Keywords: victorian books, william makepeace thackeray, charles dickens
Historical Track record of Victorian Age
In the entire year 1837, Queen Victoria ascended the throne of Great Britain and Ireland and succeeded William the IV. She dished up for an interval of 64 years, till her death in 1901 which is one of the longest reigns in the history of England. The time was marked by many important public and historical changes that altered the nation in many ways. The population nearly doubled, the British Empire broadened exponentially and technological and industrial improvement helped Britain end up being the most powerful country on the globe.
Chief Characteristics of Victorian Period
While the country saw economic improvement, poverty and exploitation were also similarly a part of it. The gap between the rich and the indegent increased significantly and the drive for material and commercial success was seen to propagate a kind of a moral decay in the population itself. The changing scenery of the country was another concern. While the prior period of Romanticism saw a celebration of the country side and the rich surroundings of the nature, the Victorian era saw a changing of the landscaping to 1 of burgeoning companies and factories. As the poor were exploited because of their labor, the time witnessed the climb of the bourgeoisie or the middle class due to increasing trade between Britain and its own colonies and the Reform Expenses of 1832 strengthen their keep. There was also a shift from the Loving ideals of the previous age towards a far more realistic acceptance and depiction of society.
One of the main factors that defined the age was its stress on morality. Tight societal rules were enforced and certain activities were openly seemed down upon. These codes were even harsher for ladies. A female code of do was levied to them which described every aspect of these being from the proper apparels to how to converse, everything experienced guidelines. The role of women was typically that to be angels of the house and limited to domestic confines. Properly very few options were available to them as a woman could either turn into a governess or a instructor in rich homes. Hence they were financially reliant on their husbands and fathers and it resulted in a commercialization of the establishment of matrimony.
Victorian Era is seen as the link between Romanticism of the 18th century and the realism of the 20th century. The novel as a genre rose to entertain the rising middle class and also to depict the modern day life in a changing culture. Although the book had been in development because the 18th century with the works of Daniel Defoe, Henry Fielding, Laurence Sterne, Samuel Richardson and others, it is at this era that the novel got mass acceptance and readership. The expansion of towns, a ready home market and one in the oversea colonies and a rise in printing and publishing properties facilitated the progress of the novel as an application. In the entire year 1870, an Education Action was handed down which made education a simple usage of the people furthermore increasing literacy rates among the population. Certain jobs required a certain level of reading capability and simple books catered to this by becoming a device to practice reading. Also enough time of the daily commute to help men and enough time together at home for women could be stuffed by reading which now became a leisure activity. As a reply to the last mentioned, the demand for fiction, rose greatly.
The books of this mostly experienced a moral strain in them with a notion in the innate goodness of individual nature. The characters were well round and the protagonist usually belonged to a middle income society who struggled to create a niche for himself in the commercial and mercantile world. The strain was on realism and an effort to describe the daily problems of regular men that the center class reader could associate with. The moral tangents were perhaps an effort to save the moral degradation prevalent in the culture then and offered the audience with expectation and positivity. These moral angles allowed for addition of much larger debates in fiction like the ones surrounding "the woman question", marriage, improvement, education, the Industrial Trend. New roles for females were created because of the resultant economic market and their voice which was earlier not given cadence was now being discovered and identified and books became the means where in fact the domestic confinement of women was questioned. Books reflecting the larger questions bordering women, like those of their assignments and duties. Inside the latter 50 % of the century, Married Women's Property Works was passed, the women suffrage became an important point of issue, and poverty and other monetary reasons challenged the original assignments of women. The book as a form became the medium where such concerns were elevated.
Charles Dickens: A FAVORITE Victorian Author
In the same time that Queen Victoria ascended the throne, Charles Dickens published the first parts of his novel Oliver Twist, a story of your orphan and his have a problem with poverty in the early part of the century. As the Industrial Revolution surged on, the category difference between your traditional aristocracy and the center class was gradually getting reduced and with the passage of the Reform Function, the middle category got the to vote and become politically employed in the affairs of the country. As the aristocracy criticized the task that the bourgeoisie acquired to do in the factories and the business, to maintain the supremacy that that they had the privilege of, the middle class in response marketed work as virtue. The consequence of this led to an additional marginalization of these struck by poverty and were part of neither organizations. The Poor Regulation that was exceeded made general population assistance open to the economically downtrodden only through workhouses where they had to reside in and work. The conditions of the workhouses were deliberately made to be unbearable to be able to avoid the indegent from becoming totally reliant on assistance from external. Families were divide, food was inedible, and the circumstances were made inhospitable to need the indegent to work and deal with a way through poverty. However, these finally became a web difficult to transgress and folks chose moving into the streets rather than seeking help from a workhouse. Dickens was aware of these concerns as a journalist and his own life and autobiographical experiences entered the novel through Oliver Twist. His book gets into the world of the workhouses, the dens of thieves and the avenues and highlights that while there was economic prosperity on one side, there was poverty on the other and while morality, virtue were championed, hypocrisy was evenly an integral part of society. His communal commentary came into the world of his fiction.
In 1836, before Oliver Twist, his serials of Pickwick Documents were printed which led him to instant reputation and level of popularity. It started out the famous Victorian mode of serial books which dominated the age till the end of the century. It not only made the reader troubled for another serial to come and propagate the attractiveness of the book itself, but also gave the writer a chance to modify his work based on the ambiance and expectation of his audience. His works liked continuous recognition and popularity and Dickens as a copy writer became famous for his wit, satire, interpersonal commentary and his comprehensive characters.
Bleak House, A Xmas Carroll, David Copperfield, Great Objectives are a few of his other great works.
William Makepeace Thackeray: English Victorian Writer
Thackeray was created in Calcutta, India and was also an important article writer but one who expressed his time very in another way from Dickens and other writers. He is most observed for his satirical work Vanity Good that portrays the many myriads of English contemporary society. Although he was viewed as evenly talented as Dickens, but his views were regarded old-fashioned which hindered his level of popularity. He did not readily recognize the changing values of this. His work is seen almost as a reactionary words. Vanity Good for example has the subtitle 'A book with out a Hero' and in an interval where other writers usually embarked on a portrayal of the arriving of age of a hero, Thackeray himself very intentionally opposes it. As the protagonist of Dickens' David Copperfield invites the reader to identify with him, Thackeray's Becky Clear is the conniving, cynical and clever. Even his book Pendennis, is a complete opposite of the book David Copperfield, although both were publicized the same yr. Thackeray did not identify with the center course because hence his books lack a middle income hero. When novels were catering to reassure middle class self-worth, Thackeray refused to provide that guarantee. Even, Dobbin, a middle class figure in Vanity Fair, is not completely awarded hero position and a build of criticism lingers on the type throughout the work.
