Audiovisual Translation Avt

What is audiovisual translation. Audiovisual translation is thought as the translation of recorded audiovisual material (Karamitroglou, 2000, p. 2). The idea of recordedness underlines the actual fact that there is a difference between the translation of recorded film products and the simultaneous subtitling or revoicing which should be seen as a type of interpretation (Karamitroglou, 2000). AVT is also known as 'screen translation' or 'film translation'. Screen translation stresses on the positioning of the medium where in fact the translation product appears (e. g. , TV, cinema or video screen). On this basis, the translation of websites which may be viewed on computer monitors is considered as a type of screen translation. Film translation, on the other hand, is a restricted term due for some researchers who limit the term 'film' to full-length feature films; namely, movies and sometimes only cinema movies. According to this view, the concept of film does not include series, sports programs and documentaries. In AVT, the sound and visual areas of communication are focused (Karamitroglou, 2000). Unlike books, radio, telephone or sign language which only use one semiotic channel, audiovisual communication benefits simultaneously from both acoustic channel through air vibrations and the visual channel through light waves (Delabastita, 1989).

1. 2. Translation theory and AVT

The consideration of AVT as a subfield of translation Studies may lead to raise lots of questions. O'shea (1996) distinguishes between AVT and (written) literary translation as the key objective of general translation theory because of a set of limitations which root in the audio-visual nature of the mark and original products. These limitations can be considered as: a) temporal constraints in revoicing, b) spatiotemporal constraints in subtitling, c) the accompanying visual source-culture elements in both revoicing and subtitling, d) the accompanying aural source-language elements in subtitling, e) the lip-sync imperative in dubbing, f) the cross semiotic nature of subtitling, and g) the shortcoming of backtracking (apart from video) in both subtitling and revoicing (p. 240).

These parameters may result in the consideration of audiovisual translation as 'adaptation' rather than translation (Delabastita, 1989). Why is translation vs. adaptation a problematic issue is not only a house of audiovisual translation; in fact, a number of translated or adapted texts have raised the same issue within the field of literary translation (Delabastita, 1989). What plays a pivotal role in this case is the attitude we choose in defining the term 'translation'. Considering Toury's definition of translation as "any target-language utterance which is presented or thought to be such within the target culture, on whatever grounds" (1985, p. 20), we can freely include AVT as part of translation studies.

Karamitroglou (2000) presents the following group of reasons to emphasize on the inclusion of AVT as part of translation studies

a) Audiovisual translation has more in common with written translation than one might mostly assume (Whitman-Linsen, 1992:103). Most audiovisual translations at the present time are performed with a written form of the initial source text at hand (cf. Remael, 1995:128), sometimes even without the further access to the film product itself.

b) Typological studies in audiovisual translation have previously managed to present the many audiovisual language transfer methods within the overall frame of translation studies and along with the other 'traditional' language transfer methods, in a coherent and scientific way, on the basis of the multiplicity of the semiotic channels involved and the relative time of presentation of the foundation and target products (Gottlieb, 1994b:271; Gottlieb, 1998:246; cf. Delabastita, 1989:199). Other studies in audiovisual translation have revealed connections between certain audiovisual language transfer methods and established concepts from general translation theory, for example with subtitling and 'overt translation' (Ascheid, 1997:35).

c) Audiovisual translation was born from the same drive that conducted literary translation: the need to overcome the communication barriers imposed by linguistic fragmentation (Luyken et al. , 1991:3).

d) Just as "it is the discovery of the hierarchy of factors (constraints, parameters) which operate in translation processes, procedures and products which constitutes a major task for translation theory" (Even-Zohar & Toury, 1981:ix), the discovery of an identical chain of the factors that function within audiovisual translation is also the duty of audiovisual translation theory. (p. 11)

1. 3. Branches of AVT

A quite number of varied taxonomies have been designed for AVT among that your one made by Luyken et al. (1991) is recognized as the most outstanding. His suggested subfields for AVT are as follow: a) lip-sync dubbing, b) voice-over/narration, and c) free-commentary. (p. 40)

Gambier (1994) also presents the next audiovisual language transfer methods: a) subtitling, b) simultaneous subtitling, c) dubbing, d) interpreting (pre-recorded and consecutive), e) voice-over, f) narration, g) commentary, h) multilingual broadcast, i) surtitles and supratitles/supertitles, and j) simultaneous translation. (p. 277)

1. 4. Subtitling

Subtitling can be explained as "the translation of the spoken (or written) source text of an audiovisual product into a written target text which is added onto the images of the initial product, usually in the bottom of the screen" (Gottlieb, 1994a; Gottlieb, 1998: Luyken et al. , 1991; Delabastita, 1989; qtd. by Karamitroglou, 2000, p. 5). It could be both 'intralingual' (or vertical), when the prospective language and the source language will be the same, and 'interlingual' (or diagonal), when the target language and the foundation language will vary (Gottlieb, 1994; Gottlieb, 1998; qtd. by Karamitroglo, 2000).

