The History Of Myths And Stereotypes English Literature Essay

Myth is the concealed part of every report, the buried part, and the region that is still unexplored because there are as yet no words to allow us to get there. Myth is nourished by silence as well as by world.

- Italo Calvino 1

Myths and stereotypes are a tale that may not be true. Both these words will vary but implication is same. It is an average and traditional primitive history which deals with supernatural animals, heroes or ancestors. There are so many parables that happen to be related to our daily life with no testimony. Thus, it is a story that has become connected with a person, incident, or institution. It could be assert that stereotype is a popular faith about specific sociable communities or types of people. Myths are not always negative sometimes they are simply positive as well; it means there is absolutely no confirmation or record about their lifestyle. Everyone is familiar with them due to the description provided by his/her ancestor. These are the effects that have been started in historical time but still continue in the present scenario without being questioned. There are no alternates or explanations to prove them as wrong. It's very heart-rending to identify the actuality behind all of these mythologies.

These misconceptions are prevalent all over such such as society, religion and background. There are so many allegories existing in the contemporary society, especially amid women. History is replete with falsehood correlated to women;yet, no one have answer for the authenticity of these folk stories. Several stereotypes can fade through the assistance of science or reality. Therefore, these legends aren't ever-existing and ever-lasting. It really is well said by James Feibleman that, "A myth is a faith in which no person any more believes"2.

These fables are related to powerful and dream. Both these are moreover an integral part of puzzle and supernatural component. We cannot describe that from where the dreams come from. May be this can be a massage which shows up from another concealed world. This same mystification has been magic also. Joseph Campdell presented his view on it, "Misconceptions are open public dreams, and dreams are private myths"3.

The main reason for this chapter is to truly have a discussion on all those common myths and stereotypes that happen to be in some way connected to your life with the special guide of Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni's works. We can not only discuss them, but also make an effort to illustrate their authenticity. It could be possible to prove them immortal by the method of reality. There are so many phony beliefs which don't have any actuality or authenticity, but nonetheless they are rooted in the population. They took place only for the sake of traditions, that's why we are not able to eliminate it.

Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, who's an Indian woman writer, has attempted to give us an idea about all those typecast which are related to the inferiority of woman. She mostly talks about about the legends which been around in India as well as United States. She actually is an Indian by birth and currently surviving in US. She actually is very much acquainted with all the customs and ancient reviews of her birthplace along with her current place. She also discussed the folklores which can be particularly related to women. These folklores are not specific to India only; even they are also well rooted in the entire world. From the very beginning women are ornamented with these fables and each one of these thingshave been happeningfrom the very first day since God created this globe. According to traditional experiences, it was believed that,

So, god created man in his own image. And god, the father God brought on a deep rest to fall after Adam and he slept; and he needed one of his ribs, and closed down in the flesh instead thereof; and the rib that your lord God got extracted from man, he made a female, and helped bring her up to the person. And Adam said, "That is now bone of my bone fragments, and flesh of my flesh, she shall be called woman because she was taken out of man". 4

All these myths and stereotypes that happen to be related to girl start from her birth; female is created out of man, though it is she who offers birth to a child. God himself is a men, is it the reason why that he created man in his own image? It is a point to believe, that if God can create man individually, than you will want to he created female like the same? Why she actually is created by the rib of man? Did God also want showing his dominancy? Well, all these questions remain unanswered.

On the foundation of the historical aspects, certain false asserts related to to the communal supremacy of the male love-making have been disseminated. It is putforwards as an eternalproverb that men are socially higher because they're naturally superior. Male superiority, relating to this metaphor, is not really a common reality at a particular phase of record, but an all natural law. It really is claimed that men are granted by nature with superior physical and mental features.

An equal misconception about girl has been circulating to carry up this claim. It really is place forward as an equally eternal maxim that girls are naturally less to men. And, what's the evidence? They are the mothers! Character, it is asserted, has criticized the female sex to an inferior position. It is moreover believed in order to,

Adam titles his partner Eve; God is male ('created man in his own image'). Man is established first. . . it is stated that those who name the items, in simple fact, own them and those who rule the word rule the globe. 5

In consequence, could it be the reason why that male is still ruling feminine? These fables are not only in the creationof world but gender bias is deep rooted in the part of historical and textual traditions also. From the beginning of this world women are always consider as a weaker or second intimacy. She actually is always positioned behind the man. Woman's identification and her put in place society remain bounded with so many myths. History is information for the question of woman's lifestyle in the contemporary society. Aristotle declared that,

The girl is feminine by virtue of a certain lack of features, and added that. . . . . . we ought to look upon the female talk about, as it were, a deformity, one which occurs in the normal course of characteristics. Due to its weakness it quickly approaches its maturity an old age since inferior things all reach their end more quickly. 6