In THE ANNALS of Henry Esmond, Thackeray handles questions of not only of the concerns of culture most importantly but also of specific identity. While most writers supported the idea of innate goodness in the individual human do it yourself, Thackeray differed. Including the personality of Henry Esmond is also not really a completely positive persona and the negatives of his self applied, could very well be Thackeray's critique of Victorian focus on the average person. An individualism that centered on personal virtue and morality is seen as Thackeray to at the risk of selfishness bordering on narcissism and self-absorption. His discontent along with his age group became more vocal in later works like Phillip and The New Comes. As the previous is injected with autobiographical accounts and is goes back to the satirical shade of Vanity Good, the second option is a severe critique of the materials greed of the age and a critique of the modern day culture of this.
As a result of his strong thoughts of his population and its issues, and a critical rejection of the prominent concerns found in works of other writers of the same get older, Thackeray stands in isolation as an outsider to this circle due his skepticism of the changing Victorian culture. His stand did not change with time and lends to a communal criticism and commentary of an extremely different sort in his works. Catherine, A Shabby Genteel Account, The Booklet of Snobs are a few of his other works.
Women Novelists of the Victorian Era
The era found a proliferation of women writers. The book as a genre was at first seen as feminine literature so that the literacy rate among women increased, a new need for women writers catering to the segment was clarified by these writers.
Elizabeth Gaskell, popularly called Mrs. Gaskell composed short tales and books that dealt with presenting a communal picture of her contemporary society in the 1850s. While it was a time when questions about material progress reaching the actual lives of the ordinary man were getting to be raised, Gaskell generally gave an optimistic view of that time period. Gaskell's North and South for example, seeks to present an answer to division and difference by delivering a kind of a social reconciliation. There can be an look at at reconciliation of several divergent channels in the novel.
Mary Barton was her first book, posted in 1848 with a subtitle, 'A Story of Manchester Life' and sticks to the Victorian matter of delivering the lifestyle of the center class. Cranford arrived next in the form of a serial and was edited by Dickens for the mag called Home Words. It had been received favorably and Gaskell gained immediate recognition for it. It devoted to women people like Mary Smith, Neglect Deborah and others. However the publication was also critiqued because of its lack of a substantial story brand. She was also well-known for her gothic style in a few of her works which made Gaskell just a little not the same as other novelist of her time. Ruth, Sylvia's Addicts, Wives and Daughters were other significant works by her.
Perhaps the main one most famous women writers, George Eliot still keeps a canonical status. Her real name was Mary Ann Evans or Marian Evans and she used the pseudonym George Eliot to flee the stereotype fastened with women writers and efficiently entered the area of 'serious' writing. She had a controversial personal life and there too had not been hesitant to break the norms of societal feminine restrictions. Adam Bede was her first novel, published 1859, occur a rural panorama and deals with a love rectangle. It received critical understanding for its emotional explanations of the heroes and an authentic explanation of rural life.
Mill on the Floss, 1860, revolves around the life span of Tom and Maggie Tulliver and traces their life as they expand up near to the River Floss. Historical, political references to those of the Napoleonic Wars and the Reform Invoice of 1832 inform the novel and lend it a more intellectual and serious strain. Autobiographical elements also form a part of the novel as George Eliot fuses herself partly with Maggie, the protagonist of the book. After Silas Marner (1861), Romola (1863), Felix Holt the Radical, (1866) came up Eliot's most popular novel Middlemarch in the entire year 1871. The book revolves around the life of complex character types and the Reform Costs of 1832. Subtitled 'A Research of Provincial Life' the story is situated in the fictitious town of Midlands. The greatness of the book was because of the vast portraiture of country and urban life that it depicts, its complicated plots and individuals, and its own stark practical projection of the time its set in. The role of education, the ladies question, politics, public commentary, idealism are other complicated strands of the book.
Charlotte, Emily and Anne Bronte were the three famous novelist daughters of Patrick Bronte, a well-educated man and a copy writer himself; and Maria Bronte. The family collectively went through a series of tragedies where Maria Bronte passed on very early on and none of them of the three sisters could reach age 40. Charlotte passed away at age just 39, Emily at 30 and Anne at 29. All three were informed by their father at home and all of them were fond of storytelling since childhood. Charlotte Bronte is famous for her novel Jane Eyre, published in 1847. The titular protagonist of the e book, Jane Eyre, and her struggles in life and love for Mr. Rochester combined with the procedure for her mental and spiritual growth are tracked. The novel is thought to have a feminist firmness to it and the famous 'female in the attic' personality of Bertha Mason increases several gender and feminist issues. Emily Bronte, the next of the trio, became famous for her novel Wuthering Heights, released in the year 1847 and the only real book written by her. Like George Eliot, Emily composed under the pseudonym of Ellis Bell but after her death Charlotte publicized the book with her sister's real name. The book is the love tale of Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw. Anne Bronte, the previous of the three, published two novels: Agnes Gray (1847) along with the Tenant of Wildfell Hall (1848). The former was an autobiographical work and the second option is about a woman known as Helen Graham who transgresses marital and communal boundaries to assert her freedom. It really is seen a substantial piece of feminist writing.
All three sisters hence larger societal questions through generally women heroes and the plot focusses on their life with themes of love and love. They hence savored a large feminine readership and have achieved position as classics of books.