Subtitles can be 'open', when the target text constitutes a physical part of the translated film and is also transmitted as well as the film sound and image, or 'closed', when the prospective text is stored in a digital/teletext format which is transmitted in - as well as accessed via - a separately coded channel at the discretion of the viewers" (Luyken et al. , 1991; Gottlieb, 1998; qtd. by Karamitroglou, 2000).

Subtitles will vary from 'displays' that are 'fragments of text recorded by camera - letters, newspapers, headlines, banners etc. ' (Gottlieb, 1994a; qtd. by Karamitroglou, 2000) or 'captions' (or 'toptitles') which can be bits of "textual information usually inserted by the programme maker to identify names, places or dates relevant to the storyplot line" (Luyken et al. , 1991; cf. Gottlieb, 1994a; qtd. by Karamitroglou, 2000, p. 5).

In this thesis, subtitling refers to interlingual open subtitling which will not include displays or captions.

1. 5. The idea of metaphor

Metaphor is a trope predicated on which one thing is spoken of as if it is another thing. It is the everlasting feature of language. The capability to understand and produce metaphor is the characteristic of mature linguistic competence so that metaphors are being used in intelligence test or to evaluate creativity. Metaphor is basically used to convey the activities and concepts that literal language does not appear to be sufficient for his or her expression. Therefore, it happens to raise the selection of articulation in language. Metaphor can make reference to a novel and at the same time amazing used in language (e. g. , He slept from the fumes of vanity). I van also make reference to the frequently-used terms by means of conventional metaphors (e. g. , 'I see" as 'I understand'); or completely known dead metaphors (e. g. , to understand a concept). "Whether occupied with metaphors novel or commonplace, theorists of language and of cognition have come to recognize that no understanding of language and linguistic capacities is complete without an sufficient account of metaphor" (Asher, R. E. , 1994, p. 2452).

1. 6. Purpose of metaphor

The most significant rhetorical function of metaphor is to stimulate imagination, to arose feelings and prompt action (Elliot, 1984). Metaphors are put on beautify the normal language also to increase the effect of language use. Moreover, they express our intended concept in a far more subtle way. In this case, metaphors highlight a particular feature of the phenomenon while leaving out other aspects in a way that we look at the phenomenon in hand form a certain angle. For instance, in 'Life is a stage' we merely look at life as a stage irrespective of its other features like sorrow, pain and the like.

Newmark (1981) believes that the main and one serious purpose of metaphor is to spell it out an entity, event or quality more comprehensively and concisely and in a far more complex way than can be done by using literal language. The procedure is at first emotive, since by discussing one object in terms of another ('a wooden face', 'starry-eyed'), one is apparently telling a lie; original metaphors tend to be dramatic and shocking in place, and, given that they establish points of similarity between one object and another without explicitly stating what these resemblances are, they look like imprecise if not inaccurate, given that they have indeterminate and undeterminable frontiers. (p. 84)

Newmark (1981) states that I have never seen this purpose of metaphor stated in virtually any textbook, dictionary or encyclopedia. The problem is clouded by the thought of metaphor as an ornament, as a figure of speech, or trope, as the process of implying a resemblance between one object and another, as a poetic device. Further linguists assume that scientific or technological texts will contain mainly literal language, illustrated by an occasional simile(a more cautious form of metaphor), whilst the goal of metaphor is only to live a life up other types of text, to make sure they are more colourful, dramatic and witty, notoriously in journalism. All emotive expression will depend on metaphor, being mainly figurative language tempered by psychological terms. If metaphor is employed for the purpose of colouring language (rather than sharpening it in order to describe the life span of the world or the mind more accurately), it cannot be taken all of that seriously. ( p. 84)

1. 7. Definition of metaphor

The term 'metaphor' roots in the Greek word 'metaphora' which include two parts: meta meaning 'over' and pherein meaning 'to carry'. "It refers to a particular set of linguistic processes whereby areas of one object are 'carried over' or used in another object, so that the second object is spoken of as though it were the first" (Terence Hawkes, 1972, p. 1).

