The Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne British Literature Essay

Hypocritical effort to conceal the secret sins has Arthur Dimmesdale, Hester Prynne, and Roger Chillingworth collapse. This hypocrisy makes Hawthorn be disappointed with the Puritan society. So he criticizes it with the method of tragic irony in the novel. For example, Dimsdale becomes imperfect by trying to be perfect. The greater his followers respect him as a saint, a lot more he feels sinful. Thus, the storyplot is full of tragic irony.

In the beginning of the novel, Hester with black eye and dark locks is sitting on the scaffold for three hours, transporting her little little girl of three months old in her biceps and triceps. While she is withstanding the public ordeal, The Reverend Mr. Wilson delivers a talk about sin and the reason why Hester has to wear the scarlet letter "A" on her breast. He persuades Hester to uncover the daddy of her child, but she does not speak at all. She suddenly sees Chillingworth, her hubby, standing in the masses. He makes a gesture with his fingers not to disclose his personal information. When she comes back to a prison, she is almost mad with a religious pain. That evening, Chillingworth trips her as a physician who manages her. She talks with him for a long time at night prison. She says him that she will not love him. She admits that she has wronged him. She won't tell him about the child's father, and he decides to find who the father is. He asks her never to reveal the actual fact that he's her spouse.

Three years after her produces from imprisonment, Hester does not leave Boston. Instead, she lives in a seaside shanty on the suburbs of Boston. She makes her living by doing needle work. She helps the needy people. Her serves of charity cause her to get respect from people. Meanwhile, the governor Bellingham will try to take her child away from Hester, persuading her to raise Pearl in a Religious way. But she does not give her up. As the years pass, Pearl matures. She is Hester's happiness. Chillingworth gradually gets a good reputation as your physician, and lastly becomes the medical adviser of Dimmesdale. As their friendly romance produces, Dimmesdale even speaks about his personal things to Chillingworth. They live alongside one another in the same house and it makes Chillingworth find that Dimmesdale greatly pays focus on Hester. He finally is aware of that Dimmesdale is Pearl's dad. So he chooses to adopt revenge on him. One nights while Dimmsdale is sitting on the scaffold, Hester and Pearl come. Dimmesdale telephone calls those to the scaffold. Dimmesdale tells Hester that he is reluctant of Chillingworth on the scaffold. At that time, Chillingworth is secretly seeing them. After she perceives Dimmsdale being in despair, Hester sympathizes with him in his anguish. So she decides to help him. Four years have handed down. Hester has a good reputation and value from individuals locally because of her charity. Her scarlet letter "A" is no more of any token of her shameful adultery to her.

When Hester complies with Chillingworth in the seashore, she explains to him that she'll confess to Dimmsdale that he is her husband. One day Hester and Pearl come across Dimmesdale in the woods. He appears unpleasant because of his key sin. He is apparently in the depths of despair as if he doesn't have any aspire to live. Dimmsdale confesses his religious pain to Hester. It makes her confess that Chillingworth is her partner to Dimmsdale. He seems to be furious at first, but finally he forgives her. They consent to leave Boston and go to European countries together with Pearl. Dimmesdale thinks that he is able to have more civilized and processed life there. After he comes back from the woods, he abruptly determines to confess his sin in public areas. So he writes the Election Sermon. It really is successful. In the meantime, on the day when they secretly go to European countries by ship, Chillingworth blueprints to table the dispatch with them. After Dimmsdale surface finishes his sermon, he beckons to Hester and Pearl to come. They stand on the scaffold together. Dimmesdale confesses to the individuals who he Commit adultery with Hester and Pearl is his child. After confessing his sin, he dies on the scaffold. After Dimmesdale's death, Hester goes to Europe with her princess. Pearl gladly marries and lives there, but Hester profits to Boston. She never will take off her scarlet notice. When she dies, she actually is buried next to Dimmesdale. They share a scarlet notice "A" on the gravestones.

