Frankenstein and Darkness by Lord Byron

The Passionate period is probably one of many intervals of change in literature. It is during this time period that a lot of high quality works were produced whether it be in literature, art work or music. Aside from being abundant with poetry the time can be seen as an exaltation of the thoughts. This was changing the rational thought which had overcome Europe at the time.

The Romantics also saw themselves as prophets and used their works to prophesise about the future of mankind. Due to this it is interesting to investigate whether these prophesies of the future of mankind have actually become a reality. The essay can look at how the two romantic authors of Frankenstein (Mary Shelley) and the poem Darkness (Lord Byron) and what both of these authors prophesised in their works. Also in the long run see whether what the writers want to portray in their texts can be employed to present day. Sources to other loving works by William Wordsworth and William Blake also aid in this analysis.

The essay gets to a final result that the various themes viewed in the text messages can be applied to present day and do serve as a alert as the majority of which these authors feared would happen to mankind is in fact taking place to this day. Last of all, that indeed their warnings are justified.

Introduction

Throughout the age ranges it could be observed that they were a great deal of times of change that took place throughout the annals of literature. These include the Victorian time. Probably one of the most influential periods of change happens to be the Romantic time. The word suggests that this time was predicated on peoples' appreciation of love and relationship. All the same, though love was a common theme during works of that time period the Romantic of age was in actual fact a movements in the creativeness of designers and writers of the time. This movement was not just a move in your brain sets of these involved with literature but it addittionally involved skill and music.

The movement started out in the past due 1700s in Western Europe and continuing towards the mid 1800s. In the 1700s there have been a lot of developments being made by the Western european people including improvements in technology and sociable changes including the Industrial Revolution. Most these changes were brought forth by age Enlightenment that went through the 18th century which observed the awakening of technological thought, the overthrowing of the conquering spiritual knowledge and the change in Western european philosophy as a way of finding reason in the world. It also noticed the beginning of the Industrial Trend which required over Europe during the 18th century.

The Romantic period was quite simply a rebellion against the scientific and rational thought that gripped European countries during the past age group of enlightenment. This rebellion observed the move from rational considered to more focus on emotions, passion forever and character. Other important designs of the Romantic era were nationalism, flexibility and liberty.

These themes created the ideals of all Romantics plus they displayed them through all their works. Romantics also concerned themselves with using their works as a way of displaying human being society and its link with mother nature often spoke of the future of mankind. They saw themselves as prophets into the future and used heir works as warnings into the future.

One of the most influential works of books written at the time is the poem Darkness by Lord Byron. The poem was written in 1816 in the midst of very strange happenings which people thought at that time were signs or symptoms of the apocalypse. That 12 months was known as the year without a warmer summer months due to darkness which experienced over shadowed the land which comes from the volcanic ash cloud of the eruption of Support Tambora a volcano located in Indonesia the previous year. Unfortunately the folks in Geneva didn't know this and gone into a worry thinking the apocalypse was close to. The chaos and activity of that time period were the inspiration behind Byron's poem. In addition he wrote his poem as a means of authoring the calamity that will take over mankind if immoral behaviour is continuing.

Another important work is Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. Mary Shelley was the partner of another famous poet by the name of Percy Shelley. The publication was written while on a stop by at the Swiss Alps with Percy at the Lord Byron's home. Here because of the unseasonal rain that they had to remain indoors and interested themselves with ghost reviews. Because of the urging of the Lord himself a competition was place to see who write the creepiest story and Mary required the prize through the writing of her book Frankenstein; Or The Modern Prometheus which is the entire name. The booklet is dependant on the storyline of a ambitious scientist who packages out to create life but ends up setting up a monster. This booklet is a metaphor for what would become of mankind if they continue to tamper with mother nature.

The theme of mother nature and its destruction is a common theme in a great deal of Charming works. In such a paper the manner in which both of these writers alert the reader of the misfortune that will need over mankind by looking at various topics and methods the writers use to expose them. Also guide will be produced to other works of the Romantic period to show the similarities and distinctions of the works.

Chapter 1: The Theme of Nature in the Works

The theme of nature was very visible in many Passionate works. It had been believed that character possesses an ability to revitalize your brain and help man evade from the constraints of civilisation. The root of these values also come from the fact that the Passionate period arose from the time when Europe was having the Industrial Revolution which noticed the destruction of forests and beautiful landscape to make enough space for factories and mills for commercial purposes.

According to them, aspect was seen as a sublime Godly creation that was to be loved and not damaged. That is portrayed through the setting up of the texts and the many creative ways the authors made lucid descriptions of dynamics.

