Sexism in terms signifies one of the major issues in sociolinguistic studies. As being a phenomenon of modern culture, sexism is shown through dialect that expresses inclination and only one sex and snacks the other one in a discriminatory manner. Characteristically, the bias is and only men and against women. Thus, the terminology is presented as a powerful tool of patriarchy. Even though in English-speaking countries all the people are considered similar, discrimination against women prevails and this fact is observed in words.
Given this data, the goal of the research is to review morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of English sexist dialect.
The research proposal will therefore seek to explore and research the next:
To determine the idea of sexist vocabulary;
To identify and measure the cultural factor, interpersonal factor, physiological factor and psychological factor which influence the presence of sexism in British language;
To look at the elements of sexism in the British language which occur in the syntax, morphology and semantics of the dialect;
To determine the strategies for preventing sexism in English language.
The main method applied in this analysis is a literary summary of the works in which is treated the topic "Sexism in British language". The theoretical framework which inspired the elaboration of the research for the deeper understanding into the problem of morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of English sexist language is dependant on the relevant and recent works of such authors as Peter Trudgill in Sociolinguistics: An Intro to Vocabulary and Contemporary society, Nilson, Alleen Pace and Haig Bosmajian, H Lee Gershung, Julia P Stanley in Sexism and Terminology, Nneka Umera-Okeke in Linguistic Sexism: An Overview of the British Language in Everyday Discourse and Hudson, R. A. in Sociolinguistics. These literature were determined for the present research as they investigate the phenomenon of sexism in English language and they are recent studies from sociolinguistic website. On the basis of their ideas involving elements of sexism in British language, I am going to review and compare their assumptions and evidences about this issue under the debate. Consequently, I am going to put together the similarities and dissimilarities between their tips of view concerning the topic. Furthermore, I will try to determine if they contradict or talk about the same ideas about the condition investigated of course, if their quarrels are reasonable and trustful, in order to clarify if British terminology is a sexist one, and if it's to examine the components of sexism in the English language which occur in the syntax, morphology and semantics of the language.
The determination for choosing the topic of this research proposal is dependant on the actual fact that over the last decades a whole lot of questions and criticisms of sexist terminology have appeared, seeking to identify whether English terms is a sexist terms or it generally does not. Thus, it might be relevant to execute a linguistic investigation of morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of sexist language. Based on this exploration, we will identify the role terminology takes on in the world and exactly how it influences the social attitudes of human beings. Considering the fact that ladies were regarded as a weaker gender in contemporary society, being discriminated for a long period, it appears interesting and challenging to explore this issue in order to identify whether this stereotyped interpersonal phenomena or subordinate status of ladies in society is reflected and preserved in language. Because of the fact that many students encounter challenges in determining the gender of the nouns, the results of this research can help them to tell apart between your common gender, feminine gender and male gender of what and to justify their use. This research could provide as a didactic materials for professors of sociolinguistics and help check out the main morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of sexist language.
