Colonial discourse has been identified by many writers such as Diniz (1996:126) who highlights head wear "Colonial discourse usually identifies the writing which works from five hundred years, through the times of European mercantile expansion, to your own time (1996:126).
This definition shows that the time of Colonialism in literature began in the 17th C. with the publication of Shakespeare's The Tempest (1611-12). With this paper, however, the term can be used to refer to the books written in British, but limited to the century of Uk Colonialism and the decades of anti- or post colonial activity which implemented.
Said's Orientalism (1978) uses the idea of colonial discourse to re-order the analysis of colonialism. So that it can be thought to inaugurate a new kind of study of colonialism. Said's Orientalism examines the way the East, including the Midsection East, is symbolized in the history and the books written by the Western. The Western world always looks at the East as second-rate people without faith or morals.
Said's projecttries to show how knowledge about the non-Europeans was area of the process of keeping ability over them. In short, Orientalism is primarily concerned with how the Orient was created by Western Literature and not with how such building was received by colonial subjects. It examines the European behaviour toward the East. Said concludes that the European freelance writers depict the Orient as "irrational, " "week" and "feminised other". This depiction can be contrasted with the depiction of the Western as "rational", "strong" and "masculine".
Said's Culture and Imperialism (1994)
Colonial discourse is an idea popularized by Edward Said. Within this paper, it relates also to the knowledge of Africa produced by the Western (colonial writers: as Defoe and Conrad) to bolster its colonizing hobbies, and the reaction of the East (colonized writers as: Achebe). Colonial discourse has not been the merchandise of a certain age and it has attracted the interest of several freelance writers and critics. Those celebrated writers as Conrad and Defoe created remarkable works out of the main topic of Colonialism. Nowadays, Colonial discourse is one of the very most current issues in literary criticism.
1. 2. Life and Works of Defoe, Conrad and Achebe
1. 2. 1. Life and Works of Defoe:
Danial Defoe was created about 1660 in London. His father, James Foe, was poor but hard working butcher. Defoe had not been able to enroll in traditional organizations like Oxford and Cambridge because of his father's opposition. Defoe is often considered the daddy of English novel. He's a get good at of simple prose and powerful narrative with a love of natural detail. He's a great imaginative copy writer who creates one of the very most familiar resonant misconceptions of modern books. He is influenced by the writings of Addison, Metallic and Swift. Defoe's important works are: Robinson Crusoe (1719), Moll Flanders (1722), Capitan Singleton (1720) and The History of Peter the fantastic and Colonel Jack port (1722). Defoe died in London on April 24, 1731.
1. 2. 2. Life and Works of Conrad
Joseph Conrad was born in Dec 3, 1857. His years as a child was damaged by his homeland's have difficulties for independence. He is a Polish novelist and short story writer. Conrad is one of the English language's greatest stylists. He becomes one of the biggest writers on the globe. His major works include Heart and soul of Darkness (1902), Lord Jim (1900), THE TRICK Agent (1907), Under the Western Eye (1911) and Nostrome (1904). He passed away of heart inability on August 3, 1924.
1. 2. 3. Life and Works of Achebe
Chinua Achebe was created in Ogidi in eastern Nigeria on November 16, 1930. His parents instill in him lots of the values of these traditional culture. He's one of most well-known post colonial authors. He has become renewed as a father of modern African literature. After posting Things Fall Apart, he became one of the founders of the new Nigerian literature.
Achebe's important novels are: Things break apart (1959), NO MORE at Ease (1960), Arrow of God (1964) and A Man of people (1966). His books are primarily directed to an African audience, but their mental insights have gained them widespread approval. His education in English allows him to fully capture both the Western european and the African perspectives on colonial enlargement, race, religious beliefs and culture.
1. 3. The Relevance of the Study
There are numerous writers who've tackled the concept of colonialism in their works. It really is customary to read Shakespeare's The Tempest as the first important major work to provide colonial discourse: the way the colonizer and the colonized portrayed in the individuals of Prospero and Caliban. INSIDE THE Tempest, Shakespeare's major addition to the storyline is to make the island inhabited before Prospero's came. That solitary addition turns the experience report into an allegory of the colonial encounter.
There are two means of representing colonialism in books. The first one is represented by the colonizer's point of view; the European authors. Those colonial writers are Shakespeare, Defoe, Conard and J. M. Cotezee. Those writers have written works and novels which deal with the theme of colonialism as Defoe's with the them of colonialism as Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719), Corad's Center of Darkness (1902), Cary's Mister Johnson ( ) and Cotezee's Foe (1986).
Those writers give a negative picture of Africa specifically and the East generally. Africans are depicted as "primitrue", "savages, uncivilized", second-rate and ignorant. As a result of this negative representation of Africa specifically and the East, like the Middle East, which is seen as sub-human generally speaking several critics criticized this subject matter. One of the critics who criticized this subject are Edward Said, Achebe and other African critics like Ngugiwa, Chinwerza and Nkruma. Those African critics give a theoritcal body work to examine the representation of the colonized in the books made by the writers belonging to the countries of the colonizer. They have re-written the representation of the colonized from non-Euro. centric perspective.
So their writing is a mean of re-writing the annals, the culture from other cultural perspective to create Afro-centric point of view.
Said's Orientalism(1978) main works which examines the way the East, including the Midsection East, is symbolized in the annals and the books written by the Western world. The Western world always looks at the East as a substandard people without religion or morals. Said's projects tries to show how "knowledge" about the non-European was part of the process of keeping ability over them. In addition, it examines the American attitudes toward the East.
In brief, Orientalism is mostly concerned with how the Orient was created by Western books and not how such engineering was received by colonial things. Said concludes that the Western writers depict the Orient as "irrational', "weak" and "feminized other". This depiction can be contrasted with the depiction of the Western world as "rational", "strong" and "masculine".
Said's Culture and Imperialism (1994) is another work to make clear the complicated and the ongoing connections between the East and the Western world, the colonizer and the colonized, the white and the black. Said specifically addresses how subjugated people are represented within literature and exactly how it has afflicted not only these people but also the civilizations in which they live.
Achebe's Things Fall Apart (1959) is one of the first books to symbolize the African image from an Afro-centric point of view. This novel is often seen as a response to the image created by Conrad and Cary.
In this novel, Achebe writes the story of colonization of the Ibo world from an African point of view. In his article "A GRAPHIC of Africa: Racism in Heart of Darkness, " Achebe views that Conrad's treatment of indigenous Africans in Heart of Darkness as racist. Achebe targets Conrad's treatment of Africa as an "other world, " an antithesis at European countries and for that reason at civilization" (9th. In Achebe, 3).
Achebe specifically criticizes Conrad's racism which is expressed through the decision of words, ignorance, fiction, comparison and imagery of the article writer. Achebe argues that the choice of words Conrad uses is not a lot of. He repeats words like "inscrutable" and "frenzy" way too many times with several situations. Conrad changes these for his or her synonyms. (Ibid).
According to him, the image of darkness pointed in the book is just the stereotyped view of Europeans towards African as whole. Achebe feels that Conrad is just pleasing the viewers by telling them what they want to listen to. In his bottom line, Achebe calls Conrad a bloody racist who mock both African land and African people.
1. 4. THE TECHNIQUE of the Study
This term paper is based on an analytical method. The research includes the topics, the characters and the techniques of every novel.
2. 1. The goal of the Study
To take a look at the them of colonialism and exactly how its effects are reflected through Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, Conrad's Center of Darkness and Achebe's Things break apart.
To analyze how three different writers of two different civilizations, races, countries and religions signify the colonizer and the colonized in these three novels.
To compare and contrast literary parts written from the point of view of European imperialists and the African/colonized perspectives.
To compare and contrast both of these "positive and negative" representations of the colonized (Africa) [both as land and people] as it was offered in these three novels.
2. 2. The Relevance/ Importance of the Study
Chapter III: section 1
(Defoe's Robinson Crusoe)
3. 1. 1. Plot Conclusion of Defoe's Robinson Crusoe from the perspective of Colonial Discourse
Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719) occurs in the next half of the 17thC. when European companies vied for control and exploitation of colonized lands across the world. Crusoe, the central character, appears to signify his imperialist spirit: first when he goes to Guniea, next when he vacations to Brazil and opens plantation, and lastly when he becomes ruler of island.
Crusoe colonizes the island by building houses, taking Friday as his servant after meeting him and refereeing to the mountaineers as his themes.
