How Charles Dickens Depicts Women

Dickens and his view towards women- Could it be really improve?

The Victorian Age is an interval of great progress in multiple domains such as industry, trade, books and so forth. The role of ladies in society also upgraded noticeably and many regulations were approved safeguarding their privileges during this get older. By fin de siècle, the idea of a "New Woman" exists. Charles Dickens is one of the very most famous novelists during this era as his novels were read widespread by the general populace. His works always favoured progression of the working category, and the consequences of industrial revolution like in "Hard Times". But his portrayal of ladies in his works easily are categorized as the Victorian stereotypes of women which aspect does not really portray him as a intensifying writer for females. David Holbrook, in "Charles Dickens and the Image of Women", says

"when it emerged to the issues of man-woman romantic relationship, he (Dickens) was seriously hampered, not only by the behaviour of his get older but also by his own psychological makeup and psychic pattern" (Holbrook, 1993. Section 7, Pg. 172)

To create this, I am going to analyse Dickens' "Great Targets" and try out figure sketches of the women portrayed in that novel. The explanation for choosing this specific novel is due to the actual fact that it was rather popular before publishing and it has different types of women heroes provided in the novel. This book is also highly controversial as it offers two endings because the general populace had not been satisfied with the original ending and Dickens needed to rewrite it to please his audience.

"Great Expectations" practices the protagonist Pip and it chronicles his life. The book could be even regarded as a bildungsroman. Pip encounters various types of ladies in society and his interactions and perspective of these women gives a clear idea of Dickens' attitude towards these women. The type Pip and Dickens talk about a whole lot of similarities- for example, Dickens daddy was imprisoned and the theme of prison runs strong in "Great Expectations", Pip and Dickens did not have good connections with women and so forth. The ladies of "Great Objectives" can be placed into categories but these categories aren't particular as some personas can be a mix of two or more categories. These categories are the following: The angels of the home, the eccentric women, and the independent women.

The Angel of the house is the idealised stereotype of a Victorian Woman and exactly how she should behave. This idea was popularized by Coventry Patmore's poem, "The angel of the house" where he details his partner as an angel who takes care of the household. She actually is a person who is meek and doesn't task the power of the household leader, the man. She actually is subservient to him and fulfils his wants with the most devotion. She actually is also someone who upholds moral worth such as truth, charity and purity. That is the type of woman that the Victorian modern culture and many creators preferred. Some would say Dickens himself preferred these sorts of characters and usually, they have a good finishing, like the titular personality in "Little Dorrit".

In "Great Expectations", the role of the "Angel of the home" is adopted by Biddy. Biddy is the years as a child friend of Pip, the protagonist of "Great Objectives" who seems to take on the mantle of a kind and nurturing mother. The first information of this identity sometimes appears in Chapter 7, when Pip would go to Mr. Wopsle's great aunt to study in her nighttime school. It really is here he matches Biddy, who handles the shop which Mr. Wopsle's great aunt goes.

"She was an orphan like myself; like me, too, had been brought up by hand. She was most notable, I thought, according of her extremities; for, her locks always wanted cleaning, her hands always required cleansing, and her shoes always sought mending and tugging up at heel. "(Chapter 7, Pg. 76)

From the aforementioned description, it is clear that Pip did not have that most of a respect towards Biddy, though they were similar in being "brought up yourself". She was only a regular commoner, regarding to Pip. In Section 10, Biddy commonly agrees to teach Pip everything she is aware of. She is also described as the "most obliging of women" which is one of the attributes of the "Angel of the house". When Mrs. Joe gets harmed by Orlick, Biddy is brought in to manage her which instantly helps relieve some stress around family members. Biddy seems to be experienced in caring for other people, as she's been caring for Mr. Wopsle's great aunt throughout her life. That is also another feature of the "Angel of the house". By Chapter 17, Pip's view of Biddy changes and he views Biddy as more female and quite, though not on par with the gorgeous Estella.

"Her shoes came up up at the heel, her wild hair grew excellent and cool, her hands were always clean. She was not beautiful - she was common, and could not be like Estella - but she was enjoyable and wholesome and sweet-tempered. " (Chapter 17, Pg. 222)

Biddy is also intellectually similar or better than Pip as she handles to maintain with him in intellectual pursuits and manage the domestic household chores. "In a nutshell, whatever I understood, Biddy recognized. " (Chapter 17, Pg. 222) But she always remains humble rather than pleased, which is how a perfect Victorian female would react. She also acts the role of the confidante and consoler to Pip as he confesses the feelings he previously harboured for Estella to her and his wish to become a gentleman.