Definitions of Sexist Language
One of the main factors in the development of the earth is language, which is often interpreted as a individual creation. Considering the fact that mankind is divided into two spheres: the sphere of men and the spheres of females, it could be revealed a significant ambiguity concerning the subject if the terms is made by men or by women. Even though, English countries declare that everyone is born equal, there are a lot of inequalities between men and women. It really is put stress on this topic because matching to sociolinguistic research, this inequality is shown in language which phenomena - sexism in terms symbolizes one of the major issues in sociolinguistic studies. Matching to Hudson, sexism in English languages has existed for a long time, which is shown of the traditional ethics that men are superior to women [x; 38]. In this particular order of ideas, Deborah Cameron' work, unveils that Men originate from Mars and Women result from Venus . With all this evidence, it could be seen that some gender variations do are present. Support because of this interpretation originates from Peter Trudgell, through his work Sociolinguistics: An introduction to vocabulary and population [7; 100], who confirms that males are above females, due to the fact that in the past there been around the misconception of superiority, when the complete power was in the hands of men. Thus, as a particular social sensation, sexism is inevitably reflected through vocabulary and sexism in dialect shows sexism in culture. But, with the increase of women's liberation, and the introduction of mass media, the whole English words start a social revolution to eliminate the sexism in the English terminology, because sexism in the English language sometimes appears as a discriminating take action of women. This point is particularly relevant for Nneka Umera-Okeke's analysis Sexism in British Language, who asserts that sexism is some sort of discrimination by one gender contrary to the other, especially by men against females [4; 7]. Put on language, Robin Lakoff underlines that a sexist language requires a male-as-norm frame of mind, while female norms have a less positive connotation than men'. Thus, Robin Lakoff uses the example of professional vs mistress to help make the point: there are unequal connotations that surround these two complementing terms - and to the detriment of the female - Professional has strong and powerful connotation, while mistress will not [2; 67]. This information seems to show that a sexist terms also reveals stereotypes of both females and guys, but more often to the downside of females. A fuller debate about sexist terminology appears in the analysis Beginner's Guide to Language and Gender. Multilingual Issues, 2008, by Allyson Jule, who says a sexist terms depicts women in the positioning of passive object rather than productive subject matter, such as on the basis of their appearance ('a blonde') or local roles ('a mom of two') when similar depictions in similar contexts would not be produced of men [1; 65]. Upon this basis it can be inferred that sexist words discriminates against women. Research by Nneka Umera-Okeke, Linguistic Sexism: An Overview of the English Language in Everyday Discourse, suggests that sexist language is known as to be any terms that is meant to include everyone, but unintentionally (or not) excludes a gender -this can be either men or females. It is clear therefore a take a look at sexist vocabulary is locating the relation between dialect and gender. A far more plausible explanation for this phenomenon would make reference to the moment when many people meet difficulties of making the options between certain words in their each day discourses. For instance, they ponder which to choose - the chairman has arrived for the reaching or the chairperson is here when referring to a female. This truth lends weight to the debate a sexist language excludes women and trivializes what women do [4; 32]. Sexist terms is especially common in situations that describe jobs-common assumptions include that all doctors are men, all nurses are women, all coaches are men, or all educators are women. These illustrations provide strong support to the fact a sexist vocabulary transmits the stereotypes. Ivy and Backlund state that a sexist language refers to the attitudes/behaviors that denigrate one love-making to the rise of the other. [5; 123]. With all this evidence it can be seen that sexist vocabulary is a verbal communication that transmit those attitudes and behaviors. Also to this, a sexist terminology can be viewed as an instrument used by the users of the world to harm someone.
Cameron rightly highlights that a vocabulary can be called sexist if it signifies or name the entire world from a masculine point of view. Which means that terms encodes a culture's worth, and in this manner shows sexist culture .
The view of Parks & Roberton concerning the classification of sexist terms is that "words, phrases, and expressions that unnecessarily differentiate between people or exclude, or diminish either gender" [5; 127]. In other words, sexist language refers to the use of terminology expressions so that it constitutes an unbalanced portrayal of the sexes. Hyde has attracted attention to the fact that in a sexist vocabulary "he" and "man" make reference to everyone [3; 73]. This reality becomes clear when Slovenko examines British language proclaiming that except for words that make reference to female by description (mother, celebrity, Congresswoman), and words for occupations typically kept by females (nurse, secretary, prostitute), the British language identifies everyone as male [6; 78].
Concluding this subchapter designed to the analysis of the meanings of sexist terms, it can be entailed the fact that the sexist vocabulary excludes, marginalizes or discriminates against people on the basis of their gender and creates an unfair distinction between men and women. Sexism in words in general comes in three major varieties: dialect ignores women; it defines women as less significant than men; and it completely opposes women. They can be located in the generic masculine terms. Thus, the sexist terms is the use of words that cultivate stereotyped gender roles.
The Factors of Sexism in the British Language
Sexism in British is made up throughout a long period of the introduction of language, which contributes to the variety of the complexities. Thus, in the analysis An Analysis of Sexism in British Terminology, there are enumerated four factors which cause the looks of sexism in vocabulary: .
According to the Holy Bible (The Catalogs of this Old Testament), God created man to begin with, while woman created from one of man's ribs was created equally as a help meet for him [Holy Bible]. From your order of the delivery, it is apparent to see different need for man and girl. Thus, man and woman are not similar at all because woman is merely an integral part of man, which itself is the discrimination against women. Also to the, it is known the fact that the first sin was also devoted by the woman. Consequently, the girl was punished to bring forth children in pain and was ruled over by the man. These two examples disclose the superiority of men and inferiority of women. In fact, the Holy Bible is actually a booklet of men and as Christianity is undoubtedly a powerful religion in American countries, it is clear therefore that religious factor combine the inferiority of women.
Due to the actual fact that men are more powerful than women from physiological viewpoint, it could be stated that fact can determine that men play a more and even more important role in interpersonal and monetary lives. A man's job is to work outside but a woman's job is to stay at home, do the housework and care for the kids. Women are cared for as the weaker ones and they realize their own ideals through their relationships to men. Finally, women are reduced status. They need to leech on to men and are dominated by men. Steadily, people commence to discriminate women and feel that they are inferior in brains. This wrong point of view reflects in language [7; 37].
Feminists all declare that we stay in a patriarchal culture: a population of men, ruled by men and for men. Patriarchy depicts men as the perfect norm against which women are measured and found lacking. Both the Western and Eastern societies use love-making, to one level or another, in allocating jobs, activities, rights, and responsibilities. For the work done by men and women, there is a long-stereotyped notion of what they can do. Ever sold, there has been a section of labor-a department where women's place was restrained at home for housework and child-care while men worked well outside being the breadwinner. Finally, men had dominance over women, and women needed to be dependent on men. This is the turning point for girls. Thus the sexism in the culture has been around existence, the embodiment which is actually the sexism of dialect. Guimei He in his work An Analysis of Sexism in British, adds that this factor is a strong relationship with labor section .
Because of the social and social factors, women are always considered to be the weak. People treat women as inferior to men. They teach men to be manly, decisive, and courageous while women must be polite, conventional, obedient, and mild. Because women are in subordinate status in the culture, they need to constrain their sentiment and give up their own need to meet the satisfaction of men. As time passes, when speaking women pay more focus on the elegance and standard of terminology than men. They use more pleasant and polite words in the trust they can receive other's agreement. And they're taught to speak softly, to avoid contradicting others, to be obedient in communication, and to be aware of presenting cues of strong self-assurance. They mould themselves to be substandard in their potential sub awareness. Therefore, women try their finest to fortify their social status through their conversation than men do. This also shows that women are in a lower position in the modern culture.
Additionally to the, Xiang Xu in his analysis The Sexism in English and its own Rebuilding, boasts that record development also got a strong influence to the looks of sexism in terms. Thus, he exemplifies that from historical time on, the ruling position in traditional western society is almost performed by male persons. After climbing to the high position, men commenced to look down upon women. This attitude could impact the ideology of the whole society. So tons of men-central terms with sexist's color happened during the level of English forming. Inside the 14th century, Chaucer, who is concieved as the Father of English words, created a great deal of terms, later, Milton and Shakespeare competitively created new words. They contributed too much to English, at the same time, the negative part they brought can't be ignored. These famous male's contribution to British who were residing in male's world, accelerated the extensive transmission of the terminology of sexism [9; 101-103].
1. 3 Components of Sexism in British Language
In order to recognize if English Words is a sexist vocabulary, we are going to concentrate on the identification and examination of components of sexism which occur in the syntax, morphology and semantics of British Language.
1. 3. 1 Morphological Peculiarities of Sexism in English
In English Dialect, derivation is a way of word creation with the help of derivational morphemes - affixes and suffixes. It sorts a phrase with meaning and category specific from that of its basic through the addition of the affix. These affixes often change the area of the stem. Thus, affixes help us to identify associations within words. The affixes are always bound morphemes, which bears information about so this means or function.
