The Theme Of Riders To The Sea English Literature Essay

Sean O'Casey's Juno and the Paycock (1980) is defined in a Dublin tenement block through the Irish Civil Conflict that immediately preceded the creation of the Irish Free Talk about in 1922. It sorts a part of what's generally labelled his 'Dublin trilogy' along with Shadow of any Gunman along with the Plough and the Superstars. With constant mention of the political troubles that beset Ireland and its people in this tumultuous amount of its background, the audience could be forgiven for assuming that the main themes or templates, concerns and perspectives included within the play cannot be further from J. M. Synge's Riders to the Sea (1995) established on the Aran Islands at an indeterminate time. The play was first printed in 1904 and focuses on man's, or more accurately, woman's romantic relationship with nature. Politics interests hardly seem to be to impinge upon a play that is defined in that seemingly amazing environment, but it would be incorrect to typify Riders to the Sea as apolitical. Its focus on the fighting experienced by Maurya, the play's central character, is a stark reminder to urbanites that the inhabitants of the more remote regions of the united states are not only untamed and savage folk. By attempting to capture many of the wonder of both the landscaping and the terminology of the Aran isles, Synge is wanting to protect a certain aspect of Irish life that might be very easily neglected amongst the spiritual and political turmoil of the period. What both plays have in common is the emphasis upon the strength that is shown by the feminine characters with regards to the occasions that unfold around them. Both Maurya and Mrs. Boyle in Juno and the Paycock act as a centre to the action and it is through both of these women that both plays are known respectively. It really is for this reason fact that I would like to target specifically on the problem of gender in checking and contrasting both works. This discourse is divided into two sections. Firstly, I shall discuss Juno and the Paycock, talking about the heroes and themes. As it is a a lot longer play than Riders to the ocean, it provides a good history to highlighting the topics I wish to discuss throughout. Following this, I will consider Synge's work with regards to O'Casey's.

The name of Juno and the Paycock refers to the play's two central characters, 'Captain' Jack Boyle (the 'paycock' or peacock) and his partner Juno Boyle. The dissimilarities between the two has been detailed by Grene as, 'The Captain means drink, have a discussion, the public-house, the pleasure-principle; Juno means work, the home, the family, the reality-principle' (1999, p. 129). Jack Boyle is referred to as the 'Captain' scheduled to one voyage he made as a product owner seamen in his young days and nights and has been waxing lyrical about his life at sea since. He's lazy, shiftless and something of a fantasist, spending all day long drinking along with his two-faced good friend 'Joxer' Daly and finding any excuse to avoid doing a day's work. On the other hand, Juno is a woman that has been worn down by the vicissitudes of working-class life. On her first entrance in to the play, O'Casey expresses in his description of her that, 'Were circumstances favourable, she'd oftimes be a handsome, productive and clever woman' (1980, p. 6). Whereas the 'Captain' selects to escape his commitments through drunkenness and work-shy behaviour, Juno is an able woman who has been floor down by the harsh realities of life. Juno herself sums up her relationship with her husband best when she states, 'I killin' meself workin' an' he sthruttin' about from mornin' till night just like a paycock!' (1980, p. 10).

That she actually is the rock of the family is also visible through her romance with her two children, Johnny and Mary. Johnny has lost his arm and been taken through the pelvis therefore of struggling with for the Republican Army during the have difficulties for self-reliance. His physical wounds also have left him a anxious wreck of a guy; a state further exacerbated by the guilt he feels over informing on Tancred, one of his colleagues who has been taken and killed. Struggling to recognize his own traitorous activities, he constantly insists that, 'a basic principle a concept' as a kind of self-justification and exculpation. His more useful mother responds to the assertion by professing that, 'you lost your very best principle, me youngster, when you lost your arm' (1980, p. 27), reminding him that his failure to now work has done him no favours whatsoever. Despite Juno's unwillingness to comprehend her son's idealism, it must be remembered that she actually is the only character in the play that truly sticks tightly to a couple of rules throughout. Grene expresses this sentiment where he reminds the reader that, 'The working-class mother fails to understand the truth of the political principles so apparent to the enlightened, informed boy. . . though she may embody those principles as the 'heart of socialism' in her very unconscious' (1999 p. 126).

The idea of basic principle is also encapsulated in the relationship that she has with her daughter Mary who is taking hit action. When Mary asks her what ribbon she should devote her head of hair, Juno replies that, 'it's wearin' them things that make the employers think they're givin' yous too much money' (1980, p. 7). What at first seems such as a cynical answer her daughter's question is really strong proof Juno's empathy. It really is her ability to comprehend the motives of others that provides her with the required strength to keep with life's bitter disappointments. Unlike the other users of her family, she owns this capability to empathise with others because she actually is not looking for a getaway road. Mary's reading behaviors however, are an instantaneous indication that she really wants to rise above the type of life that she's in the tenement. That is further developed through her relationship with the institution educator and trainee solicitor, Charles Bentham, who also informs the Boyle family that they are due to get a large inheritance from a lately deceased relative. Within the dnouement of the play, it transpires that Mary is pregnant with Bentham's child and the money from the will is uncollectible because of the vagueness of the original record. When Bentham flees the problem, it is Juno who assumes the duty of Mary, whilst her partner is ingesting himself into a stupor in the nearest snug. The solidity of Juno's personality is further testified with her stoicism at learning of the fatality of Johnny at the hands of fellow Republicans. Even when taken to breaking point, she will try to remain as calm as you possibly can so as never to distress her pregnant little princess. Her durability of identity is contrasted with the ultimate introduction of Boyle and pal 'Joxer', both in circumstances of extreme inebriation. Boyle cannot understand why the blinds are down as he's completely unaware of his son's death. Boyle's drunken behaviour is amusing at the beginning of the play and downright pathetic, even disgusting, at the end.

