtering and disguard of down a normal drain. The abrasive is non-toxic and can be recycled for many uses. Water jets also avoid airborne fumes, and contaminates from reducing materials such as asbestos and fiberglass. This really benefits the task environment and greatly reduces any health problems arising from operator visibility.

Lever Handel-Perspex

Injection moulding

Injection moulding is employed to create more thermoplastic products than any other process. Granules of natural material are given from a hopper by gravity into a pressure chamber ahead of a plunger. As the plunger developments, the plastic material is forced via a warmed chamber, where it is preheated. From the preheating section, it is compelled through the torpedo section, where it is melted and super-heated to 200-300C. After that it leaves this section via a nozzle which chairs against the mold and allows the molten plastic to get into the closed-die cavities through suited gates and runners. The expire remains cool, so the plastic material solidifies almost when the mold is filled. To ensure proper filling up of the cavity, the materials must be forced into the mold rapidly under extensive pressure, typically 35-140 MPa. Premature solidification would cause faulty products. While the mold has been exposed, the part ejected, and the mildew reclosed, the materials for the next part has been heated in the torpedo. The entire molding process takes typically between 1 and 30 a few moments and is nearly the same as the die-casting of molten metals'.

Because thermosetting plastics must be performed at an increased temperature and pressure for sufficient time to permit curing, the injections molding process must be customized for this kind of polymer. Inside the plane molding process the polymer is preheated in the give food to chamber to about 95C and then is further warmed to the temperatures of polymerization as it passes through the nozzle. More time in the heated mold completes the curing process. Care and attention must be exercised to avoid the materials in the nozzle from chilling during this time and clogging the flow. Water chilling is released to the nozzle area as soon as the cavity is almost filled. This inflatable water cools the material in this area and retards the hardening reaction. Because of the long cycle time, little injection molding of thermo-sets is performed. The properties could contend with die-cast metals, provided the low rigidity of the polymer is not objectionable.


The milling process is equivalent to before when it was reviewed in relation to Aluminium. The sole difference now is the materials, which is Perspex.

Laser cutting

Laser-aided cutting has taken about a revolution in the creation companies. These high-powered optical beams are being used to slice through a variety of materials such as material, wood, goblet and plastic. The laser beam is fond of the required surface and transferred around to cut the material in the required shape. Laser clipping provides finer finish to the end product as compared to conventional cutting methods.

A typical laser beam is about 1/5th of your millimeter wide and comes with an depth of 1000 to 2000 watts. Most laser reducing machines are built-into a CAD/CAM system that helps the user design the finish product on the computer before applying it on the task piece.

Laser slicing devices are showing beneficial in several industries. The plastic material industry is no exception. These optic powered devices are used to cut exact shapes into plastic material or acrylic bed linens. The lasers may be used to slice plastics of varying thickness by simply altering the depth of the beam. Lasers aren't only used to minimize through plastics but also help engrave on various areas.

Laser plastic reducing machines bring precision and exactness to the whole process. Since most machines are totally automated, they can perform complex cutting functions at high-speeds. The laser beam plastic reducing machines can even be used to lower polymers, polycarbonates and other synthetic materials such as polyesters and rubbers.

The laser trimming method uses a non-contact strategy when chopping the material. Because of this, the deterioration associated with typical methods is absent, avoiding the product from any harm and deformation. The laser process also gives a finish quality unmatched by any process.

When using laser plastic slicing machines, treatment should be studied to avoid the use of flammable plastics such as PVCs. These materials cannot handle the heat produced by the laser beam and get broken easily.

Punches - Metal Steel


The process begins by heating the stock materials. It is then loaded in to the pot in the press. A dummy block is placed behind it where the memory then presses on the materials to motivate it from the pass away. Afterward the extrusion is stretched in order to straighten it. If better properties are needed then it could beheat treatedorcold did the trick.

The extrusion proportion is defined as the starting cross-sectional area divided by the cross-sectional section of the final extrusion. Among the main advantages of the extrusion process is that ratio can be quite large while still producing quality parts.

Hot extrusion is done at an increased temperature to keep carefully the material fromwork hardeningand to make it better to push the material through the die. Most hot extrusions are done on horizontal hydraulic presses that range from 250 to 12, 000 tons. Pressures range from 30 to 700MPa (4, 400 to 102, 000psi), therefore lubrication is necessary, which can be oil or graphite for lower heat range extrusions, or goblet powder for higher temps extrusions. The biggest disadvantage of the process is its cost for machinery and its maintenance.

There are many different modifications of extrusion equipment. They vary by four major characteristics

  • Movement of the extrusion with regards to the ram. When the die is kept fixed and the ram memory moves towards after that it its called "direct extrusion". In case the ram is placed stationary and the pass away moves to the memory its called "indirect extrusion".
  • The position of the press, either vertical or horizontal.
  • The type of drive, either hydraulic or mechanical.
  • The kind of weight applied, either conventional (variable) orhydrostatic.

A single or twin screw auger, powered by a power motor, or a memory, powered by hydraulic pressure (often used for metal and titanium alloys), oil pressure (for aluminium), or in other specialized techniques such as rollers in the perforated drum for the development of many simultaneous streams of materials.

Typical extrusion presses cost more than $100, 000, whereas dies can cost up to $2000.

Springs - Steel

The following description focuses on the manufacture of steel-alloy, coiled springs.


Cold winding

Wire up to 0. 75 in (18 mm) in diameter can be coiled at room heat using 1 of 2 basic techniques. One contains winding the wire around a shaft named an arbor or mandrel. This can be done over a dedicated spring-winding machine, a lathe, a power side drill with the mandrel anchored in the chuck, or a winding machine run yourself cranking. A guiding mechanism, like the lead screw over a lathe, can be used to align the line into the desired pitch (distance between successive coils) as it wraps across the mandrel.

Alternatively, the wire may be coiled without a mandrel. That is generally done with a central navigation computer (CNC) machine.

Examples of different kinds of springs.

Examples of different types of springs.

The wire is pushed frontward on the support block toward a grooved mind that deflects the line, forcing it to bend. The top and support block can be moved relative to one another in as much as five directions to regulate the diameter and pitch of the springtime that has been formed.

For expansion or torsion springs, the ends are bent in to the desired loops, hooks, or straight sections following the coiling procedure is completed.

Hot winding

Thicker wire or pub stock can be coiled into springs if the metal is warmed to make it flexible. Standard professional coiling machines can handle steel pub up to 3 in (75 mm) in diameter, and custom springs have apparently been made from bars just as much as 6 in (150 mm) heavy. The steel is coiled around a mandrel while red hot. Then it is immediately removed from the coiling machine and plunged into olive oil to cool it quickly and harden it. At this time, the steel is too brittle to function as a planting season, and it must consequently be tempered.




Quality Control

Qulaity control is thought as the maintenance of benchmarks of quality of produced goods. With this in mind there are a few methods i could make use of in the upkeep of quality in the merchandise choosen.

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