In all rituals or practices women have always been considered below dignity. They can be cared for as incompetent, unqualified, powerless, and feeble compared to man. Women are always irrespective of religion, competition, country as well as the period where they live. These same sensitivity and making love stereotypes have been seen in the reproduction of human being. It was a misconception associated with a female that she could only fertilize or provide the foetus. It is only man who's an active spouse in the duplication of a baby. Throughout biology, we will get the justification for these sorts of statements. Based on the data of biology, males and females are from a same varieties which can be differentiated within two types of people. They both interact for the function of duplication. In the booklet one "Facts and Myths" of THE NEXT Gender, we can find out Aristotle's judgment

Aristotle fancied that the foetus arose from the union of sperm and menstrual blood vessels, girl furnishing only unaggressive matter as the male principle added force, activity, motion, and life. 7

All these assertions are interrelated to social myths; it isn't nature, but school population, which subordinated women and raised up men. Men triumphed in their communal primacy in effort against and subjugation over the ladies. But, this erotic combat was part and parcel of your great communal problem. Women's weakness is the creation of an public system which created and advertised numerous other inferiorities, prejudices, deprivation, and inequalities. This sociable record has been protected behind the myth that ladies are by natural means weaker to men.

It is a falsehood only that the living seed is created by the father alone and mother only transported and nourished it. The idea of Aristotle stayed alive through the middleAges. After that, there have been so many thinkers like Harvey, Hagel, the Danish anatomist Steno, and Dutchman Hartsakar; who provided their individual thoughts and opinions regarding reproduction system. The well-known philosopher Hagel held that these two sexes were different, the main one is active and the other is unaggressive, and undoubtedly the female is the unaggressive one. He said in his School of thought of Nature, ". . . . Thus man, in consequence of this differentiation, is the dynamic principle while female is the unaggressive principle because she remains undeveloped in her unity" 8.

Therefore, in the old time girl was always regarded as the lower sex. All the way through biology this label was totally clear that man is not the only one who has the superiority for the duplication. It is male and female both for their similar involvement. They are defined primarily as male and feminine by the gametes that they produce - sperms and egg respectively. But biology is not enough to give an answer to the question of woman's personal information. Even, not only through natural viewpoint, but via mental health point of view also a female is always regarded as a weaker love-making or other. This contemporary society never gave any importance to her decisions. Till the center age women weren't given the flexibility to choose their own life. Mankind for ladies was totally completely different. The personality of a woman has been affected throughout the course of record, somehow, that same condition is present scenario also. There is absolutely no true living certainty except as marked by the aware person through activities and in the bosom of an society.

Thus, the entire world is full of common myths that men have forged women through all their cosmologies, ideologies, religions, books, and superstitions. Because of these falsehoods, man endeavoured himself frontward as the subject and deemed the woman as an object. Most philosophersagree that Simone De Beauvoir's THE NEXT Intimacy is a very best contribution to the philosophy of a woman. She was a writer, feminist, and an existentialist also. Her legendary work The Second Sex is named the myth of the "eternal feminine". The main theme of this book is turn around the idea that girl has been held in a romance to long-standing domination to through her demotion to being man's "other".

Beauvoir's reserve is divided into two major topics. The first booklet investigates the "Facts and Common myths" about women from the multiple perspectives like the biological, historical, clinical, materialistic, literary, psychoanalytic, and anthropological. In the second part, she tried out to ruin the essentialism which cases that girls are created "feminine". This section traces about the education of woman from her childhood to her adolescence. In addition, it discussed the different situation of women's life and struggled to clear the misconceptions. She said on the publication of The Second Sex,

It was true that my study of the common myths would be left suspending in mid-air if people didn't know the truth those misconceptions were intended to mask. . . . . So I had to try to dig for the exact truth under the surface of these interpretation. 9

One of the dominant features of Capitalism, and of class society in general, is the discrimination of the sexes. It was thought that Men will be the masters in political, cultural, economical, and intellectual life; while women play a secondary and a good passive role. Only in current years, she has emerge from kitchens to verify her presence. Women are somewhat different from the nature of men, they may be psychological, polite and soft hearted but it generally does not mean that they aren't as more robust as man. This is merely the mindset of male population that, they never understand the area of a woman in world of beliefs. It is very much necessary to give her a sizing of liberty. In previous period, she did not possess the energy to choose between the assertion of her transcendence, and she alienation as an subject. Donaldson, a historian of women, remarked the definition,

Man is a male individual, woman is a female individual; have been asymmetrically distorted; and it is on the list of psycho analysts in particular that man is defined as a human being and woman as a lady - whenever she behaves as a human being she is thought to imitate the male. 10