The earliest definition of metaphor have been presented by Aristotle's The Poetics- quoted by I. A. Richards (1965) as "a shift carrying more than a word from its normal use to a fresh one" (p. 89). As possible viewed, this definition is so broad that can contain other figures of speech such as allegory, synecdoche, metonymy and so on. Most dictionaries make reference to metaphor as a means of expressing something through the establishment of your comparison between that thing and one more thing and without needing the words 'like' or 'as'. The Concise Oxford Dictionary (COD) defines metaphor as "the application of a name or a descriptive term or a phrase to an object or action to which it isn't literally applicable (e. g. , 'a glaring error', and 'food for thought')". The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines the metaphor as "a way of describing something by comparing it to another thing that has similar qualities without using the words 'like' or 'as' (e. g. , 'the sunshine of her smile')".

In brief, metaphor as a figure of speech belongs to rhetoric. It can help us to employ a word, which denotes a certain meaning, figuratively to refer to another meaning. That is basically done through the likeness or analogy between a couple of things.

Other definitions of metaphor taken from the Purdue University's OWL (1995) include

- The act of giving a thing a name that belongs to another thing.

- The transferring of things and words from their proper significance to the improper similitude for the sake of beauty' necessity, polish, or emphasis.

- A device for seeing something in terms of another thing.

- Understanding and experiencing a very important factor in terms of another.

- A simile contracted to its smallest dimensions.

1. 8. Structure of metaphors

In the view of I. A. Rechards (1936; qtd. in Wikipedia), metaphor has two parts: the tenor and vehicle. The tenor is the subject to which attributes are assigned. The vehicle is the topic from which the attributes are borrowed. Other writers use the general conditions ground and figure to denote what Richards determined as the tenor and vehicle. In 'All the world's a stage, and everything the women and men merely players', the phrases 'the world' and 'men and women' are respectively tenor and vehicle.

Larson (1998) believes that metaphor is a figure of speech which is based on an evaluation. Accordingly, he states that metaphor is a grammatical form which presents two propositions in its semantic structure. Each proposition includes a topic and a comment about this topic. In 'John is tall', John is topic and is tall is comment. Translating a metaphor is highly dependent on analyzing that metaphor and discovering both propositions in its semantic structure. The relation between two propositions is comparison that can be detected in the comments of two propositions. Comments may be alike or identical. In 'John is a beam pole', both propositions in the semantic structure can be discussed as follow

1. John is tall

2. A beam pole is tall.

Here, the topic of the first propositions weighed against the topic of the second. Comments are identical. The topic in the next propositions categorised as image. The point of similarity exists in the comments. Therefore, metaphor has four parts (see Beekman and Callow 1974 for much more discussion)

Topic: this issue of the first proposition (nonfigurative), i. e. , the thing really being discussed.

Image: the topic of the second proposition (figurative), i. e. , what it has been compared with.

Point of similarity: within the comments of the both of the propositions involved or the comment of the function proposition which has the image as this issue.

Nonfigurative equivalent: when the proposition containing the topic can be an EVENT proposition, the COMMENT is the nonfigurative equivalent.

According to the above-mentioned points, the propositions in 'The moon is blood' are the following

1. The moon is red.

2. The blood is red.

An analysis on these propositions may lead us to the next results

Topic: moon

Image: blood

Point of similarity: red

In 'The righteous judge will give you the crown of life', the metaphor includes a sentence which is encoding a meeting proposition. Hence, four parts should be learned here

1. (The officials) give (the victorious athlete) a crown.

2. (God), who judges righteously, will give you (eternal life).

Topic: God who judges righteously

Image: officials

Point of similarity: receive a reward for doing well

Nonfigurative meaning: will provide you with eternal life

What looks helpful in analyzing metaphors is to jot down the propositions which make a essential role in the comparison. It includes topic, image, point of similarity and nonfigurative meaning (in case there is Event Propositions). In fact, an enough translation is only possible when the aforementioned points have been plainly discovered.