3. 1. 2. Understanding Colonialism in Defoe's Robinson Crusoe: Examination of the Theme and the Characters
Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719) was written when the folks of the 18thC. were traveling abroad, sensing new lands and growing Christianity. These were colonizing lands and imposing their culture and terms there. The powerful region controls the current economic climate, and the place of weekly country. Africa was one of the main colonies of the British Empire and the Uk were at the centre of power whereas the "Other" were at the margin of vitality. Quite simply, the colonizer suppressed the Other, his words and his culture too.
Robinson Crusoe is the second important work to present colonial discourse; the way the colonizer and the colonized are portrayed in the results/ people of Crusoe, Fri, non whiteman, and Xury, a servant of Crusoe. The roles of Crusoe, Fri, Xury and the mountaineers have been discussed in conditions of guidelines and subject matter in close connection to the treating those individuals by Crusoe. Defoe's Robinson Crusoe is often read today as an allegory of colonialism, and there is a lot within the last chapters to defend this view.
Friday's "subjection", "servitude" and "submission" to Crusoe displays colonial race relations (Defoe: 185). This is clear when Crusoe believes that he is helping Friday by making him his servant. Moreover, Colonial terms appear when coping with the web host he mountaineers. Crusoe and the Captain terrify them by discussing a fictional governor of the island who will punish Hem significantly. This fiction of governor for shadows the governor who'll no doubt be installed on the island eventually. Because Crusoe has said the territory for England.
Indeed, Crusoe identifies this community as 'my colony' in the island, which makes us, the viewers, wander whether he really consider it his own or it is officially a colony or figuratively so.
As the book sheds light upon the theme of colonialism, the reader observes the way the colonizer and the colonized are portrayed in it. In the book, Crusoe, the central personality, is the representative of colonialism whereas Friday is the sign of the themes races. Friday is instructed, given vocabulary and changed into Christianity, Crusoe's religious beliefs.
Crusoe's instructions on Friday are types of his attitudes towards human beings who he trained to do his work. To be a colonizer, Crusoe wishes to disperse his faith. He refers to Christianity also to the Bible in order to convert Friday to Christianity. Crusoe shows Friday the word "get good at" even before teaching him "yes" or "no" and allows him know that was to be Crusoe's name (Defoe:185).
Crusoe identifies himself as king above the natives and Europeans, who are his subjects. Moreover, Friday is an example of the "self" and the "other". Crusoe instructs him, gives him language, to be able to help him to perform his Empire on the island. He's a good example of the "Other" because he is merely servant.
Master: Well, Friday, and exactly what does your land do with the men they take? Do they hold them a way and eat them, as these does?
Friday: yes, my nation eat mans up too; eat all up.
(Defoe: P. 192).
In such dialogues, we can easily see the relationship not only between Home as well as other as designed by colonialism but also between these and British. Friday has been given a very particular, colonizing British words to bills his cultural background, besides his speaking in Crusoe's own dialect.
Phillispson's dialogue (1992) of Crusoe's lessons to Friday is one of the initial instances of English linguistic imperialism which he calling as "the locus-classical" of the start of English linguistic imperialism to Crusoe, and he does not have any right to disobey him.
Phillipson claims that Crusoe's-Friday's relationship demonstrates the "racial framework of Western society at the hey day of slavery" (P. 109). Phillipson considers Crusoe as the epitome of imperialist slavery, i. e. a key physique in the Western attempt to gain political and financial mastery above the large areas of the world. According to Brantlinger, "what Crusoe cant's master- or get to call him "master"- he recognizes only as savagery and desert island. " (1990:P. 2).
Crusoe's relationship with Friday comes in several tiers. At one point in the book, Crusoe identifies Friday's people as "blinded, ignorant pagans" (Defoe:170). The relationship between them is similar to that between Crusoe and Xury. Before, Crusoe has informed Xury that if he will be faithful to him, he'll make him a great man. When the Captain offers 60 bits of platinum for Exury, Crusoe allows it and markets him with regard to economic gain. Crusoe means the colonizer who occupies the other countries under the pretext that he educates and produces the country.
Crusoe, as a colonizer, changes Friday's words, religion, habits, culture and even his name. This is how the colonizer imposes his own terminology, faith, culture and individuality on the occupied nations. The banishment of Friday's religions values emphasizes the colonization theme.
Crusoe's frame of mind towards Friday is mirrored in his description. His attitude is that of a master-servant. He requires a complete subservience and trust fullness from Fri. Crusoe looks after Friday as a creature when he will care for, supplying him normal water, food and clothing. Crusoe will not even make an effort to learn Friday actual name which shows the Western supremacy theme in the novel. Crusoe gives Fri his name as he has done with his parrot, Poll.
