Accuracy and fluency are two key the different parts of second dialect acquisition. In today's world, it appears that learning the utilization of sentence structure and focusing on exactness are emphasized by many vocabulary students over fluency. This subject matter of accuracy and reliability and fluency has been a controversial issue that is discussed for quite some time. Even though some formalists argue that learning a dialect means learning varieties and guidelines, some activists have a different view and declare that learning a language means learning how to use a dialect (Eskey, 1983). Thus, this article will claim that reliability is not necessarily more important than fluency. It will depend on learners' needs and the goal of instructions in second vocabulary acquisition.
In order to show this, this article will first focus on the importance of precision and fluency in British learning and show they are both essential by looking at two different coaching methods. Second, it'll turn to discuss both accuracy and reliability and fluency in term of learner goals, learner factors and instructional parameters. Third, it'll suggest what dialect teachers must do to cope with the issue and find the right balance between them.
The need for accuracy and reliability and fluency
In this section, it'll be argued that both exactness and fluency are needed in second terms acquisition. There's been much conversation about both of these components, with arguments put forward to get either one of the other. However, it'll be shown that neither element is useful minus the other.
Early teaching methods promoted accuracy over fluency. For instance, the Grammar-Translation Method has been used by language teachers for quite some time. It's the traditional style of coaching method emphasizing grammar description and translation (Make, 2001). In such a method, it is important for students to learn about the form of the mark terminology. The role of the teacher is the authority. Students merely do what the professor says and study from the professor, and many students consider that accurate answers are essential. If indeed they make mistakes or do not know an answer, it is the teacher's duty to provide them with the right answer.
However, accuracy cannot be thought to be enough in words learning. Matching to Larsen-Freeman (2000), in the Grammar-Translation Method, the words that can be used in class is mostly the students' native language. In cases like this, there is much less attention to second terms speaking and listening. When it comes to speaking and tuning in skills, fluency must be taken profile in dialect learning.
For this reason, other methods have emphasized fluency in dialect learning. It is clear that these approaches are built on learning the utilization of terms not on learning the usage of it. For example, compared with the Grammar-Translation Method, Communicative Dialect Teaching (CLT) stresses the process of communication alternatively than just focusing on language forms (Larsen-Freeman, 2000). Because the idea of CLT places an emphasis on fluency, problems of form is seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills.
Another argument towards fluency is the implementation of language within an real environment. In real life, language is mostly used expressing feeling and thought (Eskey, 1983). When there is a purpose to switch meaning, fluency is the main element element during communication. While interacting with one another, spanish learners often face the difficulty, that is, what they learn how to say does not achieve their communicative goal. To be able to bridge the distance of such discrepancy, learners might use communicative strategies, such as prediction to make the communication successful. It is because if communicators are in the same framework, one may anticipate the actual other is going to say next.
For example, before the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, taxi cab individuals in Beijing were trained in order to obtain English speaking capacity so that they could communicate with foreign travelers fluently. In this situation, although the taxi cab individuals were poor at grammar guidelines, they still can talk to foreigners. This is because the drivers can predict where in fact the foreign passenger should go since their destination may be related to the Olympic Games.
In this case, although some grammatical errors are present, communicators can still understand one another because they're in the same framework. When listeners cannot understand what speakers mean, they often predict the next conversation and provide immediate response with speakers along the way of signifying negotiation.
However, it must be appreciated that the achievements of this level of communicative competence will not mean an equal one of grammatical competence (Eskey, 1983). As Eskey (1983: 319) claims, "fluency in a words is no make sure of formal reliability. " An authentic concern is that concentrating on fluency could cause the significant influence on accuracy. Relating to Eskey (1983: 319), "rewarding a learner's fluency may, in some cases, actually impede his / her achievement of exactness. " For example, to be able to get meaning across, terminology learners find what, but they either pronounce them wrongly or put them collectively inappropriately. Such problem happens because of the fact that they can speak English regularly but express themselves poorly. Thus, although accuracy is insufficient alone, it is still regarded as necessary in vocabulary learning.
Although learners can still talk the meaning to make sense without appropriate form, it can't be denied that to be able to use the terminology, learners still need to be able to convert linguistic varieties into the ability to actually use then. Therefore, when using CLT approach, fixing for accuracy will still be offered by instructors. Although prediction in communicative context may profit successful communication, fluency is insufficient in this circumstance. Without reliability, misunderstanding might occur because of misspelling, poor pronunciation and grammatical constructions. Hence, it is clear that as dialect instructors, both fluency and correctness must be evenly concerned in educating students to use a language.