Referring to the British lexicon, Guimei He in his review An Research of Sexism in British, cases that in the English lexicon one of the very most evident evidences of the sexism is the affixes which lead to a view of women as a derivation from a male term . The feminine an example may be always derivative of the masculine one with the addition of a womanly suffix such as -ess and -ette. Acting professional, for occasion, with the meaning of "somebody who performs the part of a character in a movie or play", when mounted on a female suffix -ess, becomes celebrity with the meaning of " female with profession very much like those of acting professional". And for -ette, when usher is honored -ette, it becomes usherette. Such pairs of the words are of long lists in British lexicon. Here just list a few of them:
Rovano lends weight to the debate that this kind of word-formation seems to tell that girls derive from men and attached to the men [3; 72-28].
On this basis it could be inferred the fact that the addition of a feminine suffix to masculine human agent nouns usually does more than simply change the gender reference of the term, it often connects a interpretation of triviality, of less position or dependence to the term. It shows that woman is affiliated to man, so that it is some sort of linguistic discrimination against women.
But with further understanding into the meaning of such pairs, Randall mentions that stereotyping in the terms governor and governess, and bachelor and spinster, the masculine and feminine forms have significantly differing connotations [8; 129]. Thus, he exemplifies that the suffix-ess not only represents the extra position of the female words but also connotes the partnership between the girl and male mention of the couple of words. Why don't we compare the couple of governor with governess. Governor is a ruler of the country, city and associates with ability and high public status as well as honor and dignity; while governess is a female employed to teach young children in their home. Due to the gender differentiation, both of these words have considerably different meanings, the masculine one of which belongs to high communal class, however the feminine one marked with -ess belongs to a lesser social category.
By making observation of many feminine words, that are shaped through derivation by adding the suffix-ess, it must therefore be known that -ess is way a suffix marking the female category, they have semantic meanings. Choice for but discrimination against girl can be clearly seen in means of word creation.
Another aspect, handled by Trask I his study, concerned with this point is that English sex-paired words (here discussing the couple of words with gender compare) the masculine you have greater versatility in word-formation and mainly has a wider syndication of so this means [7; 39]. Take the couple of man - and female - for occasion (man - and woman - here are origins along the way of word development). "Manhood" has three meanings in the Oxford Dictionary. (1) point out of being a man, (2)qualities of a guy, eg. courage, manliness, (3) a men of the country, while womanhood only has one indicating concept of" state to be girl" . In comparison, it is clear that manhood has two more so this means principles than womanhood. What means by having more indicating concepts? Matching to Trudgill, words are symbol of physical entities the truth is [7; 39]. In such a sense, the masculine words with a lot more meaning concepts indicate that men have significantly more chance in social activities and subsequently a more effective way to express themselves and strengthen the masculine imagery. It comes to a finish that masculine words are normal and basic, while womanly words are mainly produced by attacking suffixes on the basis of the masculine words.
b) Compound Words
Another common way to construct words in English through the combo of lexical categories is element. Greenberg provided a taxonomy of gender for languages. Furthermore to dialects that are without gender, dialects are thought to have either semantic (also known as natural) gender or grammatical (also called anomalous) gender [4; 13].
Thus, he stated that English itself does not have any difference of gender. Many professionals such as doctor, engineer, attorney, professor, judge, and surgeon may be used to indicate both men and women. However, actually due to the long-stereotyped view of the partnership between gender and occupation, such phrase conventionally refers to one gender, either male or female.
Since occupational conditions in English tend to be seen as a source of identified sexism, McMinn et al. (1990) implemented a test to check on for the use of sexist language among college or university students [1; 67-68].
In written and oral protocols subjects were asked to respond to the next occupational conditions, which had been positioned in non-sexual contexts: business executive, nurse, professor, pick up truck driver, librarian, robber, bank or investment company teller . Their study shows that intimate bias in English goes beyond grammatical marking, that is, that simply finding conditions unmarked for gender won't disabuse dialect users of the sexual stereotypes For example:
(1)My cousin is an engineer. (2)My cousin is a nurse.
