The Theme Of Illusion And Realism

The Cherry Orchard and Spirits both have a common factor, the theme of illusion and realism. Despite the fact that this is common in both the has, the playwrights treat them very differently. Both Ghosts along with the Cherry Orchard were written with one common motive - to disclose the flaws of contemporary society. Yet, the dissimilarity is based on the fact that they were coping with two completely dissimilar societies. Ibsen's most important goal was to be sarcastic about the faade people create in culture. He exposed the fact that each family has its dark secrets, which are veiled from society by a covering of artificiality. All of the members of modern culture possessed an illusion created about themselves. The play shows one such personality, Mrs. Alving. Despite the fact that she is apparently blissfully happy in contemporary society, she laments that she was too cowardly to see her own son about Capt. Alving's dishonesty. Ibsen uses her figure to reveal the artificiality of modern culture. Chekov on the other hand deals with an extremely different aspect of society. Russian culture was undergoing substantial change. The abolition of feudalism and serfdom, by the emancipation proclamation, provided climb to the bourgeois category. The aristocrats shown perennial extravagance, even when they knew that they were in grave financial debt. This is actually the very facet of world Chekov has targeted. Madame Ranevsky's family was under the fake pretense they are living in the past. They won't face the reality and hold off the sale of the Orchard. Contrastingly, Lopakhin possessed turn into a millionaire, by his adherence to realism. He presumed his eyes, not his center, thus through utter hard work he became successful.

The theme of illusion and realism assists many purposes. Ibsen uses the theme of illusion as a gateway, or a stepping-stone to reveal many other designs in the play. It is a technique utilized by the writer to create other designs in the play to the audience. This can help to keep carefully the audience's curiosity, being that they are offered two different ideas at the same time. Firstly, the theme of illusion helps to depict the theme of duty. Mrs. Alving's love and adherence to duty is shown from the illusion she creates in Oswald's head. As the dutiful mother she creates a "happy illusion" of his father as a principled and reputable man, whereas the truth is Capt. Alving was insincere and employed in licentious activities. Illusion also depicts Manders's idea in duty. Manders censures Mrs. Alving for 'forsaking' her duty as mother and seems it's his responsibility to see her concerning this. This also portrays the obsession for duty, common in Norwegian culture at that time. Wives were regarded as lower in society and it was their work to stay devoted to their husband, no matter how disloyal the partner was. People in Norwegian society considered duty to be of extreme goal. The theme of adultery is also portrayed through illusion. Ibsen uses literary ways to depict the theme of illusion and certainty. When Oswald and Regina are in the conservatory she identifies them as the metaphorical 'Ghosts'. This shows the audience the utter shock Mrs. Alving at the resemblance of Oswald's relationship compared to that of Captain Alving.

Chekov's use of Illusion and Realism is somewhat similar compared to that of Ibsen. He also employs Illusion to depict a great many other themes or templates in the play. The theme of invocation of days gone by is one major theme depicted using illusion. Madame Ranvsky, even in her grave financial position, continues to invest lavishly. This is visible when Anya says, "We get away at a stop to involve some meal, and she asks for all the priciest things and provides the waiters a florin each for a tip; and Charlotte does the same. " Chekov also depicts the theme of climb of the peasants through realism. Lophakhin's practicality over sentimentality approach has helped him to become millionaire and go up to the center class. That is evident when he says, " My father, it is true, was a peasant, and here I am in a white waistline coat and brownish boots" This was very relevant to Russian society of this time. Russian society was undergoing substantial social change. After surfs were freed, many of them excelled in culture trough their sensible approach and hard work. However, many people of the aristocracy continued to be flippant towards their expenditures even though the end of feudalism has put them in heavy financial debt. Chekov's use of Illusion however provides another reason for laughter. Ibsen will not provide any comic relief through his use of illusions, alternatively he uses them critically. Gayef's incessant absorption of candy and unreal game of billiards does create laughter in the audience. As far as literary and dramatic techniques are worried, Chekov makes comprehensive use of exaggeration and stage direction to build illusion. The play opens up with the stage route 'A room which is still called the nursery'. This dramatic technique conveys to the audience the illusion that the Ranevsky family is living under. They feel they can be in the past where they are still prosperous and rich but it turns out the other way around.

Ibsen also uses illusion and realism to effect a result of characterization. Mrs. Alving's courage is portrayed through illusion. She overcomes her cowardice and lastly sabotages Oswald's fake belief by revealing him the reality about his dad. Pastor Manders's persona is also depicted by illusion. His superficiality and gullibility has been shown by illusion. He trusts Engstrand too quickly predicated on the illusion created by him in the pastor's head. This is apparent when he says, "My dear female, don't assess so hastily. It is very sad how you misjudge poor Engstrand". He believes that Engstrand cares the most about Regina however we have seen that it's on the other hand, this illusion shows the pastor's gullibility. The theme of illusion also says us that Pastor Manders is a puppet of culture. He reprimands Mrs. Alving to be an unfaithful partner for leaving her husband unaware of Captain Alving's doings; however he seems it appropriate that Mrs. Alving lied to her own child about Capt. Alving's doings. This shows that he's indeed a puppet of contemporary society since society would have considered it incorrect that Oswald know the reality about his dad. This also offers us information of the state of mind people possessed in Norwegian modern culture. Pastor Manders reflects an ordinary person of contemporary society, essentially because he's society's puppet. People in Norwegian culture would consider society's response before making any decisions. Manders chosen against insuring the Orphanage because population could have considered it inappropriate, though it was the most pragmatic course of action.

The theme of illusion is also used to bring about characterization inside the Cherry Orchard. Barbara and Lopakhin are icons of realism. They have a very realistic approach to Madame Ranevsky's situation. Barbara screams and works away on witnessing the tramp. This shows her practicality since she acknowledges that if Madame Ranevsky does not try to improve her finances they may conclude like the tramp. Lopakhin was a peasant who rose to the middle class by utter hard work. This is obvious when he explains to Madame Ranevsky, " You need to make up your minds forever. Time waits for no man. " Lopakhin epitomizes realism through these words. Illusion also results in Madame Ranevsky's character, the protagonist of the play. She actually is under the phony pretense that she actually is living in the past; this triggers her to be flippant towards her bills. This is shown when she says, "(Crying) I am a little girl still". It is this very mentality that contributes to her extravagant lifestyle. This also provides us a ethnic aspect of Russia. The aristocrats failed to recognize their financial needs. They went on spending lavishly, even though that they had nearly no money at all. This is the aspect of society Chekov has targeted in the play.

In final result, the theme of illusion and fact contributes majorly to the main plot of both works. Although both playwrights have a typical purpose to use illusion and realism, the dissimilarity in the use of the themes in the respective plays manifest a huge difference in the audience reaction to the topics. Ibsen will not provide any comic relief by through the theme of illusion and realism; alternatively he creates a tense atmosphere in the audience through these styles. Chekov, on the contrary, does provide comic alleviation along with his use of illusion and realism, thus lessening the strain in the audience and providing a lighter disposition to the play.

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