Review of Karl Marx's article Capital
Capital, posted in 1867 instantly made its symbol as you of Karl Marx's most 'in depth critique of economical life. ' (Rivikin & Ryan, 665, 2004) In his article, Marx not only highlights that we 'fetishize the objects that appeal most immediately to your senses', (Rivikin & Ryan, 665, 2004) but he also argues that people ignore the real exploitation of the personnel who provide these commodities on industry.
In his article, Marx illuminates how the capitalist financial system structures individual society. One of the ideas that he sets forward is the way the romantic relationship between 'satisfying human needs' for the value of a item contrasts with the unseen exploitation of labour. He says that man easily 'changes the forms' of the goods in order to be 'useful to him', therefore demonstrating the way the bourgeoisie owns the method of development thus highlighting how they are only enthusiastic about producing the maximum surplus value to match their needs. Furthermore, Marx details the capitalist as an 'enigmatical character' which further advises they have the energy and control over the world's natural, monetary and human resources to take benefit of the merchandise of labour, when it requires the 'form of goods' which is of quality value.
Another idea submit by Marx is the compare between the interpersonal relationships and the technical relations of production. Firstly, Marx says 'their own labour is shown to them as a public relationship' which is worth focusing on as this means it is the individuals who are associated to a relatively stable economic framework. However, Marx goes on to say the producer's labour only is available 'between the product of their labour' which means it is currently the individuals who relate to objects; thus highlighting how the result of creation determines your public class. Furthermore, he claims that the characteristics of the products of labour are 'perceptible and imperceptible' which web links back to the idea of how we are not only ignorant to the producers of goods but this opens up to the alienation of sociable relations.
Following on from this idea, the social relationships become less visible as Marx argues that the worthiness relation between the products of labour has 'no reference to their physical properties'. Marx's notion of product fetishism is highlighted here as it transforms how the creation of commodities and money are exchanged in the market trade through secretly concealing the actual fact that someone was exploited to create that value of commodity. Furthermore, Marx continues to illuminate the human alienation of the capitalist composition as he suggests man is attracted into this idea by 'the fantastic form of the relationship between things'. Marx believes that through reification, these goods now viewed as objects obscure the economic exploitation of the labourer's (content) pay and the new value of product created by the employee themselves.
In his article, Marx cleverly underpins how we are ignorant to the inefficient and exploitive system with the analogy of the 'work of discovering'. He argues that from the 'external object to the eye', we see an 'genuine passing of light in one thing to another', which implies the exploitation of labourer's is not invisible; but we just choose never to see it even as live in a controlled culture. In his article Marx shows a contrast between your social and specialized relation development and from this light analogy we can claim that there is a need for cultural dependency that capitalism feeds off; in order for economic capacity to overrule all politics and communal activities. Furthermore, the value of capital would deteriorate if labour is taken off the work area, thus highlighting the way the bourgeoisie are in effect dependent upon the proletariat labour-power.
In his word, Marx also places forward a philosophical concept which brings about the idea of alienation of the capitalist system. The analogy of the 'mist-enveloped regions of the spiritual world' is a highly effective idea as it illuminates that Christianity and the idea of God estranges the natural characteristics of our human wishes. Marx essentially used Charles de Brosses concept of fetishism through his The Cult of Fetish Gods (1760) which implies a materialist theory of the foundation of religion which developed the thought of product fetishism. Marx offers mention of 'men's hands' which probably suggests that the whole system is corrupt as commodities have emerged as more valuable than the labourer who produced it. Marx concludes with 'This I call Fetishism' which emphasises and summarises how unfair and corrupt the capitalist system works.
Word matter: 748
Marxism applied to Raymond Carver's poem Shiftless
There are many subtle principles of Marxism within Raymond Carver's poem Shiftless, released in 1985. The first few lines focus on the theory that everything is masked in the capitalist system of control. He says the people who were higher the interpersonal ladder 'were comfortable' (1) who had been fortunate to are in 'painted properties with flush toilets' (2) and 'drove cars whose season and make were recognizable' (3). From the information given, the materialist goods illuminate the thought of conspicuous utilization; they purchase these costly good and publicly screen them to impress people with their riches of economic electricity.
Furthermore, this idea of 'painted properties' could be symbolic for the fact that commodity fetishism is effective as it shows these materials commodities are of higher value than those who produced it. Also, 'colored' links along with Marx's notion of how we are ignorant to recognize the exploitation of labourer's. These materials goods also link along with Marx's notion of 'satisfying human desires' from his section on Capital. The consumer aspires to have the best of the best commodities in order to gain cultural, economic and ethnic prestige. Marx argues in his chapter over the German Ideology that 'those who lack the method of production are subject to it. ' (Rivkin & Ryan, 2004, 656) This means depending on where you stand on the ladder of the capitalist system, you are placed in a communal class depending on the amount of means of production. Carver proceeds with 'The ones worse off were sorry' which links back to you within Marx's theory of how the working class are exploited and it further attacks the unfair capitalist market system.
Carver gives mention of 'strange vehicles' and 'dusty yards' (5) to juxtapose the material goods in the first three lines. The poet cleverly shows the distinction between the value of goods and the communal classes in just one line. This links together with Marx's alienation theory of the effect of the capitalist development on labourers. These material objects is there in the poem so the reader can identify the clear distinction in social course; however those who find themselves at the mercy of it are under the wrong consciousness as it's the way a capitalist contemporary society works. Regarding to Bertell Ollman, he argues that classes are under some form of alienation, but it is 'the proletariat's affliction is the most unfortunate. ' (Ollman, 2014) Third, idea, we can easily see the distinction of material commodities given in Shiftless, which features the exploitation of labour. The reference to 'dusty back yards' implies the capitalist system dominates the annals of class struggle and the poem displays the poverty that the proletariat experience.
In his poem, Carver cleverly presents his own view of life to mock the capitalist system of control as he stats 'My goal was always / to be shiftless. I noticed the merit in that. '(8 & 9) The poet Jim McGarrah state governments that 'This regular talk about of flux and the fight for economic stability began to have a toll on Carver's personal life' (McGarrah, 2009) which features the domineering effect of the capitalist control. The thought of 'doing little or nothing' (11) links along with Marx's view of ideology and exactly how ideology is part of everyday actuality. Terry Eagleton, a literary theorist, argues that 'people invest in their own unhappiness' (Eagleton, 1991, 13) which implies why Carver encounters simple activities in the poem. The term 'Spitting. ' (15) is positioned alone to perhaps emphasise how this shiftless behaviour sometimes appears to be more appealing than being a at the mercy of an exploitive system where goods are of more value.
Marx runs on the philosophical analogy of the way the natural characteristics of individual behavior is estranged anticipated to them being subjective to an ideological equipment of a higher system; God in the religious world. Carver troubles this interpellation process by stating in the ultimate two lines '"Don't I know you?" / Not, "What are you heading to be when you expand up?"' Carver highlights how controlled society is really as everyone believes they have to be 'something' or 'someone' in order to attain communal prestige. The pressure of the good reputation and a interpersonal status is exactly what forces us into the idea of needing to hold the best commodities that people either buy or own in order to communicate a sense of public prestige.
This poem highlights Marxist theoretical ideas in order to emphasize how exploitive, alienating and inefficient the capitalist system is.
Word count: 740
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