Besides the up-coming view, Newmark (1981) has also considered the next parts in the structure of a metaphor

a) Object - that is, the item which is explained by the metaphor (Refered to by Beekman and Callow (1974) as 'topic').

b) Image - that is, the item in terms of which the thing is explained (Richard's 'vehicle').

c) Sense - that is, Richard's 'tenor', Beekman and Callow's 'point of similarity', which illustrates in what particular aspects the thing and the image are similar.

d) Metaphor - the term(s) extracted from the image.

e) Metonym - a one-word image which places the thing, which may later become a dead metaphor, e. g. the 'fin' of the motor cycle. Oftentimes, a metonym is 'figurative' but not metaphorical, since the image distinguishes an outstanding feature of the object. It could also be considered a synecdoche ('the seven seas' is 'the whole world") which the translator may have to clarify within the text, and would normalize. (p. 85)

1. 9. Types of metaphor

Metaphors have been taxonomized in several ways. A far more commonly discovered taxonomy of metaphors is really as follow (Wikipedia)

a) A dead metaphor is one where the sense of a transferred image is not present. Examples: "to grasp an idea" or "to gathered what you've understood" Both these phrases use a physical action as a metaphor for understanding (itself a metaphor0, but in none of these cases do most folks of English actually visualize the physical action. Dead metaphors, by definition, normally go unnoticed. Some people make a distinction between a "dead metaphor" whose origin most speakers are entirely unaware of (such as "to comprehend" meaning to get underneath an idea), and a dormant metaphor, whose metaphorical character people know about but rarely think about (such as "to break the ice"). Others, however, use dead metaphor for both these concepts, and make use of it more generally as a way of describing metaphorical cliche.

b) An extended metaphor, or conceit, sets up a principal subject with several subsidiary subjects or comparisons. These quote from As You Like It is a very good example. The earth is referred to as a stage and then men and women are subsidiary subjects that are further described in the same context.

c) A mixed metaphor is the one that leaps in one identification to another identification that is inconsistent with the first one. Example: "He stepped up to the plate and grabbed the ball by the horns, " where two commonly used metaphoric grounds for highlighting the concept of "taking action" are confused to make a nonsensical image.

The following is another less common classification of metaphors which is not universally accepted (Wikipedia)

a) A complete or paralogical metaphor (sometimes named an anti-metaphor) is one where there is absolutely no discernible point of resemblance between your idea and the image. Example: The couch is the autobahn of the living room. "

b) An active metaphor is one that in comparison to a dead metaphor, is not part of daily language and is also noticeable as a metaphor.

c) A complex metaphor is one which mounts one identification on another. Example: "That throws some light on the question. " Throwing light is a metaphor and there is no actual light.

d) A compound or loose metaphor is one which catches the mind with several points of similarity. Examples: "He gets the wild stag's foot. " This phrase suggests grace and speed as well as daring.

e) A dying metaphor is a derogatory term coined by George Orwell in his essay Politics and the English Language. Orwell defines a dying metaphor as a metaphor that is not dead (dead metaphors will vary, as they are treated like ordinary words), but has been worn out and is employed since it saves people the difficulty of inventing an original phrase for themselves. In a nutshell, a clich. Example: Achilles' heel. Orwell shows that writers scan their improve such dying forms that they have 'seen regularly before in print' and replace them with alternative language patterns.

f) An epic metaphor or Homeric simile is an extended metaphor containing details about the vehicle that are not, in fact, essential for the metaphoric purpose. This is extended to humorous lengths, for instance: "That is a crisis. A large crisis. In fact, if you've got a moment, from the twelve-story crisis with an impressive entry hall, carpeting throughout, 24-hour porterage and an enormous sign on the roof saying 'This Is a Large Crisis. '"(Blackadder)

g) An implicit metaphor is one in which the tenor is not specified but implied. Example: "Shut your trap!" Here, the mouth of the listener is the unspecified tenor.

h) An implied or unstated metaphor is a metaphor not explicitly stated or obvious that compares a couple of things by using adjectives that commonly describe a very important factor, but are used to spell it out another comparing the two. A good example: "Golden baked skin", comparing bakery goods to skin or "green blades of nausea", comparing green grass to the pallor of any nausea-stic person or "leafy golden sunset" comparing the sunset to a tree in the fall.

i) A straightforward or tight metaphor is one where there is but one point of resemblance between your tenor and vehicle. Example: "Cool it". In such a example, the vehicle, "Cool", is a temperature and nothing else, so the tenor, "it", can only just be grounded to the vehicle by one attribute.

j) A submerged metaphor is one in which the vehicle is implied, or indicated by taking care of. Example: "my winged thought". Here, the audience must supply the image of the bird.

k) A synecdochic metaphor is a trope that is both a metaphor and a synecdoche in which a tiny part of something is chosen to represent the complete in order to highlight certain components of the whole. For example "a pair of ragged claws" represents a crab in T. S. Eliot's The Love song of J. Alfred Prufrock. Describing the crab in this way gives it the attributes of sharpness and savagery normally associated with claws.

Black (1962a) believes that "the sole entrenched classification is grounded in the trite opposition between 'dead' and 'live' metaphors. " On this basis, he asserts that "this is forget about helpful than, say, treating a corpse as a special case of the person: A so- called dead metaphor is not really a metaphor in any way, but merely a manifestation that no longer has a pregnant metaphorical use". His classification of metaphors is as follow

1. Extinct metaphors whose etymologies, genuine or fanciedpropose a metaphor beyond resuscitation (a muscle as just a little mouse, musculus)

2. Dormant metaphors where in fact the original, now usually unnoticed, metaphor can be usefully restored (obligation as involving some type of bondage)

3. Active metaphors that are, and are perceived to be, actively metaphoric (p. 25)

Black (1962a) also distinguishes between two types of active metaphor: an emphatic metaphor whose "producer allows no variation after or substitute for what used", and a resonant metaphor which supports "a high degree of implicative elaboration". (p. 26)

Newmark (1988) considers the following six types of metaphors in his suggested taxonomy

a) Dead metaphor which frequently pertains to universal terms of space and time, the main area of the body, general ecological features and the primary human activities. Dead metaphors have lost their figurative value through overuse and their images are hardly evident (e. g. , 'reflect' as 'think' and 'shine' as 'excel').

b) Clich metaphor is usually regarded as a murky area between dead and stock metaphor which contains two types of stereotyped collocations; figurative adjective plus literal noun (simplex metaphor), just as 'filthy lucre'; or figurative verb plus figurative noun (complex metaphor), as in 'explore all avenues', 'leave no stone unturned', and 'stick out a mile'. This type of metaphor has outlived its usefulness, and is employed as an alternative for clear thought, often emotively, but without corresponding to the reality of the matter.

c) Stock or standard metaphor is an established metaphor, which in an informal context is an effective and concise approach to covering a physical and/or mental situation both referentially and pragmatically. Unlike dead metaphors, a stock metaphor is not deadened by overuse. Types of this kind of metaphor include: 'she wears the trousers' and 'he plays second fiddle'.

d) Adapted metaphor usually includes proverbs or is actually a stock metaphor that is adapted into a new context by its speaker or writer (e. g. , 'almost carrying coals to Newcastle').

e) Recent metaphor is produced through coining and spreads rapidly in the foundation language (e. g. , 'pissed' as 'drunk', 'fuzz' as 'police', 'spastic' as 'stupid', 'skin' as 'bankrupt', and 'greenback' as 'note').

f) Original metaphor is created or quoted by the SL writer, and in the broad sense, provides the core of important writer's message, his personality, his comment on life. Examples are 'let's weight the night of a village, the slumber of an gazelle', 'and I can hear "the clear sound of solitude, opening and closing its window"', and 'where the Norweyen banners flout the sky, and fan our people cold'. (p. 106-112)

1. 10. How exactly to interpret metaphors

Larson (1998) believes that understanding metaphors is not necessarily a fairly easy task. A literal or word-for-word translation of metaphors in target language may lead to a partial or complete misunderstanding for readers. On this ground, he presents a number of reasons to emphasize on the actual fact that the translation of metaphors is not always an easy task and literal translation of metaphors, in some instances, might not be the adequate one. These reasons are the following

First, there is a probability that the image of metaphor is unknown in the receptor language. For instance, 'I washed my clothes snow white' might be meaningless in a few elements of the South Pacific because people in these religions have no idea about snow; instead, the images in seashell white or bone white are quite comprehensible for these folks.

Lack of clearance over this issue of a metaphor may cause some problems for readers. In 'The tide turned resistant to the government', the phrase public opinion has been left implicit and hence is kind of vague for readers.

The hardness in understanding metaphors may be because of the implicit concept of the idea of similarity. For example, the idea of similarity is uncertain in a sentence like 'He is a pig'. A reference to pig may connotes different concepts such as dirty, gluttony, stubborn and the like in various cultures.