Nine out of ten include the first response that "my cousin" in word (1) is male and in phrase (2) female. Only one of most ten tells with hesitation whether "my cousin" is female or male. Professions involving electricity and strength such as president and chairman will be associated to men, because these acceptable jobs are usually viewed as ones qualified only by guys. But when indicating females' position, occupations, etc, these words are manufactured with the addition of a bound morpheme or by incorporating them with a expression referring to woman, a compound form of blend of a lady title such as female, female, woman or madam and the professional term makes use, for example, woman legal professional and madam chairman. On the other hand, professions involving endurance, service or lower communal status are more likely to be associated with girl, for example, nurse, dressmaker and secretary. If on special situations a male included, then the ingredient form of the masculine title male or man and a specialist term can be used for example, newsman, policeman, businessman, fireman, salesman, fisherman, etc. It creates clear that men monopolize the high position professions. Women can only just do service work or low social status work. Take the substance word "callboy" and "call girl" for example. The ex - identifies the waiter in hotel or the person who calls the player ready to level in theatre; the last mentioned means the prostitute summoned by mobile. These words have manifested the discrimination of dialect towards woman from the viewpoint of term matching.
Using compound varieties to specify occupations between men and women is somehow a reflection of the truth that women are exclusive from professions with higher sociable status and to some extent the form of language consumption in turn reinforces such a communal phenomenon.
1. 3. 2 Syntactic Peculiarities of Sexism in English
a) Universal Pronouns
In English there are a band of nouns of common gender, which refer to either male or female such as college student, person, teacher, etc. When such nouns are being used with generic guide in single form, the original sentence structure advocates using the masculine pronouns in the context for the purpose of coherence with general nouns [4; 12-14]. General pronouns are pronouns that are thought to refer, with similar likelihood, to people. But the British language ignores women by allowing masculine terms to be utilized specifically to make reference to men and commonly to refer to human beings in general. The common pronoun "he" could very well be the most well known example of the gender-specific of sexist words, and is generally referred to be "he/man" terms. The most significant manifestation of the sexism is within the utilization of common masculine pronouns "he" and its variants "his", "him" and "himself" in such phrases as:
(1) If one needs to start to see the ruins, he must find his own guide.
(2) He who laughs previous laughs best.
(3) Everyone must do his home work well.
(4) Everyone should learn to solve problems himself.
In the aforementioned illustrations, "he", "his", "him" and "himself" are being used not sex-specifically, but generically, that is, even though pronouns refer grammatically to the solitary male citizen, they must be taken to refer to both male and female citizens in general. Within the formal events, 'he', 'him' or 'his' can be used to refer to such indefinite pronouns as each, everyone, everybody, no one, someone, anyone and so on. While 'she', 'her', 'herself' don't possess such usages. Quite simply, the masculine pronoun is the representative either female or male research. Thus, it seems like a linguistic release of the interpersonal inequalities.
b) General Nouns
Another well-known example of universal masculine term is "man". Man and female as two equivalent components of human race are in fact not similar in English lexicon. Man, besides its reference to male individual can also refer to the whole contest. The use in a general sense of man makes woman invisible. For example; (1) All men must pass away. (2) Man is a social animal. It is not hard to see that "man", and "men" can be utilized generically to refer to both male and female. But "woman" and "women" can't be employed in mention of men. When man looks in discourse, it is commendatory and positive in main circumstances [3; 75-76]. Go through the following idioms: (1) be man enough: brave enough (2) be oneёs own man: be able to arrange and make a decision things independently. However, situation engaged girl is quite different: Go through the following good examples:
(1) Wines, women, and tune: drinking, dance, etc, and enjoying oneself
(2) Make a genuine woman of a person: marry an individual having had intimate relationship with her.
In the English terms, some words discussing female first of all are commendatory words, but afterward slowly and gradually have derogatory senses.