It is all about man's psychology who does not accept the truth that these women can also do everything in better way. For the kids she actually is being created only for family members work or to take care of things; decision power is not her site. If male and female both are human beings then why they are considered as male or female individually? Woman's personal information is not defined only by her sexuality; her illustration is also reflected in the organization of the modern culture. However, men consider themselves superior in the human population even though man and woman both is highly recommended the same. Our record articulates that woman is the source of all follies and faults. Each one of these allegories that are correlated with women, remain making it through in the world. Our modern culture is dominated by men from an extended past, maybe this is why for the lifestyle of most these folklores. This modern culture does not want to simply accept the reality even. A whole lot of legends are still prevailing because of these whole typical and traditional old stories which deal with superstition. Beauvoir has conveyed her thoughts and opinions on the lifestyle of myths that,

A myth always implies a subject, who tasks his desire and his anxieties towards a sky of transcendence. Women do not arranged themselves up as subject and hence have erected no virile misconception in which their assignments are shown; they have no faith or poetry of their own: they still fantasy through the dreams of men. 11

In our traditional time women didn't have any flexibility to write or exhibit their views. We believe in all such values for the reason that our ancestors also performed the same. Because of these myths women are suffering from a long time. Through science or realism it is possible to get rid of each one of these falsehood, that are pointing out a question on women's individuality. These things are carried on from our record, which is not very much easy to change it. Even that is very hard-hitting to improve the mindset of the whole community.

This inequality of the sexes has designated class population from its very origins several thousand years back, and has conserved throughout its main periods: Capitalism, Chattel slavery, and Feudalism. For this basis, class culture is correctly characterized as male-dominated. This supremacy has been upheld and maintained by the form of family, their state, the system of private property, and the chapel. But class contemporary society did not always make it through; it is merely a few thousand yrs. old. Men weren't always the superior making love, for these were not always the business, academic and cultural organizers.

Indian-American author Chitra BanerjeeDivakaruni as well concentrates to eliminate misconceptions and stereotypes regardingwomen. In her work, she tries to demonstrate all those false traditions which signify women towards inferiority. Because she was created in India and spent 19 years for the reason that same culture, for this reason, she came to feel each one of these situations and conditions by her own. Through all her experiences she wants to confirm in her writing that, not even in India however in other cultures also the women's condition is thinkable. She provides evidence that so how exactly does a woman escape out of her problems and survives in her life via her personas in the fiction. It is in characteristics of a female to keep to exist in every single circumstance. She involved all these aspects skilfully in her works.

Chitra Banerjee's writing, both fiction and non-fiction, is often rooted in the intricacies of the home. By pondering her personas on the high-tension wire of family; she is able to travel around the problems that induce her most-identity, loyalty, tradition, and independence. Her study normally takes place within the accused framework of the immigrant experience which is established for a writing style both narrow in concentrate and wide-ranging in opportunity.

As a result our main intend in this newspaper is to eliminate once and forever all the misconceptions continued by class population that the women are obviously or essentially substandard, with the special reference point of author's works. She needs to show the reality at leading of her readers for they can judge what's wrong and what's right. She actually is not against towards the customs and practices. She only needs to provide idea to her readers about the falsehood in the population and what sort of woman can be rid out of the through her strength; she only wants to reform the population and present forte to the female community. She shows her protagonists independent, filled with positive energy or strength, adoptable, sympathetic, good companion, gregarioustowards rituals and traditions, as a graphic of "shakti".

Divakaruni has printed poems, short-stories, and books, which generally centre on similar styles: the struggle to adapt to new traditions of life the when one's cultural traditions are in variance with new cultural targets; complexities of love jammed between members of the family, fans, and spouses; the position of women in India and America; the have difficulty and disagreement of women through the arrange relationships; the lifestyle of women in the world. Her works tend to be considered to be quasi-autobiographical as the majority of her tales are place on women's experience, their inner sentiments, and their great attempts towards their own life. Therefore, being truly a woman she actually is writing about herself.

This is not factual that, she has always been thinking about women's issues and condition, and desirous of earning changes. When she resided in India, she was totally immersed in the culture and so totally accepted it. She never thought about women's rights or their problems. If things were hard for girls, she reasoned that, it was just the way of the world. Nevertheless, thesekinds of changes are not an easy process. This thing arouses so many questions in her brain that, Why should we isolate women?, Was it same everywhere you go?, Is it the only life of women?, Do common myths and stereotypes are always being truly a part of her life?

To receive the answer of the questions the writer examined carefully the lives of other Indian women of her surroundings. She pointed out that most of them were still caught in the old system a man has precedence and demand over them. They reason almost all their wrongs, and this away from the traditional joint family that held a watchful eyeball on things, such women were even more prone. Women have been the subject of intimidation, deprivation, discrimination, and unjust treatment in contemporary society throughout history. Women are considered inferior, put through various ordeals, given secondary status, subjugated to the men and deprived of the basic right of presence. The difference is only in the forms that change from society to culture and every once in awhile. They are believed persons whose work is to act on the advice of guys, manage them, serve them and please.