In Frankenstein, Shelley uses sophisticated information of the landscapes to show this. Considering the first letter from Richard Walton, he identifies sensations he seems as he walks through the avenues of St Petersburg, 'I feel a cool northern air flow play after my cheeks, which brackets my nerves and fills me with joy'. The beauty of the environment around him inspires him to continue his voyage to the north pole and increases his thrills about the wonder of the north pole which is he is so wanting to see. Through the entire novel it could be known how nature uplifts and provides some treatment for both the monster and Victor Frankenstein.

Another famous work is the poem 'Daffodils' also known by the subject 'I wondered depressed as a cloud' by William Wordsworth, a famous Passionate poet. Wordsworth composed this poem after going for a walk with his sister admiring the daffodils in the fields surrounding him. Very much like Mary Shelley, he paints an ostentatious image of the wonder of the flowers their capability to invite him to take pleasure from them through use of terms. He explains the blooms as 'fluttering' and 'dance' as if to say the movements of the bouquets are as soothing as the fluttering of butterflies and parrots in the air flow and their movements graceful as though they were dancing.

The use of imagery was also very important tool for the Romantics to exhibit their concept and aid the reader in appreciating the beauty of nature they often portray. 'There, Margaret, the sun is for ever visible; its broad drive skirting the horizon and diffusing a perpetual splendour' Here, Walton explains in his first notice to his sister Margaret, how the sun spreads in the horizon at the North Pole. The words 'perpetual splendour' further improve the beauty of the spot.

In Daffodils, Wordsworth also refers to the power of dynamics to enlighten his heart and soul from sadness, 'For oft, when on my couch I lie/ In vacant or in pensive disposition, /They flash after that inward eyeball/Which is the bliss of solitude;/And then my heart with pleasure fills, /And dances with the daffodils. ' The words 'vacant' and 'solitude' summarize his empty mind-set. The daffodils 'display' look brightly within his 'inward vision' which is his imagination filling his heart and soul with 'pleasure'.

These are demonstrations of the power mother nature has over the individual as portrayed by the Loving writers.

Chapter 2: The Consequences of the Pursuit of Knowledge

One of the major topics in Frankenstein is the pursuit of knowledge and its consequences. The prior to the Intimate period was age Enlightenment which saw a growth of rationalism and ongoing significant scientific breakthroughs. These worried Mary Shelley and other Affectionate writers. The concern was they noticed this rationalist motion as man looking to meddle with the laws and regulations of nature. This is actually the foundation of the character of Victor Frankenstein.

At age 17, Frankenstein will go off to university or college where he satisfies many intellectuals and smart professors who motivate him to go after natural science. Unfortunately, this enthusiasm eventually becomes an obsession. 'I will pioneer a fresh way, explore anonymous power, and unfold to the entire world the deepest mysteries of creation. ' Out of this we observe how Frankenstein aspires to accomplish greater achievements than philosophers before him. He also is designed to overcome nature. This implies he aspires to conquer God himself for God be the originator of nature. For this reason obsession, he sacrifices all his time, energy and health to build life, 'with unrelaxed and breathless eagerness, I pursued characteristics to her concealing places. '

'It was over a dreary nights November, that I beheld the achievement of my toils'. This beginning line of Chapter Five collections a dark, depressing, and cool scene which gives a feeling of foreboding as a means of caution of events to come. Words such as 'nervousness', 'agony' depict the depressing picture of the approaching to life of the monster.

Shocked at the hideousness of his creation he laments, 'How may i describe my feelings at this catastrophe' as part of reinforcing his impact there's a use of exclamation grades as he says, ' Beautiful! - Great God!' This is ironic, for the reason that Frankenstein had sought to set-up life as a means of being in a position to uncover mother nature and certifying himself to be higher than God. Ironically, he calling upon God upon his failing though he never mentions God before.

The monster is defined to own 'yellow pores and skin', 'lustrous black' hair and 'pearly white' pearly whites which form a 'horrid distinction' along with his 'watery sight', 'dun white sockets' his 'shrivelled complexion' and 'direct black lips'. This image decorated of the monster depicts how he was made to acquire beautiful features yet after his awakening, they get together to form a hideous being. The eyes in their sockets also provide a sense of sadness within the monster. The monster is therefore an unnatural being with real human features.

Unable to bare the being he previously created he runs of to his room. He begins to develop fever like symptoms. He recalls the monster as, 'the wretch - the unpleasant monster I had developed created. ' The usage of the word 'I' demonstrates his selfishness and exactly how he does not even consider the way the monster feels. The actual fact that he will not supply the monster a name and refers to it as 'the creature' or the 'wretch', demonstrates his disappointment and dislike for that which he has generated.

Through these different devices Mary Shelley allows the reader to visualise the picture and have a share in the activities of the individuals. Nonetheless, it might be possible that the monster is a metaphor for methodical creations created with the intention of beauty going horribly wrong. This can be paralleled to the quest for knowledge and how it can have dire outcomes for in the storyline it can be seen that the monster brings fatality and damage.