Regarding the Euro-centric attitude of the time, Defoe means that Friday is not Crusoe's equivalent in the book. Friday is plainly a servant and inferior in rank, vitality and admiration. Crusoe's vocabulary discloses much about how he imagines his role on the island. He begins to spell it out himself as "generalissimo" of any army with Friday as his "lieutenant-general. "
At the beginning of the novel, he is only castaway but towards the end, he openly refers to himself as a nationwide leader of armed service forces. We sense how deeply ingrained Crusoe's dreamed national role as a ruler of this island when he identifies his new friends as his content.
Friday is probably the first non white identity to get a realistic, individualized and human being portrayal in the British novel. Fri has a huge literary and social importance. If Crusoe presents the first colonial brain in fiction, then Friday represents not only a Caribbean tribes man but also all the natives of Asia, Africa, and America who would later be oppressed in the age of Western colonialism.
When Crusoe teaches Friday to call him grasp, Friday becomes an enduring political image of racial injustice in modern world and critical of imperialist enlargement. Recent rewritings of the storyplot of Crusoe, like Cotezee's Foe and Tournier's Friday, emphasize the results of Crusoe's inability to understand Friday and suggest how the tales might find out very different from the natives' perspective. Regardless, Crusoe has transformed his story of 1 man's success into a politics tale replete with its own ideas about imperialism.
In short, it is not surprising that modern day readers regard Defoe's novel as the prototypical colonial novel of the 18thC. if not in all of English literature. To conclude, this novel isn't only a representation of colonialist practices, but part of large discourse concerned with the colonial traditions of the English Empire.
3. 1. 3. Research of the Narrative Techniques in Defoe's Robinson Crusoe
Defoe combines many narrative methods in Robinson Crusoe to make the novel genuine and realistic. These techniques are narration (perspective), the utilization of irony, attention to details, icons and the utilization of schedules and labels of places. Robinson Crusoe is both narrator and the primary character of the novel. He narrates the story in both the first and the 3rd person, showing only what he himself observes. He identifies his feelings once in a while but only once they can be over whelming. He usually favors a far more factual narrative style centered on actions and occurrences.
Another important narrative device is the use of symbols and irony. As for the symbols, the writer uses three icons like the ft. print, the cross and the bower. The ft. print means Crusoe's conflicted feelings about human companionship entirely he interprets it negatively as the print of all devil. The cross symbolizes Crusoe's new lifetime on the island and the energy means the radical improvement in Crusoe's frame of mind toward his time on the island.
As for the irony, it is a literary device for Defoe. There are many examples of its used in the novel, however the best example are the finding of the ft. print and the warning of Crusoe's father. First, Crusoe ignores his father's advice;
"if he runs abroad, he'll be the most miserable wretch that was ever blessed, " (Defoe. P. 4)
"How odd a checker work of providence is the life of a man. Today we love what tomorrow we hate; today we seek what tomorrow we shun; today we desire what tomorrow we fear. " (Defoe: P140).
The third narrative approach is the utilization of a circumstantial method which says us not only what Crusoe do but how he achieved it. You'll find so many types of the uses of details such as Crusoe's project in increasing of the plants of barley and rice on the island, killing the gouts and making a sieve, and the information of the ship wrecks and Crusoe's travels. Such details produce the result of realism. The very last method is the utilization of dates and geographical place-names. All of these devices enhance the realistic aftereffect of the book.
Chapter Three: Section Three: Achebe's Things Show up Apart
3. 3. 1. Storyline Conclusion of Things BREAK APART from the point of view of Colonial Discourse.
Achebe's Things BREAK APART (1959) traces the life span in the Ibo town of Umuofia right before and after its initial contact with Western colonialists and their Religious religion. The novel is divided into three parts: the first part handles the life span of the Ibo people before the introduction of the while man, illustrating various aspects of Ibo's life-style.
The second part deals with Okonkwo's exile and the arrival of the missionaries and the effect of their appearance, including the conversation of Nwoye to Christianity. The third part deals with the effects of the white man's religion, education, power, laws and economics on the tribes' culture.