Thus, women receive such a perfect role as to live susceptible to the hubby and expire at his bonfire. The real reason for all these distinctions is the fact in the public strand of many societies males are given a privileged position because they give food to the family, they are bread winners, and continue the name of the family. Somehow the writer also senses the variations between male and female through her activities and modern culture where she spent her life. She is an independent girl thus she can realize about the girl power and capability.

By using her personal activities or practises, she tried to uphold the real figure of a female through her protagonists. She tries to illustrate the reality behind the misconceptions that women are just designed to fulfil various tasks.

A wild selection of her books are included into this framework like:The Mistress of Spices (1997), Organized Relationships (1995), Sister of my Heart and soul (1999), Vine of Desire (2002), The Palace of Illusions (2008)and Neela: Triumph Song (2002). Her books and testimonies have prompted some to accuse Divakaruni of tarnishing the Indian community's image and reinforcing stereotypes of the "oppressed" Indian female, but Divakaruni says her aim is to shatter stereotypes

Some just reveal various things, but my methodology is to handle these sensitive subject areas. I am hoping people who read my literature won't think of the heroes as Indians, but feel for the coffee lover as people. 12

Chitra Banerjee thinks about women as an organization in her population and her views will vary from the view of other members in the population. She feels that woman has the right, or we might even call it a role to experience in the contemporary society. Their role is to be a significant part of modern culture, not the same as men, but nonetheless play a part.

All cultures are suffering from their own mythology. In Hinduism some epics like the Manuscriptadvocates a limitation of women's rights. If we go through the articles of the Manuscript, we might understand that it was specifically tough against women and treated them with disdain and suspicion. We do not have any evidence to believe it still the booklet was accompanied by all the parts of the society. It was said in Manuscript - Regulations of Manu (section. X- 1- 10) concerning to girl that, "Her dad shields (her) in child years; her husband protects (her) in children, and her sons protect (her) in later years; a woman is never fit for self-reliance" 13.

This assertion arouses several questions on the freedom of a female and her self-identity. It means that as a child, a woman must have supposed to stay in the guardianship and care of her parents. Divakaruni has uncovered the same picture of population in her book Sister of my Center (1999), in which both these sisters Anju and Sudha are treated the same. They both stay in the protection of these three mothers(Pishi, Nalini, Gouri). Sudha experienced accepted each one of these boundaries, but on the other side Anju who's rebellious by her mother nature will not want to simply accept these constraints. She always puts up her inquiries,

Why must Ramur Ma go with us whenever we go out, even to get literature from the neighbourhood library? She'd ask. 'Why can't we go to Sushmista's birthday party when all other girls in school are going, rather than sending a present with Singhji?No question everyone feels we're stuck up'. She further says that,

I am sick and tired of these old women sari you make us wear. You would think we wear moving into the Dark Age range rather than in the Eighties. I gamble there isn't another female my age in all of Calcutta except Sudha, of-course who is pressured to dress like this. Why can't I wear trousers, or a maxi, or at least some kurtas occasionally? 14

Actually these questions are for those people who are not able to judge woman's eminence. By her works the writer demonstrates the black face of the society and wants to remove myths and stereotypes.

Women do not have any individual protection under the law, Could it be because she is a daughter and her enjoyment doesn't matter? That same disappointment we can feel in the character Neela, the protagonist of the novel Neela: Victory Melody (2002). Through her questions, Divakaruni places a stigma on the modern culture that,

Why will everyone feel they have to control young ladies - even after they are married? What makes women likely to sit quietly and silently, embroidering and making pickles, while men get to make all the exciting places? Why can't a girl be a independence fighter?15

After getting married, a girlturns into a house and responsibility of her partner. This implies that in her very existence she is cured as a house only and also to care for her is a responsibility of her area. Therefore, her spouse is supposed to keep her in guardianship and manage her needs or objectives. As a better half she has to execute her responsibilities. When she becomes old, she used to stay in the house of her sons and has to spend an extremely forlorn and solitary life. It was well written in Purana,

"KaryeshuMantri, KaraneshuDaasi,

Kupecha Lakshmi, KshamayaaDharitri,

Bhojyeshu Mata, ShayentuRamdha,

Shat Karma Yukta, Kula Dharma Patni. " (Acharya: 351)

According to our Hindu tradition, it is presumed that a wedded woman must have performed four guidelines: as her husband's servant (dasi) in sense of work; as his minister (mantri) in sense of earning decision; as a mom (mata) to his kids; and as a enthusiast (rambha) in his bed. Hence, Dasi, Mantri, Mata, Rambha all are different family portrait of female, which is stated in our historic epics. Our ancestors discussed the obligations of woman, however they never talked about just what a man has to do. Historically speaking, whether it is at Medieval Indiaor Ancient India, the positioning of ladies in the subcontinent was never good.