Late Victorian Novelists
Thomas Hardy was the main copy writer in the later area of the Victorian Time. He was influenced by both the romanticism of the earlier age and the cultural commentary of Dickens. He is famous for the conception of the fictional town of Wessex. Definately not the Madding Public published in 1874, The Mayor of Casterbridge in 1886, Tess of the d'Urbervilles in 1891, and Jude the Obscure in 1895 are his famous novels but Hardy was also known for his poetry. The past due area of the period also found the rise of the 'sensational' novels by writers like Wilkie Collins and they too were based on the life span of the middle class. The Woman in White (1860) as well as the Moonstone (1868) are Collins famous sensational novels. Anthony Trollope, another writer in the second 50 % of the period, was himself from a middle income background and had written the Phineas Finn (1869) and The Way we Live (1874). It had been the time when Lewis Carroll published his famous Alice's Adventures in Wonderland publicized in 1865 and stood completely different from other as a result of child fiction genre it became a classic of the Carroll's different dreamy world that stood in direct comparison with the practical tone of books that was at its peak. George Gissing, George Moore, Samuel Butler, Henry James, Robert Louis Stevenson were other books of the time. Rudyard Kipling and his short stories located in India pointed to the bigger historical process of colonialism happening at that time. It had been in 1877 that Queen Victoria became the Empress of India. Then also came up George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde, another two most well-known writers of that time period.
Overview of Victorian Period
The get older hence was very important to the climb of the book as a genre and form which itself observed transformation within the time. From romanticism to realism, politics to passion, optimism to pessimism, the novel could successfully deal with the changing spirits of the world. Category, gender, individualism, contemporary society all received space in the book. The time was known to have witnessed the massive change of Britain from an agrarian to industrial landscape. All concerns enlightened the book and the novel was converted to perhaps the main genre of the age and those that could follow.
After Queen Victoria's death in 1901 emerged the time which observed writers like Joseph Conrad, H. G Wells, D. H Lawrence, E. M Forster and others. The most important event in the first part of the 20th century was the First World Battle that occurred from 1914 to 1918. It was a crucial event that evolved just how of the world, impacted the psyche of individuals and also the way literature was written. The pessimism and questions that were a part of the writings of the earlier period may possibly have predicted the Warfare. Hence Joseph Conrad, rather than speaking of the world and its change now centered on dislocated individuals, a question of where one belongs in a seemingly cruel world. Colonialism are essential part of his works wherein he presents a stark simple fact of exploitation and greed. Lord Jim, Nostromo, Heart and soul of Darkness, are some of his major works. H. G Wells was a prolific article writer and had written around a hundred novels. ENOUGH TIME Machine, Ann Veronica, The History of Mr. Polly, The War of the Worlds, are some his important books and Tono- Bungay is seen as his most outstanding work. Lawrence, was a controversial copy writer as a result of open sexual referrals in his work. His work was different as a result of sensual terminology and emotional emotions that made them. Therefore the novel then changed from the realism of the world outside more towards a information of the reality of the individual within. Sons and Fans, The Rainbow, Ladies in Love are essential works by him. E. M Forster, last but not least had written his famous Howard's End that handles the Schegel and the Wilcox family and the population in 1910, brilliantly and delicately referred to which would then be altered entirely by the First World Battle.
The Georgian Poets and World Battle I
During the reign of George V, was published five anthologies of poetry by Edward Marsh in the year 1912 to 1922. Many important writers like of that time period like Edward Thomas, Robert Graves, D. H Lawrence, Walter de la Mare added to these anthologies. The primary matter was to depict the true issues surrounding the planet around the World War.
Modernism as a activity was a response to the horrors of World War-I also to the rising industrial societies and progress of cities in the overdue 19th and early 20th ages. It challenged the tranquility and the rationality of the Enlightenment and wanted to reinvent art and literature of the age. To do so, it broke away from the works of days gone by and conventions which were earlier held at a pedestal. The view that traditional conceptions of beauty and on the whole this is of art work itself didn't fit this lead to another movement called "Dadaism" that consciously place to redefine skill itself. The movements was viewed as "anti-art" that targeted to upturn its order. Chaos then as the essential antithesis to order was abundantly used by artists. Started by Tristan Tzara (1896- 1963) as a reaction resistant to the senseless assault of the First World Conflict and to echo the anarchy that this pass on in the social system as well as in the lives of normal people. What was also opposed was the conception of that which was worth being the thing of artwork. The classical things were substituted by the mundane as the urinal that Marcel Duchamp located as an subject of fine art in his gallery. Also in his 'LHOOQ' Duchamp's Mona Lisa with a moustache was a direct means to shake the viewer and the age out from his complacency that business lead to the conflict itself. It had been the direct expression of disillusionment with the conflict and that art work too possessed lost its so this means like the books of the classical time. The wearing down of any recently set rules and a violent portrayal of independence of expression to shock and awe was the route of the time that noticed the violence of the World Battle firsthand. The artists and authors of the Dada movements were mostly battle veterans and expressed through their work the mental devastation of the war. The call for re-invention was echoed in the movements and stood for what modernism broadly aimed at.
Thematic and Technical Features of Modern Literature
The conception that reality could be easily be comprehended was replaced by modernism with a more subjective argument. Reality became not that which was straight seen but that which was behind the apparent floors and it had taken a crude go through the unappealing, the stark behind the glossy surfaces. It was to improve these questions that distortion became an essential trope in the visible arts of the age. Comte's Positivism could no more be used to spell it out certainty. The distorted images force the onlooker to come out of his safe place and question his conception of reality. It shows the dialectical romance between the thing of appearance and the dialect that expresses it. This is echoed in the Books of the time where phrases are fragmented and intentionally left incomplete as in Looking forward to Godot. Dialogues are hardly ever completed and there is an inability to get the correct words to describe the express of the do it yourself. This break down of language following the World War phone calls out for a need to reinvent dialect to match the post conflict world.
Hitler's use of almost an enigmatic, opera type use of words (he adored Wagner) that achieved his mass appeal, have also lead to the conflict. It had been perhaps then necessary to breakdown vocabulary to reinvent it. The distortion and the fragments not only hint at the previous but to a unity that needs to be rediscovered. The half-sentence make the audience seek to complete them and participate in the call for a search of a fresh unity and id which is Pound's injunction to "Make it New". The onlooker/audience is taken off his role as a mere passive observer to an active one who contributes to the meaning of the art he views/reads. Hence the incompleteness had not been aimed at a completely pessimistic answer that causes a lack of wish, but to different source of comfort similar to what T. S Eliot discovers in the world of 'shanti shanti shanti' by the end of 'Wasteland'.
Overview of Modern Age Literature
James Joyce arranged his novels and short reports in a small city of Dublin. Dubliners printed in 1914 is an integral part of the modernist literature combined with the Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysses. Stephen Daedalus is a central figure both in the Family portrait and Ulysses. The second option however was prohibited.