Chapter 3: The Consequences of the Immorality of Mankind

The poem Darkness, creates grisly apocalyptic images of the earth and mankind at their demise. The opening line of the poem Darkness by Lord Byron combined with the subject of the poem already prepares the reader of the grim mood viewed in the poem. 'I acquired a dream, that was never a goal'. Here the narrator of the poem describes having an event similar to a desire which but actually is more of a problem not in his mind's eye but in truth. Basically, Byron talks as though he had a premonition of the grave future in advance for mankind. This opening equally the starting of section five of Frankenstein, 'It was on the dreary nights November' is foreboding and gives a feeling of grief and impending doom.

The enthusiasm behind this poem was not only because of the very strange situations of that time period which made people believe in the coming of the apocalypse but also immoral functions of mankind. The Industrial Revolution got also provoked a whole lot of interpersonal unrest. Countless underprivileged European people moved from other rural countryside homes to work in factories. They performed under very harsh conditions and were paid vey low wages. This exploitation was all in the name of greed and the quest for wealth and prosperity in the improving Western european societies. These inhumane functions in the name of attaining wealth and gaining position were part of the ideas behind another famous Intimate works.

One such work is 'Jerusalem' by William Blake that was influenced by the writer's condemnation of the merchandise of the Industrial Revolution. Written in 1804 'Jerusalem' later became a patriotic hymn through the First World Warfare and is used as a nationwide anthem for England at certain sporting events. This piece speaks of England being a special land and a possible applicant for the building of a New Jerusalem given the possibility that Jesus Christ stopped at the land as a boy. Essentially, the poem 'Jerusalem' gives desire to the society while lord Byron's poem speaks of loss of life and destruction presenting no sign of optimism of an brighter future.

The poem does not have any obvious structure. It really is an 82 lined poem of free verse. It is not divided into any stanzas which is therefore ongoing but there exists a huge use of punctuation markings to break this continuality. This is very obvious through lines 78 and 79. 'The waves were inactive; the tides were in their grave, /The moon, their mistress, acquired expir'd before;' These recurring breaks portray the disturbance of he natural stream of aspect and life during this catastrophe hitting the world. In addition they help differ the build and acceleration of the poem. At the start it is slow-moving and calm showing the gloom of the world, then fast and chaotic and finally slow and peaceful again to portray the doom overtaking the planet earth.

Nature is also at a standstill and relatively lifeless as the lightless world. 'The winds were wither'd in the stagnant air/ Along with the clouds perish'd' and 'The rivers, lakes and ocean all stood still/ And little or nothing stirr'd within their silent depths'. It seems nature too has "died" due to the disappearance of light.

Byron uses a lot of interesting words to expose the clean gloom and doom he encounters in the events of the poem. The poem itself is centred on the disappearance of light from the earth. Words which highlight this theme are, 'swung blind blackened flat gloom' In addition, the light is referred to as 'despairing'. Quite simply, it is really as if it is non existent. Fear is also open as he speaks of how it has overcome individuals and exactly how even the toughest of pets were 'tame and tremulous'. Onomatopoeic words such as 'shrieked', 'gnashed', 'howled', 'hissing', express the sounds. The actual fact that there are a great deal of noises creates a certain degree of chaos. Furthermore, the sound of the forests' 'crackling' as people make an effort to make flames to light shows the desperation.

The main image in this part is that of mankind turning into beasts due to the desperation to find light. 'the wildest brutes/ Arrived tame and tremulous' The more frightening animals are also consumed by dread to the point that they started out to present no threat and instead the humans became the monstrous ones. Images used to improve this are, 'vipers crawl'd Hissing, but stingless--they were slain for food' The vipers which were now safe were being 'slain'. The term slain puts an focus on the cruelty now eating the humans.

The images found in Darkness can also be associated with apocalyptic images used in the bible. Matthew 24:29 reads, "immediately after the distress of these days, sunlight will be darkened, and the moon won't give its light; the actors will show up from the sky, and the heavenly physiques will be shaken. ' That is just like Byron's imagery of, 'The glowing sun was extinguish'd, and the stars/ Have wander darkling in the eternal space, Rayless, and pathless, and the icy earth/ Swung blind and blackening in the moonless air'. Within the desolation and men becoming beasts Byron gives, 'there was no love left' which may be a mention of Matthew 24:19, 'And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold. '

The disturbance in the peacefulness is improved when the writer states, 'And Warfare, which for a moment was no more/ Performed glut himself again: meals was bought/ With bloodstream' This shows that war got arisen again with man fighting and killing each other simply for food. This can be set alongside the war described in Jerusalem by William Blake. First of all, a feeling of evil of the unjust is also viewed in Wordsworth's poem. The 'dark satanic mills' the poet describes are a reference to the mills and factories built during the Industrial Revolution leading to all the communal unrest which he protested against. The term 'satanic' fully highlights how Blake views the mills as sinister because of the unjust way staff were being cared for.