The elements towards focusing on correctness and fluency
As the first section has stated, both exactness and fluency are needed along the way of terms learning. On this section, it'll be argued that although these two components are equally necessary, there are three elements which may influence concentrate on them.
The first aspect to consider is learner goals. It's advocated that many ESL teachers aid their students to develop communicative competence to essentially use the vocabulary for authentic purpose. Nonetheless, what students learn from the teacher might not be the outcome that the tutor supposes them to acquire. For instance, if Thai children learn English in a rural Thai village, the results of language success might not exactly all maintain positivity. It is because these children need not use British as an instrument in their lifestyle. On the other hand, if Thai children learn British in order to market products to foreigners, then there could be concern about a purpose for communicative competence. Additionally, if they want to follow advanced schooling in England, accuracy must be targeted in terminology learning. Therefore, it seems that the necessity for precision and fluency pertains to what goals learners want to achieve.
It is considered that learner parameters are also an integral element which influences the concentrate on accuracy or fluency. Relating to Celce-Murcia (1985), a strategy guide is provided to assist teachers in identifying what degree they need to focus on form in their own classes. In his research, learner variables include age, skills level and educational record. It is known that every individual learns in several ways. Weighed against adolescents and adults, young children seem to be more all natural in learning a thought rather than doing apparent examination. It is because they are too young to analyse the structure of a vocabulary. Therefore, if young ESL learners are taught, it is most likely that little grammar instruction is necessary. However, if the students are adolescents or adults, concentrating on form may become more important.
It is also recommended that education level is pertinent to focus on exactness or fluency. This is because teaching learners with preliterate level differs from teaching ones with literate level. If people are at the amount of rookies with little formal education, then concentrating on form will be less important while fluency is the top priority. On the other hand, if the learners are at the intermediate or higher level and are well informed, accuracy may be required and it might be essential for the teacher to provide some reviews relating to form correction to allow them to make improvement. Therefore, focusing on accuracy and reliability is insufficient, fluency still must get worried in conditions of learners' age, skills level and educational record.
Moreover, instructional parameters is seen as the third element, which includes skill, register and need. It's advocated that the need of focus on reliability and fluency also changes based on the reason for the instruction. For instance, according to Celce-Murcia (1985), when the tutor is instructing receptive skills, such as being attentive or reading, the emphasis on form will be less important, since these skills require competence mainly in word acceptance. Nevertheless, this does not mean correctness can be neglected, because when knowing grammatical framework, learners can build-up logical interconnection between sentences, which helps both hearing and reading understanding.
On the other side, if the teacher is concentrating on effective skills, such as speaking and writing, then formal exactness will become an essential concern. In addition, it should be appreciated that fluency is still needed for communication purpose. This is because if the professor offers a conversation course which purpose is designed for learners to essentially use the terms to communicate with others, then fluency will be emphasized.
Furthermore, if the learner's immediate need is survival communication, formal reliability is less targeted. On the other hand, if the learner would like to work with the words in a professional field, such as writing an educational essay or being a diplomat, then a high amount of formal accuracy is vital. "The higher the stakes, the much more likely that accuracy will make a difference" (Eskey, 1983: 318). Therefore, it is clear that both accuracy and reliability and fluency are needed and whether focusing on exactness or fluency depends on learner needs and course targets.
Approaches of finding balance between correctness and fluency
a) Course design and needs assessment
Teachers must be prepared to package with students who know sentence structure rules but cannot speak the vocabulary fluently; likewise, they need to also anticipate to deal with students who are fluent however, not exact (Eskey, 1983).
In order to balance correctness and fluency in language learning and coaching, it is suggested that both these components have to be taught in the process of learning situation. Thus, in this section, it'll suggest methods of keeping a balance between accuracy and fluency in term of course design and needs assessment.
It has been argued that lots of language learners have discovered grammar rules, however when they would like to express themselves, they do not have enough traditional experience of using dialects (Celce-Murcia, 1985). Such effect may be due to the fact that coaching materials will not provide learners with the framework highly relevant to the communicative situation. In order to solve this problem, Celce-Murcia (1985) suggests an integrating sentence structure teaching into a communicative curriculum providing purposeful task-based discourse examples. For example, for the general purpose terms learners, their start level course may begin with teaching grammar-meaning correspondences, such as present tense versus past tense. Giving the time structure, students can simply distinguish the difference between these two tenses. After that, students are then trained grammar-function correspondences, like the tone of must is better than need to. When both of these basic levels have been proven, the teacher can offer discourse-level grammar, such as use of conjunctions. In this case, students not only find the grammar rules which concentrate on reliability but also put it for purposeful discourse which targets fluency. By this course designed to incorporate form, so this means and content, it's possible for learners to balance precision and fluency in the communication (Celce-Murcia, 1985).
However, there's a simple question about why learners need to balance precision and fluency. The response to this question pertains to British for specific purpose (ESP). Matching to Hutchinson and Waters (1987), lessons should be made to meet learners' needs. This might suggest that words teachers should be aware which learners need more attention on reliability or fluency. To achieve this goal, for case, teachers need to assemble information about learners' needs on correctness and fluency and identify their goal situation by using questionnaires, interviews, observation and informal consultations with learners before a course. Having done this, teachers analyse strategies necessary to cope in focus on situation, and then create syllabus which really is a document expressing which aspect needs more work on exactness or fluency. After that, select and design materials to concentrate on these strategies in syllabus. Finally, after educating the materials, professors establish evaluation methods to test learners' acquisition of correctness and fluency (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987).
b) Evaluation and feedback
In this section, it'll be argued that course design and needs assessment are not enough. The evaluation and feedback after from learners can also help instructors find the right balance between precision and fluency. Analysis can be defined as a whole process of action which commences with decision of information gathering and ends with change in current courses or affect on future ones (Dudley-Evans and St John, 1998). Matching to Hutchinson and Waters (1987: 145), "an ESP course, in the end, is supposed to be successful. " It is because it is created for particular learners to accomplish particular goal with language level of reliability and fluency.
There are two levels of evaluation. The first one is learner assessment. Students' performance is evaluated at strategic factors, such as at the beginning and by the end of the course. This is because ESP concerns with the required skills for particular learners to handle communicative tasks. This sort of assessment enables instructors to regulate how much concentrate on accuracy and reliability and fluency is necessary (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987). As ESP teachers, they have to consider if the objectives are too ambitious for learners. If so, the learners' original words competence may be overestimated. For instance, a professor designs a syllabus by analysing students' needs. Students are anticipated to present written work and make an dental presentation in appropriate English. After teaching, the teacher may find that serious weakness in sentence structure causes unclearness of students' dental presentation. However the course provides the objectives of attaining certain level of accuracy and reliability and fluency, perhaps students achieve more on either one of these, and then students will demand more specific help by instructing both accuracy and reliability and fluency found in the context relevant to their needs.
The second you are course analysis by learners. This helps teachers to show how well the course actually fulfills a particular educational target. Therefore, analysis not only shows learners' performance on correctness and fluency through the procedure for learning but also shows how effective students feel the course was. In cases like this, if they have the ESP course does not meet their goal, then there has to be something amiss with course design or strategy. It is therefore clear that both learner and course evaluation have an identical function in providing reviews on the ESP course (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987).
Moreover, the feedback of the training outcome is vital not limited to students but also for teachers. It is because feedback demonstrates students' learning accomplishment on correctness and fluency and the potency of teaching. Therefore, how to judge learning and teaching to obtain feedback is important to teachers. And discover the balance between accuracy and reliability and fluency, evaluation and feedback are essential not only at the start of the course but also following the instruction.
In bottom line, although accuracy and reliability has been emphasised by many words students, as the three parts mentioned above, it can evidently be seen that both reliability and fluency are essential at different needs for different people of different priorities. Despite the fact that some arguments show that exactness is essential for learners to acquire linguistic form to create the language, this isn't enough. Fluency is still needed taking into consideration the language implementation within an authentic environment. This essay has suggested that both correctness and fluency are needed in second language acquisition. Whether to target more on accuracy or fluency depends upon learners' needs and course objectives.
Therefore, language educators will get the right balance of precision and fluency by using an ESP approach to design courses relevant to the needs and aims. Thus, these training can maximise the consequences of coaching and learning through evaluation and feedback. Although ESP can solve this problem, teachers' ability to create the course should be studied into consideration. Therefore, it is suggested that teacher training curriculum is certainly necessary and the real development may be made in the foreseeable future.
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