The next important article writer was Virginia Woolf who was from the Bloomsbury Group that was a group of intellectuals and writers that attained at her house which included E. M Forster and Leopold Woolf. Woolf attempted to present the altered world through a changed design of writing. In 1915 came up her first book called The Voyage Out and then came up All the time in 1919. There is a realistic serious firmness to both these books. Modernist pressure in her writing started out with her next novel call Jacob's Room which was publicized in 1922 along with Ulysses. The rest of the novels like Mrs. Dalloway, Towards the Lighthouse, The Waves, and Orlando had the same modernist shade.
Stream of Consciousness
Picasso's cubism became an important part of modernism's subjective view of simple fact and a need to move from traditional forms of art. It was this subjectivity that lead to the 'stream of consciousness' technique of narration, as employed by Virginia Woolf in Mrs. Dalloway. The give attention to the interiority of the home and its notion of the items it conceives was way to grasp the changed notion of actuality. The 'Pre-Speech' level of consciousness (as Henry James called it) of the type where the narrative deals with what is freely sensed or felt by the heroes rather than what is directly uttered altered the way that narratives functioned. The expression of the self was also to emphasize the turmoil of the do it yourself within itself. The existential view of life and its cyclical futile form was what entrapped it rendering it unable to transcend futility of presence. This pessimistic view was a residue of the conflict which found man as Sisyphus with his worthless seek out meaning, id and unity in a day and time that cannot satiate his search. In 'The Myth of Sisyphus' Albert Camus dwells on this futility of the present day experience.
The term 'poetic crisis' was made popular during the midsection of the 20th century. The word was made famous because of the works of T. S Eliot who used his are a a reaction to the drama of G. B Shaw and Galsworthy who were immensely affected by Henrik Ibsen who published A Doll's House and Ghosts. Inside the 'The Quintessence of Ibsenism' written by G. B Shaw, he accepted the former's impact on him. T. S Eliot aside from being truly a poet was also a critic and wrote many important works like 'Likelihood of Poetic Episode' and 'Poetry and Crisis' in which he indicated his idea that poetry and crisis are connected inseparably. W. B. Yeats, W. H. Auden and other poets also tried out writing poetic theatre.
IMPORTANT LITERARY TERMS
A persona poem or what's popularly referred to as a remarkable monologue in poetry, uses the theatrical device of an monologue in which a persona or person on stage speaks alone. Often done to focus on the character or author's inside thoughts and vocalize these to an implied audience, it was found in poetry in the 20th century. Passionate poetry was viewed as the root of the same. It is usually one person's talk to oneself or the audience / reader wherein he talks about a subjective take on a situation, theme, or any other identity. Robert Browning was the poet who perfected the utilization of dramatic monologue in his poems like "My Last Duchess", "Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister". His use of the device inspired Eliot and other modernist freelance writers.
As the term signifies, a paradox occurs when there is certainly self-contradiction in a word. Even ideas can have a paradox in them. It is done often for stylistic reasons also to express an elaborate thought or sense. Hamlet's brand "I have to be cruel only to be kind. " (Function 3, Arena iv lines 178) in Shakespeare's play with the same title is an exemplory case of paradox where two contradictory thoughts of kindness and cruelty are helped bring together.
It quite simply denotes the arriving together of complete opposites in a phrase. It really is a rhetorical device often utilized by orators. For instance, Goethe's quote "Love is a great thing, marriage a genuine thing" can be an example of the same.
Derived from the greek expression Symbolom, symbolic is a expression or subject that stands for another phrase or object. For example a fox is symbolic for cleverness and dove is the common symbol for serenity.
Used mostly with reference to drama, issues play usually handles an attempt to focus the public judgment about a communal matter. It engages therefore with a 'problem' in the most possible manner and may either seek to solve it or complicate it further. It was made famous by Henrik Ibsen, a Norwegian Playwright and even employed by G. B Shaw in his plays.
Usually a bit of prose writing that is aimed at being truly a thoughtful piece of writing with strong intellectual debates and undertones. It is derived from the term exagium that in Latin means a 'trial by weight'. The form is thought to have surfaced in the Renaissance and Francis Bacon in 1597 released his "Essays".
A novel is a bit of literature that may be imaginary or real and is written in prose. It's very different from drama and poetry by the amount of its period. There are various sub genres that can be an integral part of the book itself. Actually a single novel is often is consequence of play of these various strands of literature. The root of the word "Novel" or "Novella" indicates something "new" as it was a later conception in the annals of books. It arrived after poetry and crisis. It was the 18th and the 19th century that form became a major literary field with authors like Daniel Defoe, the writer of Robinson Crusoe; Fielding, who wrote Tom Jones and Samuel Richardson, Charles Dickens yet others. After the romantic phase there is a revival of the gothic fiction in works like Ann Radcliff's Mysteries of Udolfo and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Gothic was one such genre of the novel form. Realist books, Sensational novels, domestic novels are are just some of the others. On the whole the novel is seen as a imaginary narrative in prose, generally longer than a short storyline. Unlike the epic, which is currently seen as a lifeless genre, the novel is still enjoying its high status in the literary market as perhaps, it offers progressed with the continuously changing world.
Free verse is a type of structure which doesn't have a fixed meter or regular tempo. Even the lines length varies in one sentence to another. The cadence is dependent solely on the wish of the article writer but sometimes alternates between stressed and unstressed syllables. It was derived from the term 'freo' a middle-english word that recommended 'free'. Many great authors and poets experimented with the free verse style including Milton in his Samson Agonistes.
A short history is also a kind of fiction writing but differs from the novel because of the length anticipated to which it gets its name. It can be a highly serious work of books, a didactic one with a moral, a part of children's fiction and is also available to experimentation. For example, Rudyard Kipling had written many short experiences. The term 'brief' comes from the term 'sceort' which means the same. Defoe also wrote short stories because of the popularity of serial novels at his time. It really is however Edgar Allen Poe, who is regarded as a seminal physique responsible for the level of popularity of short testimonies as a genre. Joyce published them in his work titled Dubliners and Kafka composed Metamorphosis using the same.
FEATURES AND TYPES OF DRAMA
Drama is one of the oldest kinds of literature along with the epic. It really is thought to have derived from the ancient greek language and Roman works.