"Biddy was the wisest of females, and she tried out to reason no more with me at night. She put her palm, which was a comfortable hands though roughened by work, after my hands, one after another, and gently had taken them out of my hair. Then she softly patted my shoulder in a soothing way" (Chapter 17, Pg. 229-230)

When Biddy and Pip enter an argument, she gets accused of being jealous and it is her who apologises. Also in Chapter 35, when Mrs. Joe dies, they get into another argument and in the end she says, "let only me be harm, easily have been ungenerous. " This is similar to Amy Dorrit's behavior in "Little Dorrit" when she gets scolded by her father for not getting combined with the gatekeeper's kid to provide him a far more comfortable life. This is also another feature which was expected of the "Angel of the home", where the woman is subservient to the person and has no right to confront him for his misdeeds or wrongdoings, but instead apologise even if they weren't at fault. In section 58, Biddy finally gets her happy finishing by marrying Joe Gargery, the good Samaritan. She is also really the only female character to get a proper happy stopping unlike Estella (in the initial closing), Ms. Havisham or Mrs. Joe.

It is evident that Dickens favours Biddy and the sort of girl she portrays more than the others. She might be unconsciously modelled after Mary Hogarth, his first wife, who according to David Holbrook in "Charles Dickens and the Image of Women", is

"worshipped by him (Dickens) as the epitome of ideal womanhood. Throughout his life he appeared to need to idolize this type of dedicated sister body like Agnes in David Copperfield and Rose Maylie in Oliver Twist- angelically beautiful, dedicated, inspiring, and the object of real admiration"( Holbrook, 1993. Section 7, Pg. 168)

Though Biddy is not angelically beautiful, she actually is angelic in quality and she earns the admiration of the audience and later Pip himself. The other persona who also are categorized as this category is Clara Barley who marries Herbert Pocket after her abusive father's loss of life and also has a happy finishing.

The Eccentric women categorises women who do not are categorized as the stereotypical categories Victorians imposed on women. They are usually portrayed as mystical, dark, cruel, cool and cunning. Also, they are beautiful women who take on the role of seductress and tempt the virtuous men into committing adultery or simply serve as objects of temptation. They are also associated with criminality- usually portrayed as murderers or in any role which is not "morally right". In "Great Expectations", there are extensive eccentric women- the most noteworthy ones are Ms. Havisham and Estella (who'll be dealt with later as she comes under two categories). Ms. Havisham is one of the stranger personas Dickens has created and she could be set alongside the "Wicked Witch of the West". She is first uncovered in Section 8, when she awaits Pip's entrance to be Estella's playmate. Pip is carefully spooked by her, as observed in his description of her in her wedding dress and assessing her to a ghastly waxwork and a skeleton.

"Once, I had been taken up to see some ghastly waxwork at the Good, representing I know not what impossible personage lying in condition. Once, I have been taken up to one of your old marsh churches to see a skeleton in the ashes of any rich dress, that were dug out of your vault under the church pavement. Now, waxwork and skeleton appeared to have dark eyes that shifted and looked at me. I will have cried out, if I could. " (Chapter 8, Pg. 100)

Her relationships with Pip portray her to be cracked and melancholic but daunting at exactly the same time. The lingering aroma of death and decay ornamented her every move and action which influences Pip to such an scope that he hallucinates Ms. Havisham clinging from a beam.

"I observed a figure suspending there by the neck. A physique all in yellow white, with but one footwear to your feet; and it hung so, that I possibly could see that the faded trimmings of clothes were like earthy paper, and that the face was Miss Havisham's, with a movement going over the complete countenance as if she were seeking to call to me. " (Chapter 8, Pg. 112)

Holbrook, in "Charles Dickens and the Image of Women", compares the hallucination of Pip as representing the loss of life of the female component, in Dickens himself. It shows just how much Dickens has his views on women improved scheduled to his personal experiences with women throughout his life.

"This is merely the sort of nightmare dream one might expect a delicate and imaginative childlike Pip to obtain. But it also belongs to the overall symbolism of the remarkable poem- and in this it is the image of "female component being" gone inactive: emotions gone inactive, sexuality gone useless, and creativity gone lifeless. So, it can be an image characteristic of the Victorian predicament. The clinging figure Pip considers is the fatality of potentia- in Pass up Havisham, in himself, and in Dickens himself. " (Holbrook, 1993. Section 5, Pg. 137)

Pip's information of Ms. Havisham during Section 11 reiterates the theory that she is the Wicked Witch of the West. "In her other hand she experienced a crutch-headed stick which she leaned, and she looked like the Witch of the area. " (Chapter 11, Pg. 148) Ms. Havisham's interactions with her friends seem chilly and concise as she walks around the room with Pip and exchanges small talk to them. It is apparent that Ms. Havisham exudes a cold and melancholic aura as she compares herself with the rotten cake, the so-called "heap of decay".

Ms. Havisham is also been shown to be manipulative as she poses as a fake benefactor for Pip to get Sarah Pocket jealous in Chapter 19. When Herbert narrates the storyline of Ms. Havisham to Pip in Section 22, she is been shown to be a spoiled child so when she was grown up, a happy and haughty woman who didn't trust or be based upon anyone. When she fell in love with Compeyson, she experienced loved him passionately however when she received jilted, her passion considered fury and laid wrath upon the home and her life. What the book doesn't portray or highlight is that her being spoiled and haughty is due to her upbringing and her sadness and harm at shedding her enthusiast whom she acquired cherished so passionately is merely glossed after as only a recovery from a "bad illness". Ms. Havisham's desire for revenge is highlighted in section 29 as she greedily urges Pip to love Estella. Her take on love has been skewered by her jilted lover and today she desires the same fate upon others merely to see them put up with like she does.

"'I'll let you know, ' said she, in the same hurried ardent whisper, 'what real love is. It really is blind devotion, unquestioning self-humiliation, utter submission, trust and perception against yourself and against the whole world, giving up your whole core to the smiter - as I did!'" (Section 29, Pg. 425-426)

But Ms. Havisham's greatest possession and success aka Estella becomes a cold-hearted woman who is not capable of loving anyone, including Ms. Havisham herself. Their debate during Chapter 38 shows the amount of Estella has become estranged and indifferent to Ms. Havisham and her own satisfaction and happiness has converted against her.

"'So very pleased, so very pleased!' moaned Pass up Havisham, driving away her greyish hair with both her hands. 'Who educated me to be very pleased?' delivered Estella. 'Who praised me as i learnt my lessons?' 'So hard, so difficult!' moaned Neglect Havisham, with her past action. 'Who trained me to be hard?' returned Estella. 'Who praised me when I learnt my lesson?' 'But to be happy and hard to me!' Neglect Havisham quite shrieked, as she extended her forearms. 'Estella, Estella, Estella, to be proud and hard if you ask me!'" (Chapter 38, Pg. 543-544)

This shows Ms. Havisham's anguish over getting rid of Estella, the only real relationship which she actively participated after being jilted by her fan. It is Estella whom she let into her deep and crooked heart and it is through Estella and Pip that she regains some human feelings like regret. In Chapter 44, when Pip confesses to Estella and gets his center broken, Ms. Havisham's reactions are short and abrupt but it showcases her remorse and the sense of guilt at what she has done. She identifies with Pip and realises that Pip is the same as her now- with a damaged heart, which is all because of her. Though her designs succeeded, she does not derive any pleasure or comfort from it.

Ms. Havisham is a significant complex character, numerous flaws described more than positive points in the novel. Holbrook says, "Ms. Havisham has been blighted psychologically just at this time of intimate flowering, and her bodily life within an ancient bridal wedding dress symbolizes psychic paralysis. " (Holbrook, Section 5, Pg. 133) and identifies this characteristic of Ms. Havisham to Dickens' own anxieties of adoring and related schizoid problems of identity. She is a female fixated with one goal at heart but realizes that she is harming others just like others acquired harmed her later in the book and seeks forgiveness. She has a moment of realization and though she spent years of her life rotting away in the Satis house, she leads an independent life with the amount of money provided by her daddy. Ideally, she'd not suit the feature of an independent woman or the "New Female" but she does have the underlying characteristics of an unbiased woman, only when the circumstances were better, she might have developed into one of the strong-willed women who would come in the later Victorian Age group.

Before focussing on Estella, other minimal characters which are categorized as this category will be Mrs. Joe Gargery and Molly, Estella's mom. Mrs. Joe is well known for bringing up Pip "by hand". She actually is introduced in detail in Chapter 2 where the first physical feature which is highlighted is her beauty.

"She had not been a good-looking woman, my sister; and I possessed an over-all impression that she will need to have made Joe Gargery marry her yourself. " (Section 2, Pg. 11)

"My sister, Mrs. Joe, with dark-colored hair and sight, acquired such a prevailing redness of skin i sometimes used to ponder whether it was possible she washed herself with a nutmeg-grater rather than soap. She was large and bony, and almost always wore a coarse apron, fastened over her shape behind with two loops, and getting a square impregnable bib in front, that was jammed full of pins and fine needles. " (Section 2, Pg. 11-12)

Mrs. Joe is just like her apron- coarse, impregnable or rather immovable, and was as prickly as those pins and needles stuck on her behalf bib. She is described as a violent girl and she uses the so-called tickler to dish out corporal abuse for Pip. She seems to be the energy of the Gargery house somewhat than Joe himself, as he doesn't stop her from whatever she desires to do or say. All her connections with Pip will often have a violent undertone- for example, before mailing Pip off to Ms. Havisham's house, she offers him a good scrubbing which is unpleasant for Pip to state the least. She also matches a violent end when she actually is attacked by Orlick in section 15 and by section 16, she has lost her hearing, could hardly see and has become crippled. They are the things that are outlined in the novel.

What is not highlighted is the fact Mrs. Joe were required to look after the entire home after her parents passed on, had to survive the deaths of her five brothers and possessed to manage a child who's twenty years more radiant than her. She also were required to shoulder family members responsibilities and interpersonal relationships with others. These areas of Mrs. Joe aren't shown in the novel and in the end, she is rendered as a crippled girl who is looked after Biddy. She finally passes away in Section 34, and in Chapter 35, she also turns into a ghostly existence which haunts the protagonist Pip as he makes his way to the funeral back again to Joe's forge and the rest of the novel with the theme of murder and assault.

The other persona which falls under this eccentric woman category is Molly, the murderess who tries to kill her own little princess. She actually is a docile and obedient servant of Mr. Jaggers, but she's an infamous former and is the birth-mother of Estella. She is saved from the gallows by Mr. Jaggers and lives with him as a servant. Not much is known about her legal past and she actually is twisted with an air of dangerous puzzle. Holbrook identifies Molly as,

"a female with strong muscles hidden under petiteness and a female capable of great cruelty and perhaps murder. She is the feminine annihilating amount Freud called the castrating mom" (Holbrook, 1993. Section 5, Pg. 138)

Though Molly is not considering that much of an importance in the novel, she symbolizes the theme of murder and guilt, which appears to contaminate every persona in the book- including Estella, who is the daughter of an murderess and a convict. Estella is the final access in the eccentric female category but she does not confine herself to just this category. Estella is also unveiled in section 8 and she brings the light into Pip's dark life.

"To stand in the dark in a mystical passage of an mysterious house, bawling Estella to a scornful young lady neither obvious nor reactive, and sense it a dreadful liberty to roar out her name, was almost as bad as participating in to order. But, she answered at last, and her light came along the dark passage like a celebrity. Pass up Havisham beckoned her to come close, and took up a jewel from the table, and tried its effect upon her fair young bosom and against her lovely brown wild hair. " (Section 8, Pg. 103-104)

She is compared with a celebrity or a jewel throughout the book and these symbolize Estella to be smart, precious and significantly out of reach. Though she actually is mean to Pip and shows only contempt and disdain for him, she still manages to entrance Pip with her wintry demeanour and her beauty, much like what sort of seductress traps her sufferer with her charms. She actually is recognized to be cold-hearted and cruel, but she does display symptoms of emotion as observed in the landscape where she allows Pip to kiss her cheek.

"But, she neither asked me where I have been, nor why I had formed kept her longing; and there is a bright remove after her face, as though something had occurred to joy her. Instead of going straight to the gate, too, she stepped back into the passing, and beckoned me. 'Come here! You might kiss me, if you like. ' I kissed her cheek as she flipped it to me. " (Chapter 11, Pg. 162)

What is interesting to note is the fact Estella is delighted by an act of violence, even before any thoughts of criminality is being associated with her. This could be foreshadowing or reiterating by Dickens showing Estella's roots- her criminal parents. By section 22, Herbert establishes Estella's purpose in life or the reason of her being raised by Ms. Havisham and that is to break young men's hearts.

Also, when Pip returns to the Satis house to see Estella once she's a grown woman in Chapter 29, she pretends she doesn't bear in mind Pip or some of their childhood relationships which deeply injured Pip. She also points out the location where Pip experienced seen the ghost in his childhood. That is a conflicting behavior of Estella and she probably achieved it to dig deep into the marks of Pip so that he may keep in mind her more vividly as Pip becomes emotionally injured when Estella pretends never to remember him. That scene is also important as it brings about more foreshadowing. Matching to Holbrook, this scene shows the implicit connection to Estella and her roots.

"The connection between Estella and the ghost is ambiguous. In one sense, Pip is sensing her roots: her mom was the mysterious murderess who wished to wipe out her own child. In the backdrop too is her daddy Magwitch, the unlawful, who is convinced his child to be inactive. The shadow is of murder by the girl murderer and of the kid by being empty (by rejecting the mother and father). " (Holbrook, 1993. Chapter 5, Pg. 138)

As Estella matures, she remains in her role of being the object of desire and she makes other men jealous using Pip. As for Pip himself, she warns him multiple times that she's a cold-hearted person. This could be her manipulating him further or she might genuinely value him- it isn't clear. This ambiguity is attached to Estella till the chapter where Pip confesses his love on her behalf.

"'You ridiculous young man, ' said Estella, 'will you never take caution? Or do you kiss my submit the same nature in which I once enable you to kiss my cheek?' 'What soul was that?' said I. 'I must think an instant. A nature of contempt for the fawners and plotters. ' 'If I say yes, may I kiss the cheek again?'" (Chapter 33, Pg. 475)

When she rejects Pip, she does indeed so with a chilly demeanour. She does not express her thoughts, which is what sort of Victorian girl should be, and it further accentuates how Dickens uses this trope because of this scene in an ironic way. Even while a child, Estella possessed more emotion than when she was raised as she became unmoved by everything around her, including others' feelings. Furthermore, she says Pip that she is going to marry Drummle by her own decision, just to probably spite everyone, including Ms. Havisham. Only Pip's pleas on her behalf never to marry Drummle brings about a softer reaction in her. This eventually brings about Estella being abused by her hubby and with regards to the two endings, she either gets remarried and still unsatisfied or she eventually ends up having a future with the possibility of marrying Pip. Both of these endings lead to significantly different fates for Estella.

Dickens' original ending shows Estella reformed by her suffering- she's remarried but she still holds herself in high regard and superiority. In the next ending, she actually is a lot more humbled and reformed by her fighting. John Forster, who was simply Dickens' friend, experienced the original ending was "more steady with the draft, as well as the natural training of the story. "[1] George Bernard Shaw says that the novel is "too serious a book to be a trivially happy one. Its starting is disappointed; its midsection is disappointed; and the conventional happy ending can be an outrage onto it. "[2] Also, the next ending was constructed and then please the audience who required a typical end compared to that novel with relationship. The second closing pleases the modern day critics more as they believe that the two character types have endured enough to finally get their happy stopping. Martin Price argues by expressing, "Each is a fantasist who is continuing to grow into maturity; each is a fantasist that has dwindled into humanity. "[3]

But Estella also has a good role, corresponding to Holbrook. He says, she is the beginning of Pip's ambitions which is true, though it leads him to more pain and fighting than his apprenticed life with Joe and Biddy. But he finally learns his devote life and it is content with what he has through this harrowing experience. He says,

"Yet, along with his characteristic and marvellous notion in human creativeness and perspective, Dickens makes Estella an ideas for Pip. Although she cannot yet understand, and seems untouched by, the reparative impulse (the caring impulse, which, through its hurting, could cure schizoid alienation), she gives Pip's world meaning. She arrives the passages like a star: she actually is the Stella Maris. " (Holbrook, 1993. Chapter 5, Pg. 140)

Estella may also be considered a strong self-employed woman towards the finish. She has endured and in consequence, humbled herself and realises how to love (at least in the second ending). She actually is no longer a bright shining celebrity who's out of reach but a solid independent woman who have gotten rid of her demons and living life anew.

Dickens himself is not against women or empowering women as he was quite sympathetic towards the thought of property rights, that was the heart of the issue during the 1850's. But that applied and then the working women and not the "powerful women" like Ms. Havisham. In "Great Expectations", Ms. Havisham's house is offered to Estella, who is the adopted daughter, which is hers regarding as she pleases. This isn't the original primogeniture practice which is usually used through the Victorian Age and it is met with uncomfortableness by Dickens. Deborah Wynne, in "Women and Personal Property in the Victorian Book", says

"when women do take control of significant amounts of property and its transmission, as Pass up Havisham will, the destructive characteristics of their legacies are usually emphasized. When forceful women of property, owners of real real estate, create for themselves an area which is inaccessible to male control, such as Betsy Trotwood, Mrs. Clennam or Miss Havisham, it is shown to be vulnerable to loss or destruction, as if Dickens half thought what English laws presumed: that girls had a tendency to be inadequate managers of their own property" (Wynne, 2010. Chapter 2, Pg. 58)

He favoured the working women and women who were destitute like prisoners and prostitutes. He exposed a home for the "fallen women" called Urania cottage along with Neglect Angela Burdett-Coutts. Jane Rogers, in "Dickens and his engagement in Urania Cottage", says

"Neglect Coutts and Dickens planned a Home that could provide a different and even more sympathetic method of the treatment of fallen women. Other organisations such as the Magdelen Society had homes which offered a typically severe and punishing regime. " (Rogers, 2003. Pg. 1)

This Urania house was a reformation centre for these "fallen women" to get back a proper put in place the Victorian culture, which still oppressed women into traditional jobs. Corresponding to Jenny Hartley, in "Undertexts and Intertexts: THE LADIES of Urania Cottage, Secrets and Little Dorrit", Dickens concerned himself with everything the women of the cottage do, including that they spend their amount of time in the house. It really is quite clear that though Dickens was very progressive in his thinking, when it came up to women, he was still confined by society and its own rules. Coupled with his bad experience with ladies in true to life, his imaginary women characters came up to represent that which was hidden away in his brain- his anxieties and regrets and personal insecurities brought on by the population and his relationships.

By analysing the type sketches of the ladies of "Great Targets" and Dickens' personal life, it is clear that Dickens is very conflicted when it comes to this issue of women. He prefers certain sorts of women like Biddy, who will be the working class and little angels of the house, and as for the other women, these are subjected to hardships and punishments for their transgressions. Though he didn't make his feminine characters as unbiased like Nora Roberts from "A Doll's House" by Henrik Ibsen, his people like Estella or Ms. Havisham still keep some part to be an independent woman, though it is obscured by their eccentricity. So, Dickens, in a way, is a copy writer who is inhibited by his personal life which narrows his views on women. Usually, he's a progressive writer who acknowledges the cultural constraints induced by the culture.

Works Cited:

Dickens, C. (1851). Great Goals. 1st ed. [ebook] Globe PDF. Available at: http://www. planetpublish. com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Great_Expectations_NT. pdf [Accessed 28 Dec. 2016].

Hartley, J. (2005). Critical Survey. 1st ed. [ebook] Berghahn Catalogs, pp. 63-76. Offered by: https://www. jstor. org/stable/pdf/41556108. pdf [Accessed 4 Jan. 2017].

Holbrook, D. (1993). Charles Dickens and the image of female. 1st ed. NY: New York School Press.

Rogers, J. (2003). Dickens and his involvement in Urania Cottage. [online] Victorianweb. org. Offered by: http://www. victorianweb. org/authors/dickens/rogers/8. html [Seen 1 Jan. 2017].

Wynne, D. (2010). Women and personal property in the Victorian book. 1st ed. Farnham, Surrey, Great britain: Ashgate Pub.

Academic. brooklyn. cuny. edu. (2017). The Stopping of "Great Expectations". [online] Offered by: http://academic. brooklyn. cuny. edu/english/melani/novel_19c/dickens/ending. html [Accessed 3 Jan. 2017].

[1] Each one of these three insurance quotes are taken from "The Closing of "Great Anticipations"

[2]

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