Attitude

Nathaniel Hawthorne makes good use of the remarkable irony in his book. He regards humans as originally imperfect animals. The dehumanization in a Puritan population in the novel is criticized with the technique of tragic irony which is meticulously related to a dualistic view of life. A lot of the personas are Puritans. They are simply innocent and try to build an excellent contemporary society in their own way. Such a perfect Puritan community supports its secrets and sin within each member. This creates irony or hypocrisy and has each individual feel guilty. In the novel, Hester, Dimmesdale, and Chilligworth are isolated from a standard society plus they suffer from the various areas of sin. Hypocritical action to conceal their top secret sins makes them collapse. Although Hester seems humility and humiliation because of her sin, she actually is spiritually free. When Dimmesdale finally uncovers his sin to the people throughout the scaffold, they won't believe that he's sinner like Hester. The fact that Dimmsdale is the vulnerable minister and a key sinner results within an infinite maze of irony. Dimmesdale's dual personal information is shown in Hester wearing the shameful token of the scarlet letter on her breast and in Chillingworth with his secret revenge for Dimmsdale. The irony of Dimmesdale's situation is shown in the actual fact that he becomes imperfect by pretending to be perfect. Dimmesdale tries to appear to be a perfect man, for he believes there is complete good and evil on the globe.

By using tragic irony, Hawthorne accumulates the plot which gives us constant affinity for his novel. Thus, The Scarlet Notice is chiefly made up of tragic irony, and the author's purposes are well represented by it.

Shift

In chapter 16, Dimmesdale is apparently in despair as though he does not have any will or desire to live whereas in chapter 18, he takes courage because Hester encourages him that she pledges to visit Europe alongside one another. So he makes a decision to leave the Puritan population. He's reborn with great energy. He thinks everything positively. In chapter 23, he all of a sudden provides up everything. He cannot react against his conscience. In this chapter, Chillingworth loses his reason for revenge completely when Dimmesdale dies. Hester also lose her enthusiast. She does not need to feel the loneliness she has already acquired when Dimmesdale dies. Pearl can have a life which is full of love and happiness.

In section 13, Hester's charity and kindness little by little have her position to be evolved locally. She helps the needy people surviving in the town. Good reputation from the folks make her scarlet notice symbolize something apart from shameful adultery. It no more stands for "shame, " and it is no longer a token of her shameful adultery. It now stands for "Able. "

The readers can see the move of Dimmesdale's conscience by assessing the three scaffold displays. Within the first scaffold world, he will not want to disclose his secret sin. In the second scaffold arena, he confesses his sin in private at night, so it will not seem to be a public confession. In the final scaffold picture, he shows his sin in public areas. At the moment, his conscience finally clears.

Themes

This section will discuss the following four themes or templates: sin, conscience, Puritanism, and forgiveness.

Sin

By choosing a Puritan world and adultery as the environment for this novel, Hawthorne is free to explore the emotional impact of sin on everyone included.

In Puritan contemporary society adultery is both a crime and a sin. As a woman whose partner is absent, Hester's motherhood is evidence of her immoral relationship with a man, not her hubby. Puritans usually impose the loss of life penalty on adulterers, however, since Hester's man might be dead they avoid administering it in cases like this. They can not let her sin go unpunished, so they word her to 3 years in jail, and she must wear the "A" on her behalf breasts during her life span. In addition, she is cast from the community. Towards the Puritans, sin is similar to the infectious disease. Hester is "quarantined" in the expectation that her sin will not pollute the community. Puritanism is a rigid version of Christianity. In other sects after Christians confess their sins and perform penance, their sins are forgiven and they receive reconciliation with God and their community. Hester on her behalf part acknowledges her wrongdoing, so she endures her abuse with elegance. Upon her release from jail, she makes a living by sewing and embroidery. Her industriousness and thrift allow her to carry out many works of charity for the indegent. Although her life is not really a happy one, her sin and succeeding penance create a chance for her religious development and personal progress.

Dimmesdale provides the weight of sin in private. He does not make spiritual improvement instead he becomes a hypocrite. Puritans expect their ministers to get high moral benchmarks. He seems guilty that he is not living up to them. He tries to execute penance in private, but his work do not offer him any spiritual relief. His spiritual agony starts to affect his physical health adversely, to the point where his congregation commences to stress about him.