Divakaruni opposes each one of these false customs and myths. She asks over it that, why these guidelines are just mended for girls?, As all these historical epics have been compiled by men, is it the real reason for the harsh cannon towards women?, Before deciding her life, did anybody asked about her own wishes or desires? Well, the writer has presented two different portrayals in her book Sister of my Center. The one is Sudha, who always acceptedall the guidelines mend on her behalf and the other is Anju, who always encourage her to combat on her behalf own rights. Anju constantly keep questioning to Sudha,

Why is it you that has to rely out the filthy clothes for the dhobi and then count up the clean clothes he brings back again? Exactly why is it you who has to make up the marketplace list every day and hand out the spices for grinding and cut up the vegetables for lunch break and meal?16

She also stimulates her by her tough comments,

Without a college education, what kind of life are you going to have? You may as well link a bucket around your neck of the guitar and jump into a well right now. You might as well but blinkers over your sight and become a member of the bullocks that go across the mustard mill. That's all you're going to be a beast of burden for some man. 17

Divakaruni has covered a variety of issues associated to myths and stereotypes, that are popular among the women of the Indian culture. She aims to put issues in front of the entire world through her writing. Arrange relationship is the most high-lighted concern in her works. Her short-story collection Established Marriage(1995), deals with a number of issues: including racism, economic disparity, interracial human relationships, divorce, and abortion. Her basic interest is to give attention to the concept of arrange relationship in the context of Indian culture. The difference between son and girl, which includes been happening from the old time, still prevails in the population. From the beginning of your girl's life, it is determined to get her committed in an organized way. It is not she who will decide to whom she'll be wedded; even her life's most significant decision is at her family's palm. She is trained by her area to get competence in household works. To look after her family is her most important duty from the day of her relationship. Divakaruni mentioned, The assumption is in our society that, "a married woman belongs to her spouse, her in-laws" 18.

It indicates that a girl does not have any unbiased life. It really is she who is going to be chosen by the contrary side and she'd maintain positivity plus overall presentable at this time of bride browsing ceremony. So many folklores are also associated to the procedure for her life. If anyone says no to her, it might be considered a bad luck for a woman. She must prepare yourself enough for bride-to-be viewing second especially on using smart and colourful apparel; it's her family's perception that this provides her luck. In the end this is the most important period of her life and future. Divakaruni seeks to trace out those moments that what's exactly going-on in the mind of sufferer. She must be pondering, ". . . . . the person who is arriving to our home with his parents today and who'll be my hubby if I'm fortunate to be chosen" 19.

Thus, it is a kind of prestige issue for a girl and her family; if things went incorrect then people get products of gossips. It is considered to be a bad bundle of money for her if she gets turned down.

These falsehoods 're going on from our primitive modern culture, other than this the embarrassing part is the fact that still our company is carrying on the same customs. A girl is asked so many questions by her would be mother-in-law. Divakaruni thrashed out such kind of questions in her novel Sisters of my Center(1999), when Sudha's mother-in-law asked her,

What was her most liked subject in college (embroidery), what is the proportion of sugars to water in rosogullah syrup (one or two), what does she think should be a woman's most important duty (caring for those she loves). 20

Being an Indian, Divakaruni does not oppose the custom of arrange relationship but she condemns the humiliation experienced by females in arrange relationships. She would like to change the machine not custom. The author yearns for the response of the questions that, why the society has not given the similar privileges to a boy and female to choose their life partner? Why it is only she for all the sacrifices and tasks? Today's circumstance is little bit changed, but in earlier days a woman cannot even speak to her would be man before matrimony. A girl's psychology is always encircled by the issues that, "I don't know him whatsoever. What if he doesn't like me after we're committed? What if none of them of his family desires me? "21

That same disagreement or clash Divakaruni illustrates throughout her works as well as with her characters. In addition to the concept of marriage the writer further describes many other aspects on the subject of common myths and stereotypes among the ladies. Some of the subject areas are also related to clothes. Indian culture is known for its colors especially in clothes andDivakaruni has concentrated a great deal on the colours of women's outfits. Inside our culture women used to wear colourful saris. Mainly they like red, orange, pink, green; which are symbol of brightness and life. The writer gave a perfect picture of Indian female in her book Sister of my Heart and soul,

They proved a stick number woman in a traditional red-bordered sari with a large bunch of secrets linked with her anchal. She wore a red marriagebindi in the centre of her forehead and stood next to a moustached man having a briefcase. Around them were obtained several stick figure children, their gender indicated by boxy pants or triangular dresses. 22

In one of her storyline "clothes", Divakaruni centred on the importance of colours. It was believed that the several shade have different so this means. For red dress it was expected that, "its body was a pale red, like the dawn sky above the women's lake. The color of transition"23. . . . . and since similar, "a blue one for the trip, because blue is the colour of possibility, the colour of the sky" 24.