Survey in the dictionary on the illustrative idioms of man and female as a number observation, derogation of girl is plainly seen. A couple of totally 33 illustrative idioms for man, of which 15 are with positive so this means, five negative and the others are natural with five distributed by both man and woman in structure and interpretation; While in case of woman, there are only 8 illustrative idioms which five distributed to man in structure and meaning, the rest are all derogatory. Out of this, you can know that in English using "man" or "men" reveals "the human race", they treat man as the center of the world, an embodiment of criterion and totally disregard the existence of girl.
c) Word order
Graddol, D. &Swam, J. in their study "Gender Voices" attest the actual fact that
sexism in dialect is also shown in term order. When men and women are presented jointly, usually words denoting male intimacy are put in front of female intimacy. Making females come second shows the sexist attitude that men are more advanced than women [6; 71].
1) Hello, guys and girls
Such a language phenomenon seems to appear so natural concerning be greatly accepted as a vocabulary norm. In 1553, Wilson insisted that is more natural to put man before girl, such as male and female, couple, father and wife. His point lends weight to the argument that guys come first in the natural order, and this is main examples of a male arguing for not only the superiority of men but that this superiority should be shown in the framework of terminology [8; 110-111].
However, Atkinson, K. boasts that there are also cases where male-female order is reversed, for example groom and bride, and ladies and gentlemen. He clarifies this phenomena by proclaiming that marriage is important to women and the latter is influenced by the idea that men should protect women. Placing women before gentlemen doesn't show that ladies are more superior to men or ladies first, but suggests that in men's mind, women, the same as children, will be the weaker ones [4; 167]
1. 3. 3 Semantic Peculiarities of Sexism in English
1. 3. 3. 1 Semantic derogation of women
The research of Cameron, D. in his work Terms, Gender, and Sexuality: Current Issues and New Guidelines is relevant because he claims that language has a tendency to overlook women, treat women as distribution and also demean women. The procedure of words that refer to women acquiring demeaning or intimate connotations has been greatly witnessed, and has been called semantic derogation .
1. 3. 3. 2 Non-parallel semantic innovations of combined terms
Hudson, R. A promises that words become negative when shifted into the female sphere, while man has remained genuine and natural [1; 34].
King and Queen
The first noun is masculine, the other female and both mean "ruler of an unbiased state". However, ruler has maintained its initial interpretation, but besides the core meaning of queen, queen is also used as "a disparaging term for a gay or erotic man".
Master and Mistress
Both of them indicate 'someone who possesses and/or has power over someone or something else. For instance: "He's my grasp. " results in "He's my supervisor. " or "He has more vitality than me. " While "She actually is my mistress. " is much more likely to be interpreted as signifying 'She is my illicit enthusiast. ' Mistress actually refers to a woman ready of expert, control, and ownership, as the top of children such as a housekeeper, but it indicates a woman who has a continuing sexual romantic relationship with a usually wedded man who's not her hubby and from whom she generally obtains material support.
1. 3. 3. 3 Semantic collocation and change
a) Semantic collocation
Fromkin, V. , R. Rodman & N. Hyams asserts that in British, a term may have different connotations when it is employed to spell it out different sexes [6; 73-79].
a. He's imposing. b. She actually is imposing.
Sentence a) means "He's impressive and admirable. " While word b could be interpreted to mean that "She actually is disgusting and apathetic. " When the intimacy changes, so does indeed the meaning. Loose seems a neutral expression for both male and female. But "a loose girl" reminds people of "a woman considered being sexually promiscuous" whereas "a loose man" just means "a casual man".
b) Semantic change
Besides, words, which begin with either neutral or positive connotations as time passes, acquire negative implications and finally end up as "sexual slurs". For instance, the word hussy derives from Old British huswif ("housewife"), this means "the feminine head of the home". The word gradually deteriorated to "a rustic rude woman" and lastly comes to suggest "an indecent, impudent woman or prostitute" [3; 78].
Strategies for Preventing Sexism in British Language
Any form of sexist vocabulary, whether deliberately or not, will most likely stand off or offend some communal member or group. Vocabulary and dialect use mirror interpersonal attitudes and stereotypes and bias. Combined with the women's liberation movement, people began to comprehend the value of the terminology reform and desexism is needed. This evidence raises the question: Should sexist terms be changed or avoided? The solution is unquestionably positive.