The first signs of colonization come to Abame when the first white man appears. He is killed by the people of Abame on the order of the Oracle who tells them that the white man would be soon accompanied by others and he would destroy their way of life. As a result, the town has been damaged by other white men. During Okonkwo's exile, the white man involves both Umuofia and Mbanta and wins many changes. When Okonkwo returns to Umuofia, he sees that life starts to change. Therefore, he stacks up to the colonizers in an attempt to protect his culture. When he kills a British messenger, Okonkwo realizes that he stands exclusively, and he hangs himself.
3. 3. 2. Understanding Colonialism in Things BREAK APART: Analysis of the Theme and the Characters
Achebe's Things BREAK APART relates the storyline of disintegration dropping apart of an African modern culture that came in contact with Western values because of this of the colonization. The novel explores the coming of the white man and its effects on the culture of the people of Umuofia.
The arriving of the white man caused culture discord which impacts the people of Umuofia's faith, their agriculture, their judicial system and their cultural life. The collapse of your culture that was firmly united is advised through the storyline of Okonkwo and the town Umuofia. The book shows the overall disintegration of this culture when it's attacked by another culture.
The incursion of the colonizer is changing every aspect of the Ibo world such as faith, family composition, gender roles, relations and trade. The colonizers bring terminology, religion, education, business, government and legislation to Umuofia which can be definitely disruptive. Okonkwo, the rep of the Ibo culture, realizes that the white man has been too successful in his ways to improve the tribes' ways. He grieves the loss of his tribe and the life he once recognized.
Okonkwo seems betrayed by his child who joins the white missionaries and his elan who've not stood up against the white intruders. The entrance of the white man and his culture heralds the death of the Ibo culture. The while man will not honor the tribe's customs and strives to convince the tribes' men that their ways are better. Due to colonialism, the tribe is divide, pitting brother against brother and father against son. Many of the tribe's market leaders have signed up with the missionaries and the tribal beliefs and customs are being dismissed. Okonkwo's final function of amount of resistance exemplifies how Africans and other colonized folks have courageously resisted colonialism instead of passively receiving it.
In Things Fall Apart, the staff of the colonizer are Mr. Brown, Mr. Smith and the Area commissioner and the colonized are Okonkwo and the whole Ibo world.
Achebe provides reader a remarkable contrast between your first white missionary Mr. Brown and Mr. Smith who replaces him. As his name implies, Mr. Brown can navigate successfully the racial division between the colonizer and the colonized. Mr. Dark brown appears affordable, respectful, kind, patient and an open-minded man who is ready to make work to value and understand the Ibo values. Mr. Brown succeeds in receiving a large amount of turns because he listens to the villager's reports, beliefs, and ideas. He be friends many great men of the elan and discusses religious beliefs with them. He accepts the changes unconditionally. Mr. Brown is the most important figure in the book would you not encourage the discord between the old and the new trust.
"In this way Mr. Brown learnt much about the religious beliefs of the elan and he deducted that a fro natal episode on it would not success". (Achebe: 163).
Then he asks the visitors to send their children to the institution and argues that the leaders of Umuofia will be women and men who can read and write. It is Mr. Brown who warns them that strangers like the District commissioner will come from other areas to rule them.
Actually, Mr. Brown is a man who loves serenity and respects the original culture. So there is no conflict between the Ibo culture and the Western culture during his period. He has a genuine desire for the welfare of the Ibo people. As an individual, he is a good representative of his population. Mr. Brown means the bright area of the colonizer.
Another representative of the colonizer is Reverend Smith who replaces Mr. Brown as the new brain of the Religious Cathedral. Mr. Smith is demanding and uncompromising, the opposite of Mr. Brown who was simply kind and compassionate. Unlike Mr. darkish, Mr. Smith encourages people to hate the original people and their religion. Mr. Smith is the stereotypical white colonist. He does not have any respect for the culture or the customs of the Ibo.
Mr. Smith remains ignorant of all traditions and therefore has no wish of being respected enough. Mr. Smith considers he is superior yet others are second-rate. Mr. Smith sees things as "black and white and dark [is] evil". (Achebe: 166).
Smith's dark-colored and white thinking brings about the destruction of the cathedral and the clash between both cultures. Because of this new missionary, the Christians attack the Ibo opinion and culture and insult the tribes' traditional customs. Among their subjects Okonkwo, whose go back co-insides with the arrival of Mr. Smith, the new faith divide father from son. Smith's coverage and treatment of the Ibo people show that the colonialist system is more primitive than the Ibo system.