Chillingworth has a reader's sympathy initially because he is suffering from wrongdoing of his partner. Marrying a much younger woman will not specify as a sin. But after a while he offers himself to sin by taking revenge on Dimmsdale who comes with an adulterous relationship along with his partner. The sin of revenge literally transforms him in the following ways: accelerated increasing age, deformation of facial features, and the stoop in his rear. They can be thought to personify the key phrase "ugly as sin. "

Conscience

For Hawthorne, individual conscience plays a valuable role. Whenever a person relies on his intuition and sympathy for others, he/she is able to make good moral decisions. The Puritans, in contrast, have little use for specific conscience. In order to do what is right, a Puritan only must follow the religious guidelines of community. Consequently specific conscience is subordinate to the religious commandments of the Bible, Hester uses her own intuition to make moral decisions, a characteristic which models her aside from her fellow Puritans. Dimmesdale's conscience torments him. The viewers can easily see the developments of Dimmsdale's conscience by looking at the three scaffold displays in section 2, chapter 12, and section 23. Inside the first field, he exhorts Hester to name the daddy, but it is clear from his two times speak that he does not want his sin to be discovered in public areas. In the next scaffold picture, he confesses his sin aloud, but he's alone during the night, so it does not matter as a general public confession. In the final scaffold arena, after his election day sermon he confesses to the individuals who he's Hester's secret spouse and he's a dad of Pearl. His conscience finally clears, but he has resided with the guilt for such a long time that he does not have any strength to have after his confession. Chillingworth begins with a conscience as evidenced by his dialog with Hester in which he admits marrying her against her desires is a mistake that leaves her vulnerable sin of adultery. When he suspects that the other get together to adultery continues to be in town, he loses his conscience in direct proportion to his effort to exact revenge on Dimmesdale. With revenge as his entire purpose for living, he cannot make it through after Dimmesdale's confession, which makes revenge worthless.

Puritanism

Puritanism has a solid effect on The Scarlet Notice. In the book, Hawthorne wants to spell it out how Puritanism in the 17th century apparently ignores the sanity of real human minds in every aspect of punishment and salvation. He provides us the essence of the Puritan thoughts of Boston, like the Puritan's view on man's sinful situation, and the intolerant Puritan attitude towards sinner. The Puritan market leaders at that time condemn every person who fails morally and drive them to handle a public penitence. The Puritan legislation is far from God's divine love which embraces all sinners having imperfect mother nature and real human weakness.

Hawthorne is disappointed with the intolerable system of Puritan world and its rigorous and inhumane moral code which denies man's imperfection. Within the book, the Puritans impose overweight a penalty on Hester, although she actually is a sinner. Hester realizes that she cannot get away from from severe consequence by rigorous Puritan regulations, and also realizes God's love for the poor and the needy. On the other hand, Dimmesdale is described as a typical scapegoat who cannot get away from from the influence of inhumane and merciless Puritan dogmas. Hester Prynne achieves her religious greatness despite her own humane weakness and the prejudice of her Puritan modern culture.

Forgiveness

The reader accumulates early hints about Hawthorne's attitude toward forgiveness in the custom house because he explicitly mentions offering forgiveness to his enemies. Hester can forgive her enemies for the most part. Hester, as part of moral development, learns how to forgive and she actually is also in a position to exhort others to forgive. For instance in chapter 14, she asks Chillingworth not to take revenge on Dimmesdale and to forgive him. One of the indicators that Chillingworth has considered Satan is that he is not capable of forgiving. He's even given the label "the Unforgiving" in section 11. In chapter 17, Hester confesses Chillingworth's personal information to Dimmesdale. Dimmsdale is unwilling to forgive her, but finally he does indeed so of his own free will. He makes a spot of requesting God for forgiveness for both of them. For Dimmesdale, forgiveness by God is more important than human forgiveness. This is not unexpected because to a minister forgiveness of sins by God is essential for entrance to Heaven. While Dimmesdale is dying on the scaffold, he does not forgive Chillingworth. Instead, he calls on God to forgive his tormentor.