The image of Boyle and his partner is of 'nurturing wife and care-free partner' (Grene, 1999 p. 128), but we should take care not to typify her as a kind of working-class saint. She is a real person with real personality flaws. She actually is almost obsequious around Bentham when Mary introduces him to the family for the first time and her behaviour involving Mrs. Tancred, who is mourning on her behalf son on to the floor above, could be looked at as disrespectful. It is the fact that she actually is a real person that makes her capacity for struggling so impressive. Neither is she always apolitical; she just comprehends its comparative importance with regards to family matters. Her grounded characteristics and her innate empathy allow her to handle up life's cruelties without seeking some means of get away from, unlike the other associates of her family.

This seemingly infinite capacity that some women have for battling extreme psychological pain is also the central theme of Synge's Riders to the Sea. The setting here's crazy and rural and initially, appears to be a million kilometers from the metropolitan Dublin of Juno and the Paycock. The primary character is Maurya, an old woman that has lost her husband and a lot of her sons to the assault of the ocean. She lives with her two daughters, Nora and Cathleen and her two remaining sons, Bartley and Michael. However, the play starts with the news headlines that Michael's body may have been found washed up near Donegal and as a result, the two daughters have been given a bundle of clothes salvaged from the corpse. They try to hide the pack away from their mom for fear that another tragedy might just completely break her. At the same time, Bartley intends to sail over the ocean in order to sell a horses. Unlike Juno, Maurya seems to have completely resigned herself to struggling and is fatalistic in her manner and speech. She is employed in what appears to be a personal feud with the elements where she states, 'They're all eliminated now, and there is not any other thing more that the ocean can do to me' (Synge 1995, p. 91). Unlike in Juno and the Paycock the male people are mixed up in world for the reason that they are fighting the landscape in order to survive, to make a full time income. Such challenging seems futile though in that the sea is often triumphant, professing fathers and sons, whilst the female characters are left to mourn. More tragedy is to come for both Maurya and her daughters when Bartley is drowned too and the bundle of clothes is finally established as belonging to Michael. Maurya even has a premonition earlier in the play that by the end of your day she will haven't any sons kept and will try to dissuade Bartley from his venture before he leaves with what, 'what is the price tag on one thousand horses against a kid where there is one boy only' (Synge 1999 p. 83). This is not just a assertion of her near limitless grief, but also a practical statement of survival, further echoed by Bartley himself where he says to Cathleen, 'It's hard establish we'll be from this day with nobody in it but one man to work' (Synge 1999 p. 85).

Maurya herself is not really much the centre of the play, like Juno, but a occurrence that pervades the unfolding tragedy. Cathleen and Nora make an effort to hide Michael's clothes from Maurya to be able to safeguard her from more pain, whereas Juno's husband and children run to her when their various modes of escapism fail to work. The useful, everydayness of Juno can be contrasted with Maurya's tendency toward the visionary as her pain over time has taken by using an almost mythic quality. With the closing levels of the play, when Bartley's corpse is brought into the house it is the daughters, Nora and Cathleen that try to organise the practicalities of the funeral. They leave their mom to her all-encompassing grief. Maurya's fatalism and sense of resignation is captured in the very last sentence uttered in the play when she declares, 'No man in any way can be living forever and we must be satisfied' (Synge 1999 p. 93).

The theme of gender, specifically of feminine stoicism when confronted with adversity is the main element component that unites both Juno and the Paycock and Riders to the ocean. It's the central women in both plays that provide the concentration for the politics, sociable and environmental aspects that emerge throughout. It is Juno that keeps her family along every time it threatens to disintegrate. When it finally will, it is the female personas that are remaining, with a pregnant girl reliant on her mother's power and resourcefulness. One son is dead and a partner is finally abandoned as the deadweight he really is. Maurya too is the make that binds her family together, but she actually is less corporeal than Juno. She actually is almost more of a heart than an active force on the planet, but still is the locus of all pain and suffering that transpires in Riders to the ocean. Juno and Maurya are contrasted through the fact that the past is sturdy and energetic whilst the second option is almost ghostly and passive. Maurya's have difficulties is interior and with mother nature itself whilst Juno is constant battle with the ideals, whims and predilections of her own family. However, despite their variations, both has contain two matriarchs whose connection with pain is finally representative of the torment and hurting of Ireland itself during some of the most tumultuous years of its background.

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