An rather more serious problem is that the point of similarity may be understood in two cultures in two completely various ways so that you certain image may be used with different meanings. In different cultures, a sentence like 'John is a rock' may convey different meanings such as He is still, He can't talk, He's always there or He's quite strong. Linking a person to 'ship' may raise a multitude of images in several cultures (e. g. , long-haired man, a drunkard, somebody who doesn't answer back, one who just follow without thinking and a young fellow looking forward to girls to check out him). Therefore, it can be concluded that a literal translation for 'He is a ship' without deciding the idea of similarity will be misleading in the second language.

On the other hand, the comparison in Target Language (TL) may be achieved in different ways in comparison to that of Source Language (SL). For instance, despite of the SL metaphor in 'There was a storm in the national parliament yesterday', storm may haven't been used in the receptor language to speak of a heated debate. Keeping this metaphor in the translation, we will haven't any choice but to replace the image of the SL metaphor (a storm at sea) with a familiar equivalent image for TL readers (e. g. , fire to refer to heated debate).

Languages differ in that they produce metaphors and how often they utilize them. If the production of new metaphors is a common problem in a language, you'll be able to create new metaphors when translating to that language. However, one should be reassured that the newly-made metaphor will fit the bill in the receptor language. There are other languages, as well, with a very low frequency\in producing metaphors. For such languages, direct translation of SL metaphors may result in the hardness of understanding on the part of SL readers.

In languages with high frequency of metaphor usage, most images have previously had metaphorical meanings. Therefore, using an image in a different way in the Source Text may cause misunderstanding because of its difference with the accepted common image in the receptor language. FOR INSTANCE, the literal translation of 'John is a rock' when it means He's severe in the SL and he has hard muscles in the TL will only make wrong meaning.

1. 11. How to translate metaphors

The translation of metaphors is definitely focused by translation experts and linguists due to The problems in the form of understanding and interpreting metaphors and their direct influence on translating this figure of speech. Accordingly, Larson (1998) suggests the following strategies for translating metaphors:

1. The metaphor may be kept if the receptor language permits (that is, if it sounds natural and it is understood properly by the readers)

2. A metaphor may be translated as a simile (adding like or as)

3. A metaphor of the receptor language which includes the same meaning may be substituted

4. The metaphor may be kept and the meaning explained (that is, the topic and/or point of similarity may be added)

5. The meaning of the metaphor may be translated without keeping the metaphorical imagery (p. 277-279)

Newmark (1988b) in addition has presented seven ways of translate metaphors. These strategies which could won the interest of language and translation experts and later will be focused in this thesis to process its data are the following

1. Reproducing the same image in the TL

2. Replacing the image in the SL with a typical TL image which does not clash with the TL culture

3. Translation of metaphor by simile, retaining the image

4. Translation of metaphor (or simile) by simile plus sense, or occasionally metaphor plus sense

5. Conversion of metaphor to sense

6. Deletion. In the event the metaphor is redundant or serves no practical purpose, there's a case because of its deletion, together with its sense component

7. Translation of metaphor by the same metaphor coupled with sense. The addition of a gloss or a conclusion by the translator is to ensure that the metaphor will be understood (p. 107)

1. 12. Rationale of this study

Cinema is recognized as one of the most influential media in neuro-scientific culture. What gives cinema such a higher status is not merely due to its great potential in entertaining its audience. It is a medium which sends rather important messages to the people of a community or peoples in several communities. These messages can cover a wide range of issues including science, imagination, religion, morality, culture and so on.

On the other hand, language is known to be being among the most outstanding means of transferring such messages particularly in the field of culture. Thus, the analysis of subtitling metaphors in cinema movies could be significant in different ways. Metaphors have been long regarded as cases of untranslatability. That is mostly because of the unique structure predicated on which one cannot guess the meaning of the metaphor from its constituent parts. Therefore the matter of subtitling metaphors turns to reveal unique features and constraints. Another outstanding point about the translation of metaphors is within regard using their role as the key cultural components in language. Metaphors root in the culture of the nation so that they can suitably reflect the culture of the society. Lakoff and Johnson (1980) even go beyond this idea and declare that "a culture may be thought of as providing, among other activities, a pool of available metaphors for making sense of reality"; "to live on by a metaphor is to own your reality structured by that metaphor and also to base your perceptions and actions upon that structuring of reality" (p. 12). In other words it is the metaphors in our language which regulate our attitudes towards things.