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Attitude

Nathaniel Hawthorne makes good use of the remarkable irony in his book. He regards human beings as formerly imperfect animals. The dehumanization in a Puritan modern culture in the book is criticized with the technique of tragic irony which is directly related to a dualistic view of life. Most of the individuals are Puritans. They can be innocent and try to build a great contemporary society in their own way. Such a perfect Puritan community contains its secrets and sin within each member. This creates irony or hypocrisy and has each individual feel guilty. In the novel, Hester, Dimmesdale, and Chilligworth are isolated from a standard society plus they suffer from the various areas of sin. Hypocritical action to conceal their hidden knowledge sins makes them collapse. Although Hester seems humility and shame because of her sin, she is spiritually free. When Dimmesdale finally uncovers his sin to the people surrounding the scaffold, they won't believe that he's sinner like Hester. The fact that Dimmsdale is the vulnerable minister and a hidden knowledge sinner results within an unlimited maze of irony. Dimmesdale's dual personal information is shown in Hester wearing the shameful token of the scarlet notice on her breasts and in Chillingworth with his secret revenge for Dimmsdale. The irony of Dimmesdale's situation is shown in the actual fact that he becomes imperfect by pretending to be perfect. Dimmesdale attempts to appear to be a perfect man, for he feels there is overall good and wicked in the world.

By using tragic irony, Hawthorne builds up the plot which gives us constant involvement in his novel. Thus, The Scarlet Letter is chiefly made up of tragic irony, and the author's purposes are well symbolized by it.

Shift

In chapter 16, Dimmesdale seems to maintain despair as if he has no will or hope to live whereas in section 18, he needs courage because Hester motivates him that she promises to visit Europe together. So he makes a decision to leave the Puritan world. He is reborn with great energy. He thinks everything positively. In chapter 23, he abruptly offers up everything. He cannot respond against his conscience. In such a chapter, Chillingworth loses his reason for revenge completely when Dimmesdale dies. Hester also lose her enthusiast. She does not need to feel the loneliness she has already experienced when Dimmesdale dies. Pearl can have a life which is filled with love and delight.

In section 13, Hester's charity and kindness steadily have her position to be changed in the community. She helps the needy people living in the city. Good reputation from people make her scarlet letter symbolize something other than shameful adultery. It no more stands for "shame, " which is no more a token of her shameful adultery. It now stands for "Able. "

The readers can see the move of Dimmesdale's conscience by evaluating the three scaffold moments. Inside the first scaffold field, he does not want to disclose his magic formula sin. In the second scaffold field, he confesses his sin in private at night, so it does not seem to be a public confession. In the final scaffold picture, he discloses his sin in public areas. At this time, his conscience finally clears.

Themes

This section will discuss the following four themes or templates: sin, conscience, Puritanism, and forgiveness.

Sin

By choosing a Puritan culture and adultery as the environment for this novel, Hawthorne is free to explore the mental impact of sin on everyone involved.

In Puritan population adultery is both a offense and a sin. As a female whose partner is absent, Hester's being pregnant is evidence of her immoral romantic relationship with a man, not her partner. Puritans usually impose the death charges on adulterers, however, since Hester's man might be deceased they refrain from administering it in cases like this. They can not let her sin go unpunished, so they word her to 3 years in jail, and she must wear the "A" on her behalf breasts during her life span. In addition, she actually is cast from the community. Towards the Puritans, sin is similar to the infectious disease. Hester is "quarantined" in the anticipation that her sin won't pollute the community. Puritanism is a rigid version of Christianity. In other sects after Christians confess their sins and perform penance, their sins are forgiven and they get reconciliation with God and their community. Hester for her part acknowledges her wrongdoing, so she endures her consequence with elegance. Upon her release from prison, she makes a living by sewing and embroidery. Her industriousness and thrift allow her to handle many works of charity for the poor. Although her life is not really a very happy one, her sin and subsequent penance create a chance for her religious development and personal progress.

Dimmesdale carries the weight of sin in private. He does not make spiritual improvement instead he becomes a hypocrite. Puritans expect their ministers to acquire high moral standards. He seems guilty that he is not living up to them. He will try to execute penance in private, but his attempts do not offer him any religious relief. His spiritual agony starts to have an effect on his physical health negatively, to the point where his congregation begins to worry about him.