Even, at the time of one's marriage, extra limelight is given on the color of bride's dress. However the fact is that these colors are a part of her life, till her hubby is alive. In traditional households, widows are supposed to wear white sari and give up all their ornaments including bindi (red symbol on forehead). Divakarunifigured out a widow in a story, "The sari, a dense voile that willbounch throughout the waist when worn, is lent. Widow's color, color of ending" 25.

It is believed that following the death of one's husband, colours aren't an integral part of her life. Therefore, it was prohibited on her behalf to wear colourful clothes. Ornaments and bindiare also indicates auspiciousness. After that widows are anticipated to devote their lives to any serious pursuit of religion or even to her husband's family. The writer shows it incorrect and tries to remove this type of mentality from the society or religious beliefs.

Divakaruni further discussed the conditions of widow in her short-story collection Set up Relationship that, "around India, as of this very instant, widows in white saris are bowing their veiled mind, portion tea to in-laws. Doves with cut-off wings" 26.

In historic time when a Hindu passed away, his better half either determined Sati on her behalf husband's funeral pyre or retired into a life perennial solitude, faith contemplation, and sociable damnation. Sati was preferably preformed as an act of immortal love. It had been believed to purge the handful of all accrued sin. However now, the situation has altered and Sati is unlawful and abhorrent. That's what Divakaruni wants to prove through her history "Clothes", that after being a widow only white sari is not really a part of her life. She made an effort to show the satisfaction of the central personality Mita, when her in-laws not do the same the actual other does indeed. She said, "When someone asked if my wild hair should be cut off, as they sometimes do with widows back, they said no" 27.

Divakaruni has struggled to destroy all those myths and exploitation through her writing, that happen to be usually happen with the widow on the name of traditions. Now, a widow is forget about a dove with cut-off wings. Even after this ill-fated, she can live her life separately and also take responsibility of her family.

It is not characteristics, but class society, which cheated women with their right to add functions of population and positioned the major stress upon their pet functions of motherhood. Which theft was devoted through the two-fold misconception. On the one side, motherhood is symbolized as a natural hardship taking place out of the motherly organs of female; beside this rude materialism, motherhood is symbolized as being something almost spiritual. To comfort women for his or her position as second-class residents, mothers are blessed, given with aura and blessed with special "characters", thoughts and knowledge permanently away from the clutch of men. Deprivation and holiness are simply just two edges of the same coin of the interpersonal fraud of women under course society.

Although she actually is being gifted by bless to beginning a fresh life, but still she has to fight against the social wickedness. From the next day of her matrimony the family looks for for the good news. They get impatient when time moves again and again. Thus, Divakaruni exposes those same sentiments through her persona Anjuthat,

Five years might not seem that long to people in the usa, but where we result from, it is. Relationships can be damaged in half that point, and barren wives repaid with their parents' home in pity. 28

It becomes a torture for her to handle different kind of reviews from various people. She hesitates to attend interpersonal gathering, even she actually is surrounded by the dubious look of population as if she has done a major crime. Hence, barrenness becomes a curse for her. To get rid of it, they take their own superstition way. They get satisfaction in taking her to the holy places to abolish the curse. For instance Divakaruni in her short account "Ultra Sound", tested the idea when the protagonist encountered the same problem, when,

Runu's mother-in-law experienced used her to the shrine of Shasthi, goddess of childbirth. The family priest possessed waist to appease the upset planets. They'd taken her for a medical check-up to make certain there have been no 'problems with her system. 29

On conclusion, the family blames the females limited to their faulty system, though a male and feminine both can be accountable in case a baby is not being conceived. Being a mother isn't that much easy for a woman; she's to undergo various worse conditions. The orthodox traditional family always assumes that only a youngster child can carry forward their era. It is regarded as very lucky if the elder child is a son.

Stabbings over a woman's life and carnages against her dignity and self-have been observed in the entire passage of history. Girl infants were concealed alive. The other way to remove them was using the pappy grains, sap of the calotropisplant or giving them sleeping peels. Sometimes their parents and kith and kin performed these inhuman functions with a heavy center and great sorrow and grief. The point to muse is excatly why these kinds of dreadful act appear, why world remains a silent observer and what causes people to commit such types of serves. The author firmly tried to indicate the communal menace of female feticide. It is not only a dark spot on the civilization, but also creating a big problem for the sex-ratio.

Divakaruni spot-light similar group of parables through her work. She wants to show the truth at forward of her readers for that they can judge what's wrong and what's right. In her book Sister of my Heart, the protagonist Sudha was mentally harassed by her family on the issue of child-birth. She was constantly pressured by them to give birth to a son child. She indicated her pity condition that, "they want to destroy my baby" 30, even "they want me with an abortion" 31. It shows her helplessness when she explained, "The amnioshowed that it is a woman. . . . . . My mother-in-law says it isn't fitting that the eldest child of the Bhattacharjee home should be considered a female" 32.

It was a issue in her mind, whether she's in which to stay the same put in place her family or even to leave it in search for her own individual life. But, the primary problem is approximately the problem which is uncertain and a large number of wary thoughts are there in your brain of protagonist's family

What about the social stigma?. . . . . . That's easy that you should say from here. Runu's the main one who'll have to face it every day. Even though money isn't a problem, what types of life will it before her? She certainly won't have the opportunity to remarry. She'll be only with her child the rest of her life, a sociable pariah, someone the neighbours point a finger at each and every time she walks outside. 33

There is without doubt in it that all these bounds were constructed from the starting in our sociable format. Class-society was exactly like it is in the present. Advance medical and technological developments have allowed medical practitioners and experts to pledge certain techniques and solutions to determine the love-making of the foetus. The main among them are chrion villus Biopsy, amniocentesis and today the generally used ultrasonography. Everybody is interested to know the making love of the foetus so when it is determined a lady one; it is aborted through different methods.

It is ill-fated that might be found are happening generally in India and other Asian countries to identify making love of the foetus to be able to own it aborted if it is feminine. The sex-determination checks were basically targeted to identify gender related inherited abnormality in the unborn child. The aim behind such exams is good but humans, under the impact of self-indulgent tendencies, always operate good to fulfill their ambitions, wants and egos at the cost of others and civilization as well.

Instead of this, few examples remain there which depicts the sense of women power. Divakaruni pictures her character types as a portrayal of Shakti. They will not tolerate this cultural trauma forever, and lastly they choose their own life by their own way. Both her personas Sudha from Sister of my Heart and Runu through the Ultrasound do the same. They both try to escape using their in-laws place and begin their autonomous life for his or her daughters.

In our historic epics there is a predicament regarding to the position of women, sometimes they may be treated inferior and on the other hands they are also regarded as a Goddess (Shakti). Inside our background Draupadi was an example of such woman ability. Divakaruni has made an attempt to trace out the body, feelings, thoughts, and questions that are going-on in the mind of Draupadi in a course of her novel Palace of Illusions (2008). She has provided a woman's response or responses on the organism of contemporary society. The author tried to show a mythical view of myths and stereotypes in her book. This novel talks about the fantastic Indian epic the Mahabharata, through the eye of Draupadi. She endeavoured to elucidate those details that, will there be anything left to be confronted for a woman? How she fit herself in these unusual conditions? Is it the only vacation spot of her life? It is not she who makes a decision on her behalf own life even she is designed to live just how of life which is prepared by her encircling and future.

It is an extremely fine attempt by the writer to re-write the Mahabharata by having a feminine perspective. She had written in her note that,

But always, hearing the experiences of the Mahabharata as a young female in the lantern-lit evenings within my grandfather's town home, or later, poring on the thousand site leather-bound volume in my parents' home in Kolkata. I was unsatisfied by the portrayals of the women. 34

Thus, this primitive epic didn't have powerful, complicated women personas that influenced the action in major ways. For instance, there was the widowed Kunti, mother of the Pandavas; Gandhari, partner of the sightless Kaurava king; and the majority of all there is Panchaali, king Drupad'sbeautiful daughter impact her the most. However in a way, they continue to be shadowy numbers, their thoughts and motives incomprehensible, their emotions portrayed only when they influenced the lives of the male heroes, their roles ultimately subservient to people of their fathers or husbands, brothers, or sons. She further says that,

I would place the ladies in the forefront of the action. I would uncover the storyline that lay invisible between your lines of the men's exploits. On top of that, I would have one of them inform it herself, will all her joys and concerns, her battles, her triumphs, her heartbreaks, her accomplishments, the unique feminine way in which she sees her world and her place in it. 35

When we browse the epic Mahabharata, we're able to obtain the picture of the health of ladies in the primitive civilization. But there are so many points related to women remain unfocused. The writer attempted to re-write the Mahabharatawith the narration of Draupadi. We can find it completely different through her eye.

Draupadi was one particular characters who had been connected to every occurrence of the heroic event. She herself was the data of brutal body work of wicked society and exactly how she faced those ill-customs, was the building blocks natural stone for the new and strong thinking about today's girl. Draupadi's "Cheer-Haran", point out a question on women's honour, thus, the storyplot explains to us about the conflict which was brought on by an misuse to one female and her thirsting require for revenge that eventually wipes out the third age group of man -Bheeshma, the grandfather; Drona, the tutor; Kripa, the royal tutor.