In her early discussions of sexist words, Renshaw presents articles entitled "Twenty-nine ways you can help eliminate sexism in terminology. " Most of her suggestions aim at heightening recognition among both writers and visitors. She suggests that by keeping away from sexist usage professors of dialect and composition display that people "care more about people than about words" . The main strategies here to do this goal are preventing the use of common masculine, changing some naming and addressing conditions, and advocating some natural words.
1. 4. 1 Avoiding using common masculine pronouns
In attempts to remove sexist vocabulary in English, emphasis has often been placed on gender marking in third person pronouns. Greenberg presented the taxonomy of gender for languages corresponding to which English terminology is representative of the dialects which have semantic gender [3; 81]. Some alternatives to avoid universal masculine can be found as follows:
1) Replacing the original use of he with the plural pronoun they. Other solutions, however, include he/she, she/he, or the more cryptic s/he or herm. Gastil presents empirical information that the pronoun they is not biased toward male or female, but that the use of he/she presents a male bias, and this "men and women understand he/she very in another way. " [6; 71]. As a remedy to the situation of the third person singular pronoun in English, Vaughn makes two ideas: The first is to use "the third person plural they (their, them) as a singular as well as a plural pronoun in situations in which the gender is undiscovered or the pronoun represents both genders. " [4; 12-15].
e. g. Each tech should submit their report to their supervisor before 4 p. m.
2) Utilizing the pronoun it (its).
e. g. The engineer is its office, " and "The engineer should post its are accountable to its supervisor before 4 p. m. " Although Vaughn boasts that these uses of they and it have advantages over coined words (like herm), it is possible that most users of English will see them unacceptable which is unlikely that they can ever be considered appropriate for formal use. Indeed, prescriptive grammars and style manuals often suggest specifically against the utilization of they in precisely this framework.
3) Exchanging with she or he, his / her, him or her, and the like, which expressly show that ladies are included in the antecedent of the pronouns.
e. g. Every good citizen should love her or his country more than him or herself; he or she should prepare yourself to die for this if the need arises.
However, the APA style manual claims that writers which consists of format should "change to plural if speaking about women as well as men, " but cautions against using s/he. Support for this interpretation comes from the handbook for the MLA which seems to prefer that creators "recast sentences in to the plural [or] if everything else fails, use she or he or them. " The strong implication is the fact that, in scholarly writing at least, the uncomfortable use of both male and feminine pronouns is frowned upon, perhaps for prosodic or stylistic reasons. In addition, since both APA and the MLA disallow the utilization of the clumsy portmanteau pronoun (s/he), it ought to be discouraged in pupil writing, even if that writing is of a less formal mother nature. Many will object to this structure because it is not visually attractive [6; 73].
3) Using of the first and second to replace he.
e. g One has to be careful when he crosses the street. Clearly, it use he to make reference to a person whose making love is unknown. We are able to change it into "You need to be careful when you mix the road. " to enough time discrimination .
4) Changing phrases into passive words to be nonsexist. Instead of saying "One should not lose heart when he's beaten in a match. ", you might have the ability to say "You need to not lose heart when beaten in a match. "
5) Shedding the masculine pronoun
e. g. Anybody can attend the getting together with if considering it. Being discriminatory, it is written into "Anyone can attend the meeting if he's interested in it. "
1. 4. 2 Lexical neutralization
Thomas J. Mathews in his analysis Avoiding Sexist Words inComposition: Complementary Solutions from Spanish and British proposes five alternatives of lexical neutralization.
1) Stay away from using man/men or mankind to make reference to people on the planet and replace it with person, people, humanity, human, human being, the people, and the real human species.
e. g. Man is the most brilliant of all species. (sexist)
Humankind/real human being is the most brilliant of all varieties. (nonsexist)
2) Try to avoid using mixture words that contain man to make reference to both genders. Avoid Prefer
businessman businessperson, businesspeople
chairman chairperson, chair, president, head
3) Stay away from using gender-suffixes which mirror women's lower list and prevent using prepositional capabilities like woman, female, madam when there is no necessity showing their love-making and use one form to specify a person in every three contexts, i. e. , in mention of a guy, to a lady or even to a person whose making love is not specific .
e. g It was a woman driver who dispatched me home. (sexist)
The drivers who directed me home was a woman. (nonsexist).