Chillingworth has a reader's sympathy in the beginning because he suffers from wrongdoing of his wife. Marrying a much youthful woman does not be eligible as a sin. But after a while he gives himself to sin by taking revenge on Dimmsdale who has an adulterous relationship along with his better half. The sin of revenge in physical form transforms him in the next ways: accelerated aging, deformation of cosmetic features, and the stoop in his backside. He can be thought to personify the key phrase "ugly as sin. "

Conscience

For Hawthorne, individual conscience plays a very important role. Whenever a person depends on his intuition and sympathy for others, he/she is able to make good moral decisions. The Puritans, in contrast, have little use for specific conscience. To carry out what's right, a Puritan only has to follow the spiritual rules of community. So specific conscience is subordinate to the religious commandments of the Bible, Hester uses her own intuition to make moral decisions, a characteristic which packages her apart from her fellow Puritans. Dimmesdale's conscience torments him. The viewers can easily see the improvements of Dimmsdale's conscience by looking at the three scaffold views in chapter 2, section 12, and chapter 23. Within the first picture, he exhorts Hester to mention the daddy, but it is clear from his two times speak that he will not want his sin to be revealed in public. In the next scaffold picture, he confesses his sin out loud, but he's alone during the night, so it does not count number as a general public confession. In the ultimate scaffold landscape, after his election day sermon he confesses to the people that he's Hester's secret spouse and he's a dad of Pearl. His conscience finally clears, but he has lived with the guilt for so long that he does not have any strength to have after his confession. Chillingworth begins with a conscience as evidenced by his chat with Hester where he admits marrying her against her hopes is a mistake that leaves her prone sin of adultery. When he suspects that the other get together to adultery continues to be in town, he loses his conscience in direct percentage to his work to exact revenge on Dimmesdale. With revenge as his entire motive for living, he cannot endure after Dimmesdale's confession, which makes revenge pointless.

Puritanism

Puritanism has a solid influence on The Scarlet Letter. In the book, Hawthorne wants to spell it out how Puritanism in the 17th century obviously ignores the sanity of individual minds in every aspect of punishment and salvation. He provides us the substance of the Puritan thoughts of Boston, like the Puritan's take on man's sinful situation, and the intolerant Puritan frame of mind towards sinner. The Puritan market leaders in those days condemn every person who fails morally and drive them to handle a open public penitence. The Puritan regulations is far from God's divine love which embraces all sinners having imperfect dynamics and individual weakness.

Hawthorne is disappointed with the intolerable system of Puritan contemporary society and its stringent and inhumane moral code which denies man's imperfection. In the book, the Puritans impose too heavy a penalty on Hester, although she actually is a sinner. Hester realizes that she cannot get away from from severe consequence by tight Puritan laws, and also realizes God's love for the indegent and the needy. On the other hand, Dimmesdale is described as a typical scapegoat who can not get away from the affect of inhumane and merciless Puritan dogmas. Hester Prynne achieves her religious greatness despite her own humane weakness and the prejudice of her Puritan society.

Forgiveness

The reader picks up early signs about Hawthorne's attitude toward forgiveness in the custom house because he explicitly mentions offering forgiveness to his enemies. Hester can forgive her enemies generally. Hester, as a part of moral development, learns how to forgive and she actually is also in a position to exhort others to forgive. For example in chapter 14, she asks Chillingworth never to take revenge on Dimmesdale and also to forgive him. One of the signals that Chillingworth has turned to Satan is that he is not capable of forgiving. He is even given the label "the Unforgiving" in chapter 11. In section 17, Hester confesses Chillingworth's identification to Dimmesdale. Dimmsdale is unwilling to forgive her, but finally he does indeed so of his own free will. He makes a spot of requesting God for forgiveness for both of these. For Dimmesdale, forgiveness by God is more important than real human forgiveness. This is not unusual because to a minister forgiveness of sins by God is essential for admission to Heaven. While Dimmesdale is dying on the scaffold, he will not forgive Chillingworth instead he phone calls on God to forgive his tormentor.

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