Translation acts like a bridge between two cultures. However, a more careful go over this phenomenon implies that it is not all that simple. Every culture imposes a set of parameters which might hardly influence the procedure of translation. To summarize, just what a careful observation in subtitling metaphors will show us is that it's a quite worthwhile and attractive issue for language and translation experts to review due to its importance and sensitivity in different ways.

1. 13. Statement of the problem

Even a short look on the subtitled cinema movies from English to Persian reflects the actual fact that such translations will be more influenced by the translator's intuition and less influenced with a certain scientific method in subtitling. However, the intuition of any translator may sometimes due good; there are occasions in which his misunderstanding about the SL metaphor or that of TL as well as his lack of acquaintance with the initial features and technical issues of the kind of translation may result in mistranslation.

In general, such translations look inconsistent due to lack of nay certain scientific method in subtitling and this is what makes them inconsiderable. The problem is even worse for the truth of subtitling metaphors since they participate in the field of culture. The aimless movement of translators between foreignization and domestication and even towards omission dispels any type of illusion in regards to a perfect translation. This is partly because they do not know about the parameters in subtitling or have no interest to consider them when translating. One possible reason behind such inconsistency may be the fact that the subtitled movies are counted out as unauthorized because of the religious governing system in Iran. Subsequently, there will be no governmental support for subtitling these movies. In fact, the original movies are subtitled outside Iran in a few countries like U. A. E. or Egypt. Regardless of this fact, the lack of sufficient and sufficient scientific methods in the subtitled original cinema movies (from English to Persian) is an inevitable problem which includes not been taken into serious consideration yet.

1. 14. Objectives of the study

On the basis of the afore-mentioned problems, the aim of this study can be looked at at different levels. First, there's a need to closely investigate the sample movies of the study to secure a clear picture of today's situation of the kind of translation through discussing the applied strategies. The next objective is to discover the weak points and mistranslations as well as their sources. Discovering this phase is a pre-requisite before suggesting any solution for the issues. Third, it seeks to provide practical solutions to remove the existing problems in the subtitling of American movies to Persian. And lastly, this thesis studies the practicality of 'linguistic imperialism', predicated on which English language may impose its values and culture to Persian language and culture through the subtitled American movies. Such being the case, this study tries to investigate the way(s) it may happen and the possible ways to control it.

1. 15. Research questions

This thesis focuses on the following pivotal questions

1. What strategies are used by translators to cope with metaphoric expressions as cultural specific items in the subtitling of American movies to Persian?

2. What are the Gaps in the subtitling of metaphoric expressions in the films under study?

3. How do we stop the gaps and what strategies can be used to overcome these gaps?

4. What's 'linguistic imperialism' and what exactly are the possible ways (if there is any) such that it can be considered in the subtitling of American original movies to Persian?

1. 16. Limitations of the study

The focus of this study is on the translation of English metaphoric expressions in the subtitling of American movies to Persian. Accordingly, the present thesis is merely considering subtitling and has nothing in connection with other sorts of translation as well as the other subfields in AVT. It also studies the translation of metaphors as culture-bound elements in language. Therefore, other linguistic forms including other figures of speech aren't focused here.

The required data because of this research has been collected from 20 subtitled American original cinema movies to Persian which were chosen from two genres, namely romance and action (see the appendix for the complete list of the films). Moreover, to avoid any misunderstanding due to the dialects of the characters in the movies, the researcher has extracted the transcripts of the films to check with the dialogues.

This research is processing its data predicated on a qualitative approach; since, the normal statistical methods of the quantitative approach stick out of its interest.

1. 17. Need for study

Iran is probably the dubbing countries; that is, the traditional form of translating movies in Iran is dubbing. Once it was known among the pioneer countries in dubbing around the world. However, dubbing is still known as the most preferable and sometimes the only way of movie translation in the National TV Department of Iran.

Subtitling is another method which has been used for translating two types of movies. The censored movies (which are not against the Islamic values anymore) will be subtitled in the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance and consequently under the support and supervision of the Islamic government, and original movies that are being subtitled outside Iran due to legal constraints and later will be distributed in a variety and in concealment among people. As possible viewed, the initial subtitled movies will receive no governmental support and are usually translated with low quality. Consequently, they often cannot keep up with the standards. In the mean time, the wide distribution of the movies in the Iranian society and the interest of folks in watching original movies have made them quite an attractive proposition for a scientific research. Although, it has not yet been considered as this issue of a significant research due to insufficient interest and in return funding for governmental institutions.

1. 18. Definition of terms

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