(5) Try to avoid giving examples that are traditionally regarded as of female or male. For instance, usually when referring to a lawyer, a statesman or an official, we use a male name or he as the topic. When referring to a secretary, a nurse or a tutor, we use a female name or she as the topic. Quite simply, boxing or sports player must be male, while dishwasher or assistant must be female. We can take on such problems by using plural forms or other adaptations.
e. g. It really is a party that placed by the officials and their wives. (sexist)
It is a celebration that presented by the officers and their spouses. (nonsexist)
1. 4. 3 Alternatives to Addressing Terms
In British, there are extensive addresses used to look down upon the females. In order to solve the challenge, Bosmajian, H. , shows some strategies that might help in his study Sexism in the vocabulary of legislators and courts [4; 129].
1) Don't add some woman through her spouse, e. g. Jim Green and his wife Helen; Chairman's wife Daisy Dark brown.
2) Don't use conditions which belittle women as wives or otherwise, e. g. the better half, the little woman, the weaker love-making, the fair intimacy, dumb blondes, (woman's) libber, and so forth. And the original expressions with prejudice such as ambitious men and extreme women, mindful men and timid women should try to be averted.
3) Do not use the traditional form of address such as Dear Sir, Dear Gentleman, Dear Madam when writing to someone of anonymous sex. The next may be useful. Dear friends of the collection Dear Madams and Sirs
1. 4. 4. The cultural change of attitude toward women
If people are still unequal in culture then just changing the terms won't really grant equality or make things much better. Terms is not in and of itself a sexist thing. The users of a language grant it practical meaning depending how they view culture and according with their values and beliefs .
Concluding this analysis made to the research of British as a sexist terms, it could be stated that the aims of the analysis were well noticed, and the primary purpose targeted to the study of morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of English sexist terms was successfully accomplished.
The analysis of the meanings of your sexist terminology and components of sexism in the English language which take place in the syntax, morphology and semantics of the language, exposes the main findings of the analysis. Thus, it was ascertained that British is a sexist words, which is strongly related to the sensation of gender discrimination in world. Accordingly, English as a sexist language marginalizes and discriminates against women on the basis of their gender and creates an unfair variation between women and men in language. It is clear therefore that, English sexist terminology is the utilization of words that cultivates stereotyped gender roles.
Since language is a public phenomenon and demonstrates social reality, the formation of sexism in British language is made up throughout a long period of the introduction of language, which leads to the variety of the complexities: religious, physiological, social and subconscious factor. Therefore, all these factors influenced the looks and lifetime of the components of sexism in the English language which happen in the syntax, morphology and semantics of the language. With all this evidence, it could be stated that all these specific morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of British sexist vocabulary cause particular behaviours and behaviour about the role of ladies in society.
These results of the analysis suggest that individuals should realize the importance of the terms reform and to try to take up strategies for steering clear of sexism in British language. On the main one hand, the key to the reduction of sexism in British dialect is lexical neutralization, getting rid of common pronouns, and trying for well-balanced naming and responding to terms. Alternatively, the elimination of linguistic sexism is based on social change. Only by changing the public structure, when women and men have equal status and changing the attitude towards women, can sexism in language be truly reduced. Therefore, linguistic action and public action should be taken simultaneously for the purpose of reducing sexism in language.
To conclude, it could be stated that this study has highlighted a major problem in the prevailing English language. So, sexism in terminology is a cultural problem, which reflects the social simple fact and social section of population. Due to the distinctions between their superiority and inferiority in sociable activities, men and women are differentiated from the other person in many aspects, which bring about variations in their styles and dialect uses. That's the reason, terms was and is seen as a robust instrument of patriarchy.
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