Draupadi and her sibling Dhirstadyumna (Dhri) emerged from fire plus they both were developed together but there is a great difference in their lifestyle and day to day routine. They both received different education by the tutor Kripa. It had been believed that woman is only meant for home works and her main obligation is to take care of her husband and family. Opposite to it boy was presented with other lessons, though these a woman couldn't share. It really is a point of inner conflict which is introduced by Divakaruni that, a girl's world is totally different from the boy's one and it is expected that she must acknowledge it. There are so many questions that was arouse in Draupadi's mind that, why Dhri was presented with other lessons, though these I couldn't discuss?

He fought with sword and spear and mace with the commander of the Panchaal army. He learned to wrestle, to ride horses and elephants, to control a chariot in case his charioteer was killed in battle. . . . . . . . . he occur court and observed my dad dispensing justice. For the king got to know how to use his leisure appropriately - he played out dice with other commendable born youngsters, or went to quail attack, or gone boating. 36

As opposed being a woman Draupati's lessons are completely different. An unending blast of women flowed through her apartments rentals every day, attempted to instruct her in the sixty-four arts that gracious ladies must know. She was presented with lessons in dancing, singing, and participating in music. She was trained to sew, attract, paint, and enhance the bottom with age-old auspicious designs. These entire modules made her frustrated butthat was the future, which was chose for a woman by our ancestors. With each lessons she thought the world of woman tightening up its noose around her and she experienced a destiny to fulfil it. Through Draupadi the author asked a question to the population that, "Why was no person concerned about planning me for it? 37.

Divakaruni discusses those myths and stereotypes through Draupadi's autobiography, which were popular in theancient time. Her courageous questions are a stigma on the modern culture that, who made the decision a woman's highest duty is to aid man? Why she can't plan on doing other activities with her own life?

In historic time a queen must learn the rules of comportment - how to walk, speak, and sit together with man; how showing esteem to queens who tend to be important; and the main how to intimidate the other wives of her hubby. A king always requires other wives, whether ones like or not and on the other side a female won't even get an opportunity to speak to her spouse before marriage. The author also described in her work The Palace of Illusions, the teacher Kripa's declaration for women's responsibilities that,

A Kshatriya woman's highest purpose in life is to aid the warriors in her life: her dad, brother, man, and sons. If indeed they should be called to battle, she must be happy that they have the possibility to fulfil a heroic destiny. Rather than praying because of their safe return, she must pray that they die with glory on the battlefield. 38

Besides of most negative illustration in cultural format there are few positive aspects also, which make them feel about their own very pleased life. In Hinduism there are a variety of portrayals who encouraged today's girl to fight for their own belongings and get spark to live a life with self-respect. Such as for example Sita, Kunti, Gandhari, Rani Laxmibai, and so on; who rooted their own personality into the prevailing male dominated population. It was nothing at all that the world of their time was different even still they may be calibre to become idols for his or her followers. In a single hand woman is actually criticized but on the other side it was said in Manuscript on her behalf, "Where women are honoured, there the gods are thrilled. But where they aren't honoured, no sacred rite produces rewards. " Manuscript (3. 556)

In bottom line, women are far too different from men to be their equals, and Chitra Banerjee recognized this. She considers that girls lack the durability that men possess, and this means that girls are weaker in physical form only. Men may have better than women actually but women have advantages that are way superior in the areas. The Divakaruni realised these talents and began to note that women are definitely more suited to certain tasks in her life. She thinks that today women get lots of credit and are acknowledged more because of their talents than they used to be. However the majority is that women are still not cured as equals to men. Among this is that women don't make the maximum amount of money as men generally, even if indeed they both have the same job. Often female makes about 30% less overall than a man will for the same job.

We chat of revolution - political and economic but yet the greatest revolution in a country is one which effects improvement in the status and living conditions of its women. - Jawaharlal Nehru

Women have gained so much power and admiration before thirty or so years. Since, women have been accepted for things including the area of the national government but the world still not forgot the gender concern and stereotypes. That is unfair but since this is now our civilization generally views women, it is something that Divakaruni thinks would be the largest obstacle for a woman candidate to defeat. She provided us a chance to look in a time when woman acquired really cared for as a weaker making love, most men see women as weakened and not to useful. Being a girl herself, she seems that ladies are an important area of the society.

Author's writing is therefore to a great level about women, and since she actually is writing about women, she finally writes for females and clever men. She constantly provides her attention in terms of gender alternatively than race. She would very much affectionate of all backgrounds to get in her books. Perhaps for grounds, that woman's experiences are much more similar then ordinarily thing.

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