Discuss The Ways Which Awareness In Ideology Affects Literature English Books Essay

Literature in Marxism is perceived as something which is deeply inspired by the culture and culture in which the author is living in. Therefore literature is seen as a product from culture meaning the author is affected by the surroundings and the exterior elements surrounding him. Just as one reader differs from the other because he or she is also affected by the social surroundings. In addition, Marxists, and down the road Structuralists, assume that because literature has experience according to ones frame of mind and key points of society, books is 'ideologically impregnated by its social setting'. Lois Althusser has played an important role in the defining of ideology in literature with important essays such as his 1970 essay entitled Reading "Capital" and another more important essay in the field of ideology entitled Ideology and Ideological Condition Apparatuses (1970). Others like Roland Barthes also helped determining the role of ideology when reading books especially with the prominent article entitled The Fatality of the writer, printed in 1967.

Ideology has become a key principle in Marxists' theorists' works and criticism about fine art and books. Marxists see ideology more than simply the analysis of ideas nonetheless they see it as an prospect of life. The Bourgeois ideology is regarded by Marxists as making and infusing organizations in culture and in cultures which also include literature and different forms of skill. Ideology, especially to Structuralists, becomes an critical concern, especially to the way in methods to speak about ideology in a non-ideological way. At first Marxists start to see the expression ideology in a negative light because of the fact that they relate the word with 'wrong awareness'. Marxists see ideology as a method utilized by the prominent classes to prevent subordinates from realising the true dynamics of things and change them to their own benefits. Thus as a means of hiding the reality and keeping the ruling power over the second-rate classes from obtaining their rightful civil liberties. But then in the 1960's, Althusser changed the idea of ideology being truly a kind of phony consciousness with his article Ideology and Ideological Condition Apparatuses (1970). In this article Althusser argues that world must first be split into different "ideological state apparatuses" alternatively than be looked at all together. He argues that somewhat than false consciousness, the ideologies vary corresponding to each condition apparatus. Althusser perceives literature to be one of these state apparatuses since literature does not exhibit just one kind of ideology but it varies in line with the text. He states that interpellation takes place rather than sociable consciousness and this means that the human being is made up of the established set ups in society like the mass media and literature in which the representations seen in it contain the expressions of everyday realities. Therefore, ideology, according to Althusser, is made up of both real and the imaginary since it is real because it shows how people really live their everyday routine relative to society and its own domains but imaginary since it does not give a full knowledge of the means of how people are constituted in these interpersonal realities. At the same time when people read a realist text message they can relate with it and when individuals are portrayed as being free, the written text will interpellate the viewers to feel that they can be free as well. Thus, realist novels work just as as ideology will; by addressing the readers and consequently making them imagine the ideological perspective that they are portraying.

Althusser discusses the interpellation of the topic in relation to ideology. Corresponding to Althusser, both article writer and the audience are subjects and thus they both become ideological topics because both of these live 'spontaneously'. The language then has its role in the interpellation as to present the individual as unified, independent, subjectivity. Althusser uses the example of the classic realism since it is an extremely popular genre in several regions of arts, in particular, in books. Althusser uses this genre because alone it is a topic which shows not only the ideology of the real representation of fact in addition the understanding of the situation of subject. Within the 19th century, the idea of the writer furthering away from the written text he has written was becoming even more prominent, especially in realistic fiction. Inside the classic realist books the simple truth is shown, but not told because the reader has the task of finding it out for him or her self. This can be observed in diverse novels in the genre such as those written by Defoe and Hardy. In these novels the reader is interpellated as the topic since he has the activity of deciding and learning the truth, which in itself, is an ideological practice. Thus meanings change accordingly to someone's ideology. Belsey argues that traditional realism comes after the same cyclical style in most novels. This includes a kind of disorder which is encapsulated in a story of for example love or murder. But by the end the storyplot always gets to an ending that your reader for some reason or the other expects and therefore order is restored. This can be found in novels such as Jane Eyre, where order is restored as Jane and Mr Rochester's manifestation of love makes its full circle. This, relating to Belsey, is not found in background since it is narrated in an impersonal manner and there is no defined speaker, whilst in narration the speaker is thought as a topic and the reader pertains to this voice. The storyplot in truth unfolds through this interpellation between your reader and the author and through this communication; the topics share the meanings of the task through ideology. Belsey also argues that in traditional realism, the reader is in a way pleasing his own ego by determining and positioning himself in the role of the protagonist. Belsey areas that this interpellation between the reader and the author isn't just done in the 3rd omniscient narrative but also in the first narrator because the audience also gets the opportunity to relate to the protagonist involved. But the third narrative allows the audience to formulate the finishing of the storyline before it is written. Therefore the reader as a subject himself is ready of subjectivity and so in an ideological position. But at the same time, to refuse this position, is alone an ideological choice.