A storyline is the main trajectory of dilemma and called be called as its tale line. In Poetics, while defining all the major elements of a crisis, Aristotle assumed that the storyline was of excellent importance. It was so because it the plot that could be success at attaining a catharsis in the audience which is the purging of the emotions of dread and pity. It had been catharsis that Aristotle assumed was the primary aim of crisis and a good story was one that could effectively achieve a catharsis. He also asserted a plot should have a beginning, midsection and end.
The Beginning (Exposition)
The start or the exposition should be a form of introduction to the audience. The area of setting of the crisis and the most crucial characters, combined with the protagonist are typically be exposed in this part. The sort of the character types are also revealed initially.
The Middle (Problem)
The midsection of the dilemma should highlight the problem of matter or the conflict/complication. Whether it is personal revenge or a politics crisis, the middle is whether the complicated strand of the drama lies and where the main identity seeks to correct or rectify the discord involved.
The End (Resolution)
It is in the end when the issue is usually fixed in a tragic or comic way at the end of which a catharsis should take place in the audience if the episode was successful.
A character is all the individuals who constitute the storyline of the episode. They could be major ones like the chief protagonist or slight ones with quick jobs in the story. They can static or active.
The thought is the underlying idea behind the complete drama itself. It is sometimes distributed to the audience directly in the subject itself and sometimes is depicted in the words or actions of a character.
The way the characters speak in the theatre is named diction. An excellent diction should be comprehensible to the audience. The intonation, highlight, inflection all form an integral part of it.
Music is a part of dilemma that can either be utilized in the intervals or to add a supplementary result to the performance. It may also be used along with the performance and can mimic the action on level. It increases the cathartic selling point of drama by impacting on the emotions of the audience.
It is the visible element of theatre and is based how the drama is really performed in front of the audience. Produced from the Greek expression 'opsis' which means the eyesight or appearance of something, in play Aristotle connected it to drama in the reserve 6 of his Poetics.
Specific styles of performance action or speech that the character or the article writer uses to achieve a desired mental influence on the viewers are called remarkable conventions and can be seen as specific rules that already are made familiar to the audience or the stars. All forms of dilemma have their own collection conventions and can be seen as these devices which makes one genre of episode not the same as another.
Genres are the distinguishing types of drama or literature overall. The style, tone, conventions, theme, diction of one form of theatre can be extensively not the same as another. However styles also are liquid categories and could overlap every once in awhile.
Audience is the principle device of the performance of crisis. They will be the spectators of it and therefore form perhaps the most important part of the conception of episode itself. They will be the final end point of any performance and an emphasis on their reception sorts the main matter. A group of individuals collected to watch the performance constitute the audience. This audience lends itself to the performance by not only their reaction to it but by a sensory and visual participation in the process of episode unfolding itself. Sometimes the audience is directly addressed by the persona or a narrator and may also you need to be invisibly implied.
Forms of Drama
In the Middle ages period, the chapel was the centre of most human and social life. Drama primarily was utilized by the cathedral for delivering a spiritual note to the spectator through the performance of any sermon or a public way of preaching on the pulpit. In fact the rituals which were a part of the church primarily had all the key depiction of a kind of theatre. The Mass for example was one such event were the abundant robes of the priests, processions and choral singing made a spectacle for the audience. On Holiday and other important festivals, candles and incense were used to add to the performance of the ritual. The pulpit at the centre of the cathedral was like a theatrical structure in itself. It was by the 10th century that apart from choral performing, words entered the performance of preaching that have been called tropes and ended with a celebratory track. The performance was always based on a Biblical storyline or a coaching. The Quem Quaeritis is thought to have been the earliest example of such a trope in c. 950 and was predicated on the Gospel according to St. Marks and dealt with three Maries going to the tomb of Christ and finished with a happy announcement of Christ increasing from fatality. Only four lines of Latin were an integral part of it.
The popular form the spiritual drama was centered on the event of Corpus Christie that was a form of thanksgiving to Christ for his sacrifice. It was put into the chapel calendar in 1311 and was henceforth celebrated every year. Eventually these became a large interpersonal event where people started out participating financially and in the business of these performances. The village guilds slowly became more entrenched in the performances of the works. Each guild was presented with a biblical trope to execute like the Noah's Arc to the shipwrights. Slowly the plays migrated outside the cathedral to the market areas. The biblical themes picked up were usually didactic or depicted the storyplot of a miracle and lives of saints.
Morality plays dealt with themes that put on all mankind. The heroes had brands like Everyman, Mankind and the works also meant to source a moral lessons. Many aesthetic and thematic elements were borrowed from earlied religious tropes and plays. The main theme however was the fight of good and evil to have the heart and soul of man and the cycle of man's fall from innocence to enticement and lastly to fighting. Mankind, Everyman, Intelligence are many of these morality plays. The question of free will versus predestination was a silent theme at operation in these works. Often there was redemption of the fallen physique by God which led to a reconciliatory celebration in the long run. This is later to become a part of the comic genre of episode where reconciliation happens at the end.
These types of dilemma were the transition between the morality takes on and the Tudor indoor dilemma. They were given the name because they were usually performed in the middle of a banquet or a special event to amuse the friends at great properties and manors. John Heywood was a famous interlude writer who had written The Play of the Wether in the entire year 1533.
The etymology of the term 'tragedy' is generally regarded to get been derived from the Greek term 'tragoidia' which means goat track or from what 'tragos' and 'aeidein' which signify 'goat' and 'to sing' respectively as with early Greece the best dramatists were granted a goat for their work and also since it is presumed that goats were sacrificed at the beginning of the rituals where tragedies were performed. First the singing of the rituals was lengthened to add a dialogue between one speaker, who was usually a priest and the performers in the background. This composition later became a chorus which was a key part of Athenian tragedies. Aeschylus, a author of that time, had written ninety tragedies and is regarded as the one who developed the ritualistic performance to the form of the tragedy.
The form of crisis that is of a serious tone and deals with a suffering of the protagonist is broadly called as a Tragedy. This anguish might be due to an regrettable turn of occasions or because of a tragic flaw in the character of the protagonist which Aristotle calls as a hamartia. The hero falls from a posture of admiration and nobility, as is common the truth, because of his flaw. Also, tragedy can research the role of man in the world and probes in to the question of his point out of life itself or may end with a tragic fatality of a identity.
In historical Greece, this form of any dilemma was performed at public festivals and dates back to as far as the 5th century BCE. They truly became some sort of a mass spectacle where people collected as a community to watch them and it became almost as a kind of religious ceremony. These dramas received the support of the local government in the form of financial sponsorships and payment for individuals who wanted to be a part of audience but didn't have financial means themselves. The issues brought up in these dramas were often myths of the spiritual order, legends from background or a significant historical event. The priests also attended these dramas. Sometimes works from well-known writers were used like that of Homer who published the famous Canterbury Stories and the majority of the audience probably was alert to his genius. Aeshylus, Sophocles and Euripides were the three Greek massive pillars of the genre and their works, written as long back again as 6th century BCE survives right now.
After the high tragedies of Greece, the form was developed and used in the Elizabeth era by writers like Shakespeare (Romeo and Julient, Hamlet, Othello for example), and Thomas Kyd (The Spanish Tragedy), in the Jacobean era by writers like Webster (Duchess of Malfi) and then in France in the 17th century accompanied by writers in Europe and America in the overdue 19th century and early on 20th century. The type of tragedy as a genre underwent many changes in each of these periods.
Tragedies can also raise serious issues related to the place of man in the world, the concept of justice, plus more beyond the given individual to address larger concerns. Even Aeschylus and his Oresteia and Prometheus Bound question these concepts. In the Past which really is a trilogy, the idea of justice is questioned as a man is commanded by the gods to wipe out his mother and take revenge and patricide is appeared in a very different way in the theatre. In the second option, Prometheus is punished by Zeus for stealing fire for mankind. The drama around such a punishment starts to criticism of the concept of divine justice. While earlier these ideas were presumed to be valid independently, tragic writers made possible the questioning of the absolute prices and go on to a deeper exploration of issues they lifted. They also exposed a subconscious depth of in the study of man that was later to be used and developed by Shakespeare and all the tragic dramatists that implemented. The suffering depicted also permits some sort of learning and it became characteristic of the tragic hero.
After Aeschylus came Sophocles who is credited as much as 125 plays of which only seven survived. While Aeschylus looked for deeper questions in tragedy, Sophocles is said to have depicted a truer picture of individual experience. His tragedies are little freer in conditions of the lessons through hurting trajectory and focusses more on responding to issues alternatively than nurturing them. Oedipus the King is his most popular work that established his remarkable genius. It moves nearer to the conception of crisis than as a part of a more substantial ritual with its much sharper dialogue and less focus on the chorus. The controversy of free will and predestination is lifted here as though Oedipus was fated marry his mother after eradicating his dad, he does engage in a certain independence of decision making throughout the course of the episode. However, Oedipus' suffers in the end, his blindness perhaps credited to his fate decreed on him by the oracles and his refusal to act despite it. It ends with a larger theme of human happiness and anguish as the chorus ends by performing "Count no man happy, until he's inactive. " Even this fighting is made problematic as it isn't the gods that punish him but Oedipus himself. Sophocles also wrote a sequel to the drama titled Oedipus at Colonus where the old Ruler denies his sin of killing his dad and grows up as a tragic hero into a glorified one as he's converted into a demigod in the end. In the end it is a kind of a reaffirmation in the human capacity to move beyond sin and evil not in the afterlife but in this very host to human living itself. It is some sort of humanism that is at a considered heroic.
Euripedes, another great tragic dramatist after Sophocles, moved the latters set conventions even more. They seemed to focus on the strain that the targets of the gods put on humans and also at their indifference by becoming a spectator of individual devastation. A hint of irony hence gets into the tragic genre. Hippolytus is his famous work wherein Aphrodite takes revenge on Hippolyte for not worshiping her. Medea, another famous work by the dramatists is based on a woman's revenge on Jason, her man as she kills their own sons and eliminates the privilege of experiencing an heir. The justice of gods and the real human condition are helped bring forward
As metropolis of Athens dropped, even though performances continued to happen throughout the time, the quality of tragedy got seen to acquire declined. It is also argued by critics like Friedrich Nietzsche in The Delivery of Tragedy that the dialogues of Plato and his perception that the average person could learn through himself changed the questions of the point out of human presence towards a philosophical probing rather than remarkable one.
In the Roman world, Seneca is known still to obtain influenced the development of the genre and at least 8 tragedies are attributed to him most of that have been a rendering of previously known Greek common myths and reports. Seneca became important because of his impact on the Elizabethan playwrights who used the Senecan tragedy as a source.
It was the Renaissance that became a significant catalyst of the development of the form of tragedies. Shakespeare, Marlowe and Middleton got the Greek model and offered it a more morbid stopping. The performances drew awe from the audience and the closing often engaged murder, revenge or death. To be a genre tragedy extended to evolve and be redefined in fresh ways atlanta divorce attorneys age which used it.
Dante used the word humor in his title La Commedia and before him the Greeks and Romans referenced it for has with happy endings. It was later expanded to add works which evoked laughter in the reader/spectator. Funny also extended further to add satire and became a vehicle for public criticism.
In traditional Greece, comedies were a part of phallic rituals and festivals that celebrated fertility. In Poetics Aristotle too affirmed this reason behind comedy and that they were specialized in Thalia, the muse of funny. He also asserted that it was main four genres of books aside from epics, tragedies and lyric poetry. As the genre was not given the high status as tragedies were allocated, the origins of humor are obscure. The sooner known comedies are attributed to Aristophanes who is believed to have written 40 of them which only 11 currently make it through. The satyr takes on of his time were development by him to become comedies in their own right.
Comedies were usually defined on the other hand with tragedies. While tragedies dealt with a hero of high stature, comedies revolved around basic incidents of the not high people in their mundane life. They lacked serious gravity and were more centered on entertaining. Then later both of these genres regarded as separate were linked to make a form totally. Horace, the traditional Roman poet, known that comedy may possibly also have a tragic pressure and tragedy could be applied to the mundane. This offered climb to the genre of the burlesque wherein a trivial subject was given the high design of tragedy and even included obscene and vulgar elements.
In the 18th century, in Joseph Andrews, Henry Fielding made a differentiation between the burlesque and the comic. Burlesque, Fielding asserted, is bent towards an unnatural program of the characteristics of high manners to the lowly. It meant for pure entertainment predicated on absurdity. While funny corresponding to him do require a mimesis of nature where the subject can be mundane however, not the monstrous one of burlesque with an effort to imitate the normal life of world. Nevertheless the demarcation too can be called to be difficult as a result of knowing of something monstrous and animal-like in the human being rationale. Behind the mask of civilization sometimes there are instances of animalistic behavior coming from the part of man that functions on carnal instincts. Ever since the start of comic genre, there may be celebration of your creative energy in it that is due to this carnal need as was done in the celebratory phallic processions.