The Area Commissioner is another number of the colonizer. He seems more inhuman because he calls for fascination with Okonkwo's suicide only since it gives him a new material for his publication. He makes a decision to title his book The Pacification of the Primitive Tribes of the low Niger.
This decision demonstrates his knowledge about African as primitive and his incapability to identify how he has brought violence instead of peace to the low Niger. By concluding his novel with the District Commissioner's misinterpretation and misinterpretation writing of the field of colonial encounter, Achebe suggests that his book is not only about the colonial come across between two different ethnicities. By pulling the focus on the Area Commissioners' erroneous sense of record. Achebe reminds the realer that the Western explanations of Africa have mainly been compiled by men like the District Commissioner. Therefore, Things BREAK APART seek to correct such erroneous historical information by retelling African background from an African perspective.
In short, Achebe's Things BREAK APART illustrates what occurred to the Ibo culture during its colonization by the Uk and how the colonialism influences the Ibo in many various ways; their faith, family, children and their inactive. Achebe describes what goes on when different cultures works against one another.
" Now he [the white man] has triumphed in our brothers, and our clan can no longer become one. He has put a knife on the things that performed us tpgether and we've Fallen apart". (Achebe: 160).
In this lines Oberika seems to tone of voice Achebe's own thought on colonialism. Okonkwo's suicide at the end of the book represents the end of the Clan's early way of life because he presents the clansman.
3. 3. 3. Research of the Narrative Techniques in Achebe's Things Fall Apart
Achebe runs on the range of techniques un Things BREAK APART including the mixture between British language and Ibo vocabularies, use of proverbs and folk stories, symbolism, use of similes and metaphors, evaluations and contrasts and the move from present tense to past and again to present.
The first method that Achebe uses is to develop a hybrid language that mixes Ibo and British words by producing numerous African conditions thought the novel like Chie (personal God-Fate), Obi (hut), Agbala (a guy without subject) and Osu (outcast). Achebe uses English terminology as a model of communication between people also to persuade the Europeans that Nigeria is a region with great potential. Achebe uses his language to pull the reader's focus on his own dialect. Another important method is the utilization if Ibo proverbs as well as traditional folk stories which bring alive the dental culture of Ibo and reveal their intellect, knowledge, morals, the strong religion and the culture of the country.
Early in the novel, Achebe says: "if a kid cleaned his hands, he could eat with the kings. " Referring to Okonkwo (Achebe:8). This implies that if Nigerians cleaned their hands, the united states could be just as important as Britian.
The third method is Achebe's use of similes and metaphors to bring the narrative alive and his use of different kinds of comparisons that are related to the Ibo experience as "proverbs are the palm oil with which words are ingested. " (Achebe: 6). The book is developed in conditions of assessment and contrast between your people like the evaluations between father and child; Unoka and Okonkwo and between friends like Nwoye and Ikemefuna, Unoka and Okoye Oberika and Okonkwo.
Fourth, Achebe provides sizeable depth about many areas of traditional African real life family and clan relationship, ceremonies and rituals, sociable structure (gender relationships), political and religions tactics and the role of dynamics in their world.
This digression helps the reader to comprehend the daily activities and religious beliefs of the Ibo people. Achebe shifts from present to past then to provide while describing the occurrences and the individuals.
The most practical method is the narrative speech. May critics see Things break apart as a book with two narrative voices: the original which dominates the first two/third of the publication, and the present day which takes over the last third. Other critics see the booklet as narrated by a single narrator, whose shade changes and adopts overtime. The narrator mediates between the individual and the community, between the present and days gone by. All the earlier devices make the book authentic and natural.
3. 3. 4. Evaluations and Contrasts between these three texts
Conrad's Heart and soul of Darkness, Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Achebe's Things fall Apart share many similarities and variations. One difference is that in Robinson Crusoe and in Center of Darkness the Europeans were already resolved into Africa while in Things fall Apart the Europeans don't settle until later.
Another difference is that Robinson Crusoe and Heart and soul of Darkness notify an account from Euro-centric perspective while Things break apart instructs one from Afro-centric point of view. One similarity is the way that Europeans treat the Africans as inhuman and inferior. Another similarity is that these three novels are written by different writers of different races, dialects, cultures, countries and different religions too. The three books are about one aspect that is Africa and exactly how Africans are symbolized in each word written by authors owned by different age groups.
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