Althusser talks about how exactly a person cannot have an entire unbiased read since it's very difficult to avoid making presumptions and thoughts which may prejudice the reading in lots of ways. Because of this the interpretation is different in one person to another which is never neutral because it is damaged by the sociable environment. Althusser also argues that behind the text that one can see in a book or in virtually any literary form which he calling 'explicit discourse' there's always the underlying, unseen, 'silent discourse', that your author is unaware of therefore it is the task of the reader to find it out. This 'silent discourse' is which means elements which influenced the author unconsciously with time of writing the text. Hence Althusser proposes that whenever reading, one must give up what the author had designed for him or her to read and understand and instead acknowledge the underlying 'silence' which it conceals in itself. This system is named the 'symptomatic reading', where by ruling out the framework of the argument, one uncovers the ideological buildings of the written text. Althusser argues that the author's thoughts and opinions is not the only one that can be given to the written text because each reader has a different background with different forms of ideologies and each one of these may affect what sort of novel is read. For instance people may come from different ethnicities with different customs from those of the author and as a result the interpretations of the novel change. Accordingly, Althusser is against the idea of empiricism, which is to understand the novel or content material by direct evaluation. Empiricists also assume that meaning originates from experience somewhat than inborn traditions and ideas which influence what sort of book is read. Althusser argues that the ideology within every human being affects his way of perceiving a book or a masterpiece of design. Catherine Belsey, will abide by Althusser and states that ideology is something indispensable which cannot be discarded with a single thought since it is tightly positioned inside every single person. She also argues that ideology is what makes 'concrete individuals as themes' and therefore it impacts us consistently.

Althusser argues that interpretation is created by the audience rather than discovered and this is done through the knowledge of the unconscious of the writer at the time of writing the novel and by the practice which occurs when reading the text which 'pieces to work, in a particular structure'. Althusser mentions four types of practice which are the economic, political, ideological and theoretical. The ideological practice occupies a novel or a content material and gives it a complete new meaning which is done through the sociable means which give it a new standpoint and perspective. In Althusser, the ideological practice refers to the diverse and amalgamated ways that a bit of skill and literature's so this means is modified in line with the daily activities of a particular person. Therefore when one states that something is 'ideological', it requires in the unaggressive imitation of the mistaken beliefs about the nature of social truth. Sometimes someone requires a position which might appear as incoherent and conflicting, but one must recognize that it might have never been seen in this way when the position was taken because ideology is rich in contradictions but which at the same time, they underpin it and give it meaning.

In the same way Roland Barthes argues that Bourgeoisie writing cannot be innocent since one cannot write without zero bias in mind. Barthes argues that all the written text messages are in some way or another ideologically priced. He claims that on paper, the author is for some reason or another, ideologically tinged since when some may be writing, she or he already has an ideology which is silent and which naturalises the behaviour of the dominant class. Barthes will abide by Althusser by expressing that the silent ideology is a silent types of conversing to the reader. He developed the idea that books is not innocent since it contains ideology and hegemony because in the writer there is always an ideological slant which influences what he writes or what he shouldn't write. Barthes also argues that the ideology is linked with politics and religion and the copy writer makes use of literature as a means of producing another idea. Literature following the Second World Battle needed to be committed and one could not write books in a vacuum anymore. That is observed in George Orwell's Canine Plantation (1945) which is not simply a fable but a way of providing to the public a knowledge of the course war between your midsection classes and the dominating classes. In giving an answer to a content material by reading it, the audience is naturalising something which might not be natural and the power of the ruling category is exerted in ways such as it naturalises itself. Literature is therefore some codes which have to be known since literature is part in case a code and the audience encodes literature to make it a sociable event. This theory should go together and has been developed from Saussure's theory of the signified and the signifier which Barthes also takes on to clarify how literature is made up.

Roland Barthes's most important essay in neuro-scientific books is entitled Fatality of the writer (1968) whom he discussed as the number shaped by critical discourse to be able to limit the interpretations in the form of reading a literary text. This essay is regarded as groundbreaking in the spirit of revolution of the time and it becomes a central wording which marks the change from Structuralism to Post-Structuralism. Barthes discusses and disagrees with the thought of the author as a god since he creates the task out of nothing at all, just like god. He says that certain cannot allow the author to expect the role of god in literature but also in fine art generally. Barthes is therefore taking away the role of the author who imposes ideas and beliefs on the audience and hence a limit to how the text is read. He is convinced in destabilising the idea of the author as the foundation of the text since the text exists individually off the author and for that reason Barthes allows space for the audience. He argues that once the author is removed from the written text the reader becomes the critic and then the death of the writer resuscitates the reader and his ideas. By doing this Barthes is wearing down the hegemony of the bourgeoisie writer and then the regular ideology which is certainly going on must be realised. Just as as Althusser, he argues that ideology is obviously present and one must not get away from it but let it help her or him create his own interpretations. By deleting the writer the reader or the interpreter now, just like the publisher, has all the original attributes of initiative removed which is altered in the impersonal practice of reading. What they're reading cannot no more be called 'work' but it becomes a 'word' because the phrase 'work' may show the contribution of another person in creating it whilst the term 'text message' does not give a sense of personality. Althusser agrees with the thought of the fatality of the author by thinking that this is of a content material is to be produced by having a symptomatic analysis. The writer becomes a function of ideology by interpellating the individuals as things. Therefore one has to totally dehumanise the written text and transform it into something involves no individual effort in creating it, thus 'unseen problematics'.

Therefore theorists like Althusser and Barthes show how ideology affects just how of how a text message is read by the audience. Both theorists concur that ideology can't be removed when reading a words since it is undoubtedly found in every person and for that reason it affects the way books is read differently by diverse persons with different ideologies.

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