Comedy later broadened to add satire and irony and wit which permitted a public commentary. The tragic behind the face mask of comic was found in the theater of the grotesque where following the laughter at a comic situation, uncovers the tragedy functioning behind it. Pirandello in the preface of Six Heroes in Search of an Author identified the theater of the grotesque which was later utilized by writers like Ionesco and Beckett in the theatre of the absurd as past due as the 20th century.
Comic genre included a great many other genres as mentioned. Satiric humor used it to make apparent the difference between a great and the true and the criticism of this reality itself. Romantic comedy highlights the reality that the hero and heroine have to handle in order to get together. Shakespeare developed the passionate humor genre and even in the 20th century playwrights like T. S Eliot in his The Confidential Clerk used it.
Tragicomedy, as the name implies, combines both tragedy and comedy. It was termed such by Plautus dating back to the 2nd century BC wherein it was used for works where gods and humans exchanged assignments and involved in a burlesque with tragic shades. One primary example by Plautus is Amphitryon.
It was at the Renaissance that genre too was explored and developed. In Italy, a article writer named Battista Guarini defined tragicomedy as the one which uses the diction, depiction, theme and cathartic shade of tragedy but lacked its typical ending. It also deviates from the tragic genre by including information like the court jester and clowns and low-born people. It had been contradicted by also offering a happy finishing and an answer regardless of the tragic build. The influence of Neoclassicism with an effort to reinvent the classics in their own way permitted such experimentation. John Fletcher in The Faithful Shepherdess reworked Guarini's Il Pastor Fido and Shakespeare's Vendor of Venice plus the Tempest are further examples of it.
The romantic authors that implemented Shakespeare used his works as a model as they believe it was a genuine mirror of life Books of authors like Victor Hugo stand as proof his affect and then with the stress on realism in the 19th century, tragicomedy was redefined just as before. Henrik Ibsen's Ghosts used it to made tragedy even more visible behind the surface of comedy and G. B Shaw praised Ibsen as the main one who re-established the tragicomedy and then Anton Chekov used it in his 1897 work called Uncle Vanya and the Cherry Orchard that arrived in 1904. The absurdist dilemma that adopted used the tragicomic genre to new levels. Examples of such as Samuel Beckett's Endgame in 1958 and Harold Pinter's Dumb Waiter in 1960.
In the very first century A. D the Roman Stoic philosopher Seneca issued nine dramas in blank verse that have been more of wardrobe dramas as these were intended to be read rather than to be performed. Seneca remodeled the tragedies of Euripedes and Aeshcylus and Sophocles but put into them a long serious diction, an extended descriptive narrative, a didactic shade and soliloquies as well as the use of witches and ghosts moved into the episode. The Italian Renaissance revisited these works and provided the English Renaissance writers a model to bottom their tragedies on. It was in the 17th century that the French Renaissance authors like Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine which used the Senecan tragedies and borrowed from it its serious firmness and style and rhetoric.
The bloodthirsty revenge of the tragedies matched the tastes of the Elizabethan writers and Gorboduc by Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton in 1561 was the first British tragedy that used the same bloody revenge theme. There is a mass of slaughter in the episode and crude revenge along with highly morbid shades was an imitation of Seneca and his works. This became founded as the Senacan tragedy. Shakespeare's Hamlet can be an exemplory case of an Elizabethan Senecan tragedy.
Hamlet was also an example of a different type of tragedy called the revenge tragedy where the chief factor of the episode is a revenge that often got a murderous finishing. It was used by Shakespeare but was set up in The Spanish Tragedy by Thomas Kyd and was performed in the entire year 1587. The storyline revolves around a Spanish man known as Heironimo who looks for revenge for the murder of his child. There is a play within the play where he enacts his role as the one seeking revenge and eliminates the murderers and even himself. His spells of madness also permeate the play. As is apparent, Hamlet borrows many of these elements where revenge, murder, play-within-a- play and the theme of madness are direct imitations.
John Marston's Antonio's Revenge (1599-1601), George Chapman's Revenge of Bussy d'Ambois (performed c. 1610, Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus (performed 1589-92) and Thomas Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy (1607) will be more types of the revenge tragic genre.
Historic works are also known as Chronicle plays or record dramas as they package with an show from record and the protagonist is often a historical number. They indicate a past removed by seldom for evoking nostalgia but for a present-day that can educate and inform today's. Nationalistic feeling may also be called on when the gaze is on greatness of this gone by. They truly became a part of the nation building process in England in the past due 16th to early on 17th century. The genre was matured by Shakespeare who published several historic has like Henry VI, Richard III and Christopher Marlowe who had written Edward II.
A comic written piece that uses stereotypical character types, exaggeration and improbable situations is called a farce. Within the hierarchy of literature it is considered to be below funny however has remained popular in performance throughout the Lady for this time.
Ancient Greek and Roman theater in the comedies of Aristophanes and Plautus hold the beginnings of farce. Italian Fabula Atellana in which the actors played stereotypical characters like that of the clown or a glutton were often involved with situations which were exaggerated also helped in the establishment of the genre.
The term farce was first used in 15th-century France for activities that involved acrobatics, clowning, caricature and some components of indecency used for entertainment and frequently involved buffoonery in religious plays sometimes added by the actors on the spot. Hence the term 'farce' originated from the French phrase which means 'to stuff' or 'stuffing' due to inclusion of this buffoonery by the celebrities. Shakespeare, Molire, John Heywood used elements of farce in their comedies.
In the past due 19th and early on 20th generations farce was reused in takes on by Brandon Thomas like Charley's Aunt (1892) in film comedies like Charlie Chaplin, Marx Brothers and the Keystone Kops. Between the world wars farces gained extensive level of popularity and were performed at the Aldwych Theater in London. Dario Fo's Accidental Loss of life of your Anarchist performed in 1974 and Alan Ayckbourn's Communicating Doorways that arrived in 1995 are types of farce.
Comedy of Humours
The playwright Ben Jonson in the later 16th century sometimes appears as the one who proven the comedy of humours which comes from the Latin expression humor or umor which means "liquid. " Humour here recommended not the comic or which evokes laughter but is the Renaissance theory of the four humours of man which is caused by a fluids: blood vessels, phlegm, yellow bile (choler), and dark-colored bile (melancholy). Sanguine dominated person is due to blood, Choleric because of the yellowish bile, Phlegmatic due to the phlegm and lastly melancholic because of the production of dark bile. The excess of anybody of these contributes to the overall personality of the character or person. Renaissance medical theory and even in the medieval time this balance of humours was considered essential for a well-functioning of our body.
Every Man Out of His Humour that emerged in 1599, described Jonson's use of the four humours and comedy that arose from it was scheduled to an excess of one of the four essential fluids which made the character action in a certain way. The personas are hence not well balanced either just because a genuine misbalance in the humours of the body or because associated with an assumed humour that leads to an man-made mannerism that further dictates speech, clothing and communal behavior
The One-Act Play
A play that has only 1 act is merely called a one-act play instead of other has that might take the period of several works. They may have many moments in them. It is thought that they comes from historic Greece in works of Euripides' play called Cyclops which was a satyr play.
The masque in play came with the works of Ben Johnson. His brilliance got him a pension from James I in 1616. His collection called Works came out in the same season and elevated episode to a totally new level. Everyman in His Humour that arrived in the entire year 1598 was his first most important play. Humour here recommended not the comic or which evokes laughter but is the Renaissance theory of the four humours of man which is the effect of a bodily smooth. Sanguine dominated person is due to blood, Choleric because of the yellow bile, Phlegmatic because of the phlegm and last but not least melancholic due to the production of dark-colored bile. The excess of any one of these contributes to the overall personality of the type or person. Nonetheless it was Jonson's focus on an elaborate performances that resulted in the level of popularity of the Masques in play.
Popular during the reign of James I, the masques were grand get-togethers involving poetry, party, music and theatre. Professionals were utilized to execute such masques and were mostly performed indoors. There is a celebratory party mostly in the end as the masques usually depicted the triumph of virtue over vice. Jonson complicated the use of the masque by sometimes starting his comic work by an anti-masque preceding the key masque. For instance inside the Masque of Queens, performed 1609, in the beginning, there is a dance of witches which represents evil and who are eventually cast out by the Queen. This depicts a success of virtue over vice and the part of the queen was even performed by Queen Anne herself. It had been the stage equipment that allowed for a change of the world of evil to be replaced. Inigo Jones was a famous architect at the time who made possible this visible and thematic conversion on level.
The masque because of their expensive dynamics were intended usually for the court docket and the party of virtue was thought to a celebration of the court docket as a virtuous body. Also the common players in the masque cannot openly take part in a dialogue with the courtiers and highlighted a rift between your world of commons and the world of courtiers most importantly. A descriptive narrative of an processional masque is the masque of the Seven Deadly Sins in Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene.
When a play draws attention to its fictional position as an manufactured theatrical build and is aware of its artificial dynamics it is named as a metadrama or metatheatre. Additionally it is referred to as a episode about dilemma itself as it creates this apparent by directly responding to the audience, in prologues or epilogues, in dialogues and when the audience is manufactured aware that they are seeing a play and the actors themselves know they are carrying out for an audience. It is a self-conscious form of theater. The play in a play in Hamlet makes obvious the episode it manages within and Pirandello also used it in Six Individuals in Search of an Publisher.
The subject matter of the play is the utilization dramatic art work which breaks the pretence of seeing a relity unfold on level. In Macbeth the type exclaims that "Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player / who struts and frets his hour after the level, / and then is listened to no more, " and his use of the term 'shadows' and 'players' make the audience aware of that they are seeing a play which is not direct simple fact in front of them. In Hamlet, Hamlet utters that "The play's finished. / wherin I'll catch the conscience of the king" also makes the audience alert to the fictionality of drama before them.
Sympathetic comedy that presents the escapades of young lovers trying to conquer social, psychological, or interpersonal constraints to accomplish an effective union. Commedia dell'arte is a general type of dilemma that falls into this category. Several Shakespearean takes on like the Taming of the Shrew and A Midsummer Night's Fantasy also fall under this category.
In the year 1660, Charles II went back to England from France after the end of Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth and reestablished the monarchy in Great britain. This period of all time is named the recovery. Charles not only brought back the monarchy but also French manners and decorum that he experienced while was in France. This transformed the social mannerism of the judge. The united states also experienced changes scheduled to events such as the Great Plague in London, the establishing in the Royal Culture for Technology in 1662 and the consequences of intellectual thinkers and writers like Francis Bacon which resulted in a more simplistic form of writing.
It was at 1642 that the theatres were sealed credited to Puritan protest and reopened after 18 years in 1660. Enough time period was enough to improve the way theater was conceived and performed. Dilemma moved away from the available air public shows and moved inside after the Renaissance. Operas, comedies and heroic tragedies dominated the demand in play. Restoration comedies were also called comedies of manners as they handled mannerisms of the courtroom and the aristocrats. Intimate themes became the primary element of crisis as it searched for to bring about order and limit following the require a endless exploration in the Renaissance. Intimate intrigue hence was an important part of these as highlighted in the play THE UNITED STATES Wife that arrived in 1675 and was compiled by Wycherley. The hero of the theatre pretends to be impotent that allows him usage of women's bedrooms. Horner, the name of the hero, is perhaps a pun on the term 'honour'. Congreve, Aphra Behn, Etherege and Farquar are other important freelance writers of the restoration era.
The recovery comedies, however, were met with a whole lot of criticism scheduled their sexual themes that often bordered on voyeurism and bawdiness. At a time when subtle guidelines of decorum and behavior were being establish silently in the modern culture and the court, a kind of theatre that moves against this was viewed down upon. The immortality of open public life was openly viewed on stage and had obvious critical feedbacks.
A type of play popular through the Restoration age in Britain, a Heroic crisis is, recognized by both its verse framework and its material. The word was developed by Dryden for his play, The Conquest of Granada in 1670. Within the preface which Dryden asserted that it was an integral part of epic poetry and keeps more value that other play as epic poetry organised an increased place than other types of poetry and he established a series of rules of this type of episode. The 1665 work by John Dryden called The Indian Emperour (1665) and Roger Boyle's The African american Prince that arrived in 1667 are k
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