The Themes Of Mulk Raj Anands Coolie English Literature Essay

Coolie marks a greater self-assurance in the art of Anand and an additional deepening description of marginal living. It comprehends greater veriety and deeper levels of degradation than does Untouchable. The Plot of the novel is certainly as won't readily yield to a plain summary of facts. This is actually the story of the hill boy, Munoo, Who moves from the village to the city, from the city to the town, and then up to the mountains. He traverses an experience, and it is finally swept away to his doom. He explores the limits of existence before he goes under.

Munoo's life is tragic to the extreme. The poor orphan is cast away by his aunt and uncle who have no love for him. He gets employment as a domestic servant in the house of your bank clerk at Sham Nagar. He imagines that he'll henceforth reside in peace and comfort but is soon disillusioned.

Munoo thought of the times of his childhood in the hills and recalled how often he had played across the cart roads with the distended- bellied Bishan, the lean Bishambar and this superior little Jay Singh. However the purple hills of Kangra were too close in and there was no railway there to view. "It had been as well, in spite of the pain I have suffered, " he said to himself, 'TO have come from that world. ' I am now going to Bombay, and there has to be wonderful things there; many more wonderful things than there have been in my village or Sham Nagar or Daulatpur. (Coolie 174)

The miseries of days gone by pale in insignificance in the light of his new experience

He was clever, too. The way he could browse the messages of people's hearts and tell what diseases they were suffering from, by mean of this machine with rubber tubes. The finish which he put on his ears and whose mouth he rested on the chest of the person. He previously other machines in velvet boxes. How he would prefer to handle them, Munoo thought. How he'd like to be the Chola Babu, medicines man! He'd not mind being like the burra Babu, an official in the bank, whom all the towns' people saluted. (Coolie 47)

Although Sheila, the teen-aged daughter of the master of the home, is kind to him, her mother treats him shabbily: he realizes finally his position in the world. He is to be a slave, a servant who must do the task, all the odd jobs, you to definitely be abuse, even beaten, though up to now it hadn't come compared to that. He feels sad, lonely.

The ambivalence that torments Bakha in Untouchable torments Munoo as well. He resolves henceforth to be a perfect servant, however the way to perfection is not easy. He's squarely blamed for fiasco, which occurs through the visit of a senior bank official to the radiance of his master. Later, when he picks the right with the neighbour's servant, he is severely injured. During his convalescence, he experience the birth trauma of desire for Sheila, as he sees her coming out of the bath, a silhouette of pale bronze. At the same time, he is aware of the vast gulf that exists between him and Sheila. He stifles his passion, but no sooner does he go back to health than his wanton irrepressible desire asserts itself.

In the feudal town of Daulatpur, he incurs Prabha, somebody in a pickle factory and it is instantly hired as a coolie in the warehouse. Prabha's wife soon grows keen on him and gives him motherly warmth. But life in the factory proves as unrelenting as ever. To increase his discomfiture, Prabha is ruined financially and returns to his native village. Munoo is left alone on the planet without art or craft to earn his living. He becomes a self-employed porter, carrying loads on the streets.

Munoo feels the surge of waters in the top metropolis. But he never makes the great with drawal from life. He finds kindred hearts in Hari and Laxmi, with whom he shares his lodgings. They, however, are much too advanced in the scales of suffering, Munoo's hero, however, is Ratan. The wrestler, who faces life with calm confidence. He wants to emulate Ratan and be like him: "I want to live, I wish to work, to work this machine. I will grow up to be always a men, a solid man like the wrestler"(Coolie 83). Ratan takes him one night to the house of your prostitute, who excited his pent-up desire. Back in the lodgings he's baptized in the life span of flesh by Laxmi.

Soon, crisis overtakes the town, and normal life is paralyzed Munoo finds himself amid the labour strike, accompanied by an outbreak of communal violence. He's both an actor and a spectator who drifts with the crowd. He senses the futility of rhetoric as also the higher futility of disorganized action. What of poet Sauda -"there are two kinds of people on the planet: the rich and the indegent"(Coolie 52) echo in his ears, but soon the anarchy of the ocean drowns him in sleep Even as of this hour, he is aware that "the town, the bay, the sea at his feet, had and unearthly beauty"(Coolie 259). Now the feeling of pain appears to tinge everything. He is stepped on by Mrs. Mainwairing's car and is taken up to Simla as her page and rickshaw puller. She takes a fancy to him wants that can be played the seductress, but Munoo is already broken. The strain of pulling the rickshaw sucks his life blood, and he contracts tuberculosis and dies. The peasant lad sprung up from the hills returns home to his origin.

The coolie touches the pathetic and the sublime regions of human experience. Here, Anand explores the limits of pain central to the existence of the downtrodden. He places Munoo towards a debasing and debased society- a frail, defenseless figure in a predominantly hostile world. Society is the great destroyer that fells Munoo and his like. The tragedy of Munoo is an indictment of the evils of capitalism on the minor segment of society. However the purpose of the novelist is never to present a gloomy picture of life. On the contrary, he wishes to arouse the conscience of humanity contrary to the ruthless exploitation of the weak. He handles in this prose epic the realities of the human situation as he sees and understands them.

The characterization of Munoo is vivid, dramatic, and powerful. Munoo is cast in the mode of the archetypal, ironic, and perfect victim or scapegoat under the sentence of death. But the ironic focus in not sharp enough to be convincing. That is so because Anand attempts a naturalistic reproduction of the vast human landscape and develops and epic mood and scale. Like Balzac and Tolstoy, he draws vast spaces and creates memorable characters. He's not sufficiently detached to maintain the esthetic distance which, properly speaking, yields the ironic stance. Munoo is conceived as a romