It's easy to observe the expansive reach of the Twilight saga. For starters, this can be a cash-cow. Up to now, the four e book series has sold approximately 85 million copies (Grossman) and has said the top four spots on USA Today's year-end bestseller list for the years 2008 and 2009 (Minzesheimer and DeBarros, Sellers;'Twilight' Sweeps). Twilight saga products - though bought from multiple retail outlets - single-handedly brought retailer Hot Subject matter back from the depths of economical gloom and doom in 2008 (Odell). The film version of Twilight grossed $380 million at the box office (more than 10 times what it cost to create) before generating over $3 million in Disc sales on its first day of release (Armstrong) while New Moon performed better still - getting more than $700 million worldwide before it's Dvd and blu-ray release in March 2010 ("The Twilight Saga: New Moon"). Beyond the monetary impact, the series inspires Beatlemania-type fanaticism among its growing, mainly female, fan-base. Do a Google search for "Twilight fansite, " and you will get almost 1. 2 million profits. Furthermore, a November 10, 2008 scheduled appearance in SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA by Robert Pattinson (the actor portraying ALICE CULLEN in the film version of Twilight) was cancelled after he was swarmed by fans. The melee also resulted in a broken nostril for one admirer, while another lost awareness ("News from WENN"). Pattinson made the following remarks about the impassioned Twilight fandom: "People know my name, ambush me in public, try to find out what hotel I'm residing at, ask me to bite them and want to touch my mane. It feels surreal" (Bell).
These are but a few cases that demonstrate the large impact the Twilight saga is wearing audiences. The common audience response might cause some to think about just what it is approximately Twilight that appeals very much to fans. There are others, like myself, who have chosen to question the impact the Twilight narrative may have on readers' - specifically female visitors' - perceptions of culture. While there are many areas of the Twilight narrative being debated by enthusiasts and critics likewise, topics of patriarchy and misogyny are of particular interest (Mann; Myers; McClimans and Wisnewski; Housel).
The Twilight Saga is Just Entertainment, Right? Why Should We Treatment?
Before we can enter a proper examination about the impact of patriarchal and misogynistic topics in Twilight, it's first important to comprehend why we'd want to investigate an artifact of popular culture in any way. An older academics view situates popular texts like the Twilight saga as "low" fine art, or produced in higher quantities schlock meant to dupe unsophisticated audiences, like us, into passivity (Horkheimer and Adorno; Benjamin). Postmodern ethnic studies scholars, however, see popular culture as an element of mass culture (Storey, Social Theory), or the ideals and ideas that users of a contemporary society form from common contact with the same ethnic activities, communications mass media, music and artwork, etc. Thus, evaluating popular culture texts exposes the way they are used assert social beliefs upon others (Barthes). Female-targeted popular culture artifacts - like the Twilight saga - are sites that are specially worthy of exam given that they place the female/feminine experience at the forefront of advertising critique (McRobbie and McCabe; Modleski; Radway; Ang; Mellencamp). The central concern of feminist marketing analyses is to look at patriarchal ideology as it relates to power and company in world (Baumgardner and Richards; Durham; Storey, An Launch; van Zoonen). Analyzing texts through a feminist lens can serve as a way of exposing and critiquing patriarchy in popular media and, along the way, help to liberate audiences from traditional, stereotypical representations (Durham). It is also a way to understand the idea of gender as a interpersonal construction, and posits multimedia texts as critical sites for the negotiation of gender assignments.
If we read the Twilight saga directly, we would conclude so it stimulates what Cynthia Enloe message or calls a "Culture of Imminent Threat, " which she identifies as a culture "sustained by the classical patriarchal caveat that girls are in the type of danger from which only logical men can protect them" (234). One way in which the Twilight saga reinforces a "Culture of Imminent Threat" is seen in the assignments of the adult men and female heroes in the series. For example, male characters are written into jobs or occupations that reveal the role of protector. Charlie, Bella's father, is the authorities main in Forks; Carlisle Cullen, Edward's "father, " is the most visible doctor around; and Billy Dark colored, Jacob's dad, is a Quileute tribe elder. Meanwhile, the female personas in Twilight, are symbolically annihilated - that is they can be essentially trivialized and either "symbolized as child-like adornments who need to be protected or they can be dismissed to the protective confines of the home" (Tuchman 8). The role of Bella's mother, Renee, is muted throughout the storyline - we realize only that she has decided to follow her new partner to spring training camp in Florida and this she is "childlike" and "harebrained" (Meyer, Twilight 4). Before Renee remarried, Bella saw herself as her mother's caretaker. Esme, Edward's "mother" is also superficially offered. As the matriarch of the Cullen clan, she actually is characterized only by "her potential to love passionately" and her strong "mothering intuition" (Meyer, Twilight 307, 368). Bella, too, has been seen by some as slipping sufferer to symbolic annihilation. Inside the discussion matter "Bella, is she an undesirable influence for teenagers?" on the TwilightMoms. com supporter site, for example, fans express concern that Bella is a "weak" character because she perceives herself less beautiful than Edward, less wise, and clumsier than everyone else. Bella, because she actually is the vulnerable and vulnerable one, is at continuous need of health care and security - she actually is dependent after Edward for success.
Indeed, we see what happens to Bella when she is discontinued by the protective impact of Edward - she becomes a "lost moon" (Meyer, New Moon, 201). Later, when Bella and Edward visit Renee in Eclipse, Renee remarks to Bella that her role in her romance to Edward is that of a "satellite, or something" (Meyer, Eclipse, 68). A satellite tv can be known as any object that moves around a more substantial subject. The comparisons of Bella to a moon or other satellite television are significant given that they symbolically place Edward at the center and Bella in the periphery. This scenario illustrates Edward's role as the actor and Bella's role as the reactor in the Twilight saga. When Edward steps, so does Bella. When Edward leaves, Bella, too, investigations out. Furthermore, it implies that the orbiter is the least valuable one in the relationship. Take, for example, the Earth's romance to sunlight. The Earth - as a support system for human being life - is important in its own right, however the Sun has far more importance. Without sunlight, the planet earth is annihilated. Without Edward, Bella is annihilated.
There are those who think Bella is a wuss. You will discover those who think my reviews are misogynistic-the damsel in stress must be rescued by strong hero I am not anti-female, I am anti-human. I had written this report from the perspective of a lady man because that arrived most effortlessly, as you might imagine. But if the narrator have been a male man, it would not have changed the incidents. When a man is completely surrounded by animals with supernatural power, speed, senses, and various other uncanny capabilities, they're not going to be able to hold his or her own. Sorry. That's just the way it is. We can not all be slayers. Bella does pretty well I believe, with that said (Meyer, The Story).
I'm ready to buy Meyer's reason - to an extent. But, just because the Twilight saga narrative is set against a backdrop of dream does not mean its capacities for reinforcing the oppressive ideology that exists in our real-world go unrealized. For example, Bella only becomes "strong" by conforming to the masculine standard help with by Edward (that is, by learning to be a vampire). Naturally, Edward cannot reverse himself to his individuals form, however when Bella changes for Edward, it legitimizes a longstanding social norm of women modifying their desires to support those of her male spouse. Much like the "satellite" analogy, this aspect of the Twilight saga features Edward's superiority over Bella.
Edward Is The World's Best Predator, Isn't He? Everything About Him Invites You In.
When viewers buy a love novel, they are really being sold more than just the publication. The ideology of love - exemplified by lessons of gender subjectivities and erotic difference in a patriarchal framework inlayed in the patriarchal and misogynistic themes or templates present in love genre - is also for sale (Dark brown; Cooper). The love narrative of the Twilight saga educates us that if cultural order is usually to be successful and maintained, then the most notable compromises should be created by women. This lessons establishes, then, that if women wish for patriarchy to be neutralized in contemporary society they will have to be the ones to do it. We see this point of view manifested in the online reviews of several viewers - remarks that typically are critical of Bella for failing to overcome the patriarchal constraints within the Twilight saga (see for example beka; Jost; North; Seltzer; or any of the myriad of lover articles on TwilightMoms, Twilight Lexicon, and other fansites). However, women and men exist collectively in world and, consequently, any fair reading of the Twilight saga would also be considering Edward's responsibility in perpetuating oppressive ideas about gender functions in human population.
Perhaps the most deep way that Edward Cullen reinscribes an oppressive patriarchal ideology is the fact that he demonstrates the classic indications of a batterer. Many readers might disagree with my diagnosis by pointing out that Edward is determined by his extreme desire to protect Bella and he only has her needs in mind. The framing of Edward's activities as being in Bella's best interests is precisely what makes them so dangerous. This point of view normalizes and legitimizes masculine power over females for the audience.
Jealousy - Naturally, the tension between Edward and Jacob is at the forefront of the storyplot, but Edward expresses his displeasure in many of Bella's potential suitors, In Twilight, for example we could most acutely alert to his dislike for Mike Newton. Edward instructs Bella that whenever Mike asked her to the institution dance, he "was shocked by the flare of resentment, almost fury" that he noticed (Meyer, Twilight 303). Edward is amazed by his emotions, remarking that jealousy is "so much more powerful that I would have thought. And irrational!" (304).
Controlling patterns - Walker defines managing patterns as those actions that are attributed to a concern for a woman's safety and well-being. We see one example of Edward's managing habit in Twilight when he practices Bella and her friends to Port Angeles. Walker also warns that controlling behaviors are frequently manifested in the abuser's lack of determination to let a woman make personal decisions. We see Edward's controlling patterns reappear later in the same chapter when he tells Bella when she needs to eat (even though she insists that she isn't hungry), and again when Bella is recovering in the hospital in the last chapter - Edward calls for the nurse to manage pain medication to Bella even though she actually is clear that she doesn't need them (Meyer, Twilight 477). In Eclipse, Edward's attempts to regulate Bella are especially disturbing as he constantly attempts to prevent Bella from browsing Jacob. First, he disconnects the cables to her car power. Later, he manipulates Alice into participating in a kidnapping story designed to keep Bella away from La Force. When he finally agrees to let her go, he does so only when he may take her there and choose her up himself. Perhaps the most appalling example, though, is in Breaking Dawn when Edward tries to set up for an abortion for Bella without any discussion from her or her permission.
Quick participation - "Most battered women dated or realized the abuser for under six months (many for under 90 days) before they were married, living together, or engaged. An abuser comes on just like a whirlwind" (Walker). Chapter one of Twilight instructs the reader that Bella goes to Forks in January. It isn't until March that Bella and Edward opt to become "a few" (Twilight - Chapter 10). By Prom in-may, she's prepared to quit her mortality for Edward (Twilight - Epilogue). In fact, the entire story only spans 2 yrs.
Unrealistic targets - Walker characterizes unrealistic goals in terms of possessiveness and expresses that abusive people will expect their partner to meet all of their needs. At one point, Edward says Bella that he is "anxious to be away from [her], " and that he gets "distracted worrying about [her]" (Meyer Twilight 188-9). Edward is relentless in keeping Bella close to him, unrealistically worried that some great harm should come to her. Edward says Bella: "You are my life now" (314).
Blames others for feelings - "The abuser will notify the girl 'you make me mad', 'you're harming me by not doing what I tell you', 'I can't help being furious'" (Walker). The abuser is, of course, responsible for what he considers and feels, but use his feelings to control his partner. One of these of Edward performing in this manner can be found in the meadow picture in Twilight. Prior to this aspect, Edward has made his desire for Bella known, but it isn't until they are simply in the meadow that he drops his mask to show Bella the real extent of the risk he poses to her. He's frenzied as he explains all the ways that he could easily demolish her, and then blames Bella when he feels he has lost control (Meyer, Twilight 263-5). Later, when Bella and Edward kiss before meeting the rest of the Cullens for a game of football, he forcefully pulls himself from her when he manages to lose control and proclaims: "Damn it, Bella! You'll be the death of me, I swear you will" (363).
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde - Walker warns women to look out for "sudden" spirits changes in which one minute the abuser is actually nice and the next minute he's exploding. She points out that explosiveness and moodiness are typical of folks who misuse their partners since these actions can intimidate and frighten the victim and are reflections of the abuser's use of risks and manipulation to establish and maintain ability and control. The entire first part of Twilight (certainly until Bella is rescued in Interface Angeles by Edward in Chapters eight and nine) is focused on Edward's unusual behavior towards Bella that vacillates between enjoyment and pure contempt. At one point, his action causes Bella to state to Edward, "I can't match you, " and question him concerning whether he has a "multiple personality disorder" (Meyer, Twilight 84, 82). Even after Edward makes his true thoughts for Bella known and while he continues to keep his feelings in-check around Bella, he's susceptible to the occasional swing action.
Any force throughout a discord - "This may involve a batterer possessing a woman down, in physical form restraining her from giving a room, or pushing/shoving her" (Walker). In Section five of Twilight, Bella faints throughout a blood-typing exercise in her Biology course. Edward convinces the school secretary to excuse them from class so that he can escort her safely home. Bella relents, pleased to escape category, but is fully intent on seeing herself home. When Bella steps to the driver's seat of her pickup truck, Edward in physical form restrains her by pulling the trunk of her jacket, sharing with her, "Where do you think you're heading?" (Meyer, Twilight 103). Later, Bella is restrained again, this time around by Edward's "brother" Emmett (under Edward's route) as they dash to flee James following the football game. While seeking to decide how to counter James' inevitable invasion, Edward decides to adopt Bella away from Forks. When she protests, Edward purchases Emmett to secure her by her wrists and forcibly strap her into the funnel of the Jeep they are using to flee (381).
Of course, not everyone will dsicover it this way. Some will dsicover Edward as he is provided - as the perfect, romantic, doting partner - and rationalize that his activities are justified because these were enacted with Bella's needs at heart and because Edward, as a vampire, has physical and mental features that Bella, as a mortal, will not possess. But, we can not let Edward off of the hook just because he's a vampire rather than a living, breathing person. While personhood is obviously linked to mankind, Nicolas Michaud shows that one will not necessarily have to be human to be a person: "Personhood should be awarded to prospects who display certain attributes such as consciousness and self determined activity; those who display certain functions such a useful reason and affiliation should also not be refused the capability to flourish if indeed they so choose" (45). Edward's respect for the real human heart and soul, his choice to drink pet blood instead of human blood vessels, and his try to assimilate into Forks' society demonstrate his need to pass and be accepted as a person and not a vampire. Therefore, if Edward wants to take pleasure from the advantages of personhood inside our society, we have to demand of him the same expectations that people would expect from every other man in it no matter any supernatural electric power he may own.
There are those that will claim that even though Edward displays these tendencies, he will not cross the lines to become full-fledged physical abuser. However, while assault is one method where men control women and maintain their supremacy, patriarchy does not need to be enforced by using assault alone. In this case, Edward's actions create a host where Bella cannot love Edward without loathing herself. He shows that, regardless of the lay claim to the contrary, he is actually very definately not perfect. Yet, Bella still sees herself as subordinate to him. She constantly reminds the audience - and herself - that she is not good enough for Edward. Because the Bella/Edward romance is presented as fated and Edward's actions are justified as being for the good thing about Bella's basic safety, we enable Bella to respond in ways that would concern us if we noticed it manifested in others near us. We condone her continuing disregard on her behalf own personal security. We allow her to isolate herself from her family and friends. We accept her explanations on her behalf repeated accidental injuries. Bella literally gives up her life for "love. " Edward's controlling behavior in conjunction with Bella's justification of it generates a situation where the female's subordination becomes not only acceptable to viewers, but logical as well.
Can Romance Narratives be Anything But Oppressive?
The mistreatment narrative present in the Twilight saga becomes especially problematic when seen with an understanding of the romance genre. Love as a genre is generally characterized by the quest for a great heterosexual love romantic relationship between a solid, dashingly handsome, son and a beautiful, susceptible, self-sacrificing young woman (Burnett and Beto). These attributes of romance testimonies are at the forefront of the Twilight saga. While these areas of relationship can be read as contributing to the perpetuation of patriarchal ideas about gender jobs, romance may also be interpreted as the ultimate feminist genre. Catherine Asaro reminds us that the plots of all romance testimonies are centered on the wishes of the heroine; her principles are given priority and she always ends up getting what she wants. Bella spends four catalogs sharing with us, the readers, that she wants to accomplish immortality as a vampire and spend eternity with Edward while still being able to keep her best ally - and Edward's rival suitor - Jacob around. Breaking Dawn sees Bella fighting for her right to tolerate a child. She in the end achieves all of this.
Asaro also asserts that love books are unique in that they stick to the feminine gaze. Laura Mulvey's idea of the "men gaze" rests in the assumption that the audience is compelled to see the action and character types of any filmic words through the perspective of any heterosexual man. Types of its manifestation in filmic text messages have emerged in camera photographs concentrating on the curves of the female body, cleavage, or other sexualized setting of women. In romance books, however, the male form is the main one under the heaviest scrutiny - its features extolled upon in great fine detail. In fact, the female heroine is generally described with sufficient details to humanize her, while going out of enough information out of the picture so the reader might add herself into it. In Twilight, Bella frequently compares Edward to the mythical Greek god Adonis. Her information of his cosmetic features is specific. We see Edward, through her eye - as perfect and angular with high cheekbones, a solid jawline, and a direct nostril and full lips. His scalp, which is often messy, can be an unusual, eye-catching color of bronze while his eye are topaz. Bella, on the other side, is referred to to the reader far more simply - she has long brown scalp and brown eye.
Texts provided through the feminine gaze are significant in two different ways. For one, that the heroine is shown as an "everywoman" is seen as empowering to feminine readers who tend to be only offered representations of "female people that fade into the background unless they have qualities considered 'important'" (Asaro). Visitors have the ability to recognize areas of themselves in the narrative. Also, it legitimizes feminine sexuality and debunks the myth that girls don't notice men in "that" way. Physical appeal is just as important for females as it is for guys. Feminine sexuality is further legitimized in love in that the heroine is almost never punished for participating in sexual works and can frequently be viewed as the initiator of such works. In Twilight, it is Bella who's wanting to consummate the relationship she has with Edward and Edward who is resistant to give in without having to be married.
Still, there is plenty in the saga to aid the charges that the Twilight narrative is probably harmful. Despite the fact that Edward never crosses the lines into domestic assault, his behavior is still troublesome since the heavy intake of romance narratives can, over time, influence viewers' interpretations of appropriate action for men and women in romantic connections. In The Killing Screens, George Gerbner discusses his cultivation theory, that was developed to help describe the cumulative and overarching impact repeated advertising exposure has on just how we see the world where we live. It emphasizes the consequences of media usage on the behaviour as opposed to the patterns of audiences. In a nutshell, heavy exposure sometimes appears as 'cultivating' behaviour which are more consistent with the world of press than with the day-to-day world. Gerbner argues that mass media cultivates attitudes and principles which already are present in a culture, normalizing and reinforcing more dominant worth, while making other, more main ideas more salient. In the population such as ours where masculine ideology has already been privileged; where we curently have historical problems with creating safe, egalitarian spots for females; and where we already have a problem with violence and intimidation, Gerbner's theory instructs us that prolonged consumption of the over-representation of patriarchy in the Twilight saga can normalize and legitimize acts of oppression that people might witness or experience inside our own lives. When maltreatment was created to be fun and enjoyable, we run the risk rationalizing and justifying it and neglect to see the tragedy in it when we come across it inside our real lives.
Viewing the Twilight saga through this lens moves the chat from the question of, "What exactly are relationship narratives like those in Twilight doing to women?" to "What are women doing with them?" Love has been, perhaps, one of the most denigrated popular culture genres (Asaro; Wethington; Holmes). Common issues include the insufficient diversity and range of relationship narratives (typically seen consequently of the demands of powerful commercial pushes and publishers looking to quickly churn out formulaic narratives that contain previously shown to be profitable); and the genre's regular reliance on conservatively rigid announcements about contest, gender and male-female interactions; and the objectification of human bodies in explicit, almost pornographic, intimate representations (Wethington). Not everyone buys into these criticisms. Feminist marketing scholar Janice Radway was one of the first to take significantly the pleasure that girls readers consistently seem to find in love. Corresponding to her influential words Reading the Relationship, women use love as a way to setup a noiseless space for themselves. They not only vicariously enjoy position positions and places of nurturing through the literature that they do not enjoy in real life, but romance reviews also provide a fictional space in which readers can rehearse and seem sensible of their individual personal information and role in society (Radway; Burnett and Beto). The role romance plays in getting ready individuals how to behave in their general public lives is sustained for young visitors than what it may be for adults. Young girls will use romances as an alternative to a romantic marriage when you have not yet provided itself. Romance novels become safe spaces to get insight about how to meet boys, what types of things they might tell them, and what going out with is like. On their behalf, romance novels act as beginner's manual for adolescence (Cherland and Edelsky; Christian-Smith; Willinsky and Hunniford)
Audiences appear to take the lessons and wishes cultivated through repeated contact with romance narratives in their youngsters with them throughout their lives. For example, a generation previously, at the height of the coming-of-age teen relationship flick, there surfaced two archetypes for the ideal partner - Jake Ryan and Lloyd Dobler. Jake Ryan, of course, was the cool, super-popular, super-rich, Porsche-driving, way-too-hot-to-be-in-high-school hunk who trapped the "Plain Jane" Samantha Baker's eyeball in the film "Sixteen Candles. " Lloyd Dobler, on the other hands, was an unpretentious, earnest, boombox-hoisting everyman who was simply thoroughly devoted to the super-smart Diane Court in the film "Say Anything. " It's been more than 25 years since "Sixteen Candles" is at theaters and 20 years since "Say Anything" was released, yet women approaching old in the 1980s still end up desiring their Jake or their Lloyd - but, not finding him. (Stuever, Real Men; Steuver, What I DID SO). You can find research that the same desire audiences have for a relationship with Jake and Lloyd also prevails for ALICE CULLEN, whatever the age of the audience member. For example, on the talk forum for the TwilightTeens. com fansite, for example, one will discover a variety of discussion threads where young admirers deliberate questions like "Over a scale of just one 1 to 10, how blessed is Bella Swan [to be with Edward Cullen]?"; "Could you see yourself seeing a guy like Edward?"; or "What do you prefer about Edward?" Additionally, Emily Reynolds' interviews and surveys with female adult visitors of the Twilight saga uncovered that it was Bella with whom visitors most frequently discovered and whose habits they most found in themselves, rendering it possible for the reader to slide into Bella's shoes. This id most regularly manifests itself in a desire to be romantically associated with Edward. According to one of Reynolds' members: "I'd leave my hubby for someone like this" (30). The difference, of course, is that searching for a Jake Ryan or a Lloyd Dobler - though destined to end in disappointment - is improbable to talk with a violent end, though seeking out an ALICE CULLEN might.
Is everything bad?
It is not my goal to vilify the Twilight saga. It really is okay to take pleasure from things that are engaging and fun, but we have to not dupe ourselves into believing our entertainment media will not also assist in formulating our ideas about our culture. Popular advertising help shape a worldview in audiences that re-inscribes dominant positions of vitality and expert (Althusser; Gitlin; Hall), which in Eurocentric cultures like ours is "white, patriarchal capitalism" (Fiske qtd. in Meyers 7). Patriarchy is the principal oppressor of females in a population (Firestone; Greer; Millett). Since patriarchy does not automatically operate as an explicit, perceivable reality (so this means, we don't always realize it whenever we view it), we must review the aspects of our culture - pop culture included - that perpetuate patriarchal ideology and lead it to be normalized. What exactly are, in reality, dangerous ideas that devalue the feminine in society are too frequently seen as respectable choices in the Twilight saga - selections made in the name of "true love" or in the face of supernatural causes. When provided through these lenses, Bella and Edward's romantic relationship sometimes appears as romantic and appealing when in any other world it might be destructive.
We have to keep in mind that patriarchy, while distinctive for marginalizing females, will not operate clear of feminine influence (Enloe). Cultural systems aren't made solely of men; women are also contributing members. Consequently, a patriarchal culture relies on the participation of most members - men and women - to go through. Therefore, as dangerous as Edward is in the Twilight narrative, the real danger exists when we neglect to confront patriarchy and oppression when we encounter it. It is helpful that Twilight attracts viewers across several generations because it can be used as a construction for pushing discourse between adults and youth about how exactly feminine oppression occurs in modern culture. Only future examination will tell if these interactions are taking place. Let's hope they are.
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