In another stanza he talks of gathering up biceps and triceps to be able to fight the evil helped bring forth by the mills. Alternatively, as it happens the battle he identifies is more of the mental combat for he says, 'I will not cease from mental deal with, / Nor shall my sword rest in my hand/ Till we have built Jerusalem/ In England's inexperienced and pleasant land. ' In place, Jerusalem is an instrument in restoring peacefulness and tranquillity in England. The poem itself is more of your call to the British visitors to rally resistant to the iniquitous acts done to them scheduled to Industrial Revolution. It also gives a sense of hopefulness that flexibility and harmony can be restored to the people.

In compare, Lord Byron's poem does not speak of anticipation that in the end light which is seen from the previous line, 'Darkness got no need/ Of aid from them--She was the World. ' This range is as if to say nothing at all can save the people from the cruel end they may have subdued themselves onto by their immoral works. Darkness is finally personified and the fact tat it is compared to the universe shows the great level to which darkness has bought out the entire world.

Chapter 5: The Symbols of Light and Fireplace in both Texts

Symbolism is an essential literary tool used to mention different announcements and present ideas and feelings to the reader. The main symbol in the texts is the sign of light. In Frankenstein light symbolises knowledge and finding. This is first illustrated when Richard Walton asks, 'What could not be expected in the united states of eternal light?' Walton is obviously vey optimistic about achieving the north pole and looks frontward to the enlightenment which is brought forth by the voyage. The light is a good object both Walter and Frankenstein try to reach in the hopes of attaining knowledge and enlightenment.

Lord Byron uses light to represent life and the balance between characteristics and the human race. It also symbolizes morality and discretion of man. The disappearance of light means, firstly, the increased loss of morality of individuals, ' men forgot their passions in the dread/ Of this their desolation' Secondly, a rest in the balance with men turning into beasts and beasts becoming 'tame'. The outcome is chaos, gloom and the damage of nature. This is exactly what the darkness signifies in the poem; consequences of man's lack of morality. Likewise, the scene arranged for the starting of Chapter five of Shelley's booklet is dull and cold occurring under 'half-extinguished light' giving a foreboding aftereffect of the results of Frankenstein's work.

Fire is a far more dangerous version of light which is often created by man. Although open fire provides light it also can burn and causes pain as learned by the monster while he was by himself in the forest in Section 11. 'How peculiar, I thought that the same cause should produce such opposing effects. '

Normally, to make a fire there has to be a spark. Frankenstein gathers his materials and then infuses 'a spark to be into the lifeless thing' This 'spark' could symbolise the starting of a dangerous hearth.

In Darkness, the disappearance of light causes the world to be 'void/ a lump' quite simply, a clear place. This brings about people becoming desperate for light and they try to create their own light, 'The habitations of most things which dwell/ Were burnt for beacons Forests were placed on open fire'. The desperation only triggers more damage as they eliminate nature by establishing it to fire all in the search of light.

The icon is further increased through the entire name of Mary Shelley's Booklet which is, Frankenstein: Or the present day Prometheus. In context, the Greek God Prometheus was assigned by Zeus, the god of the sky and the ruler of the Greek gods, to create man out of drinking water and Earth. However, up against the requests of Zeus, he gives man the data of flame. He was then seriously punished because of this deed and defying Zeus when you are linked with a stake where every day an eagle came up to eat his liver.

Victor Frankenstein can be compared to Prometheus, as his attempt to acquire more knowledge for himself and mankind only brought dire consequences resulting in the deaths of the methods he treasured. Though he didn't give fire to mankind he gave the gift idea of the secret of life, 'the spark of being' but withal it still remains undiscovered precisely what this spark is really. Much like Prometheus defying Zeus, Frankenstein will try to defy God and he too is punished for it.

CONCLUSION

Romantic freelance writers prided themselves with being individuals and Mary Shelley and Lord Byron clearly pay testament to that. These two text messages are very unique though there are a few similarities the primary one being the ability of the authors to warn of the future.

Other freelance writers vey well known woks which waned of nov mankind

In Frankenstein, the monster is basically an unnatural being. The approaching to life of the monster brings an aftermath of death and destruction. Furthermore the stress which Frankenstein activities could be an illustration of the anguish mankind will suffer from scheduled to these methodical advances. The usage of religion i. e. the defiance of God in Frankenstein and apocalyptic imagery in Darkness further enhance their warnings.

The question is. were the Loving writers right? The answer is yes. The globe has modified with wars and global warming, terrorism, problem and tremendous poverty being just some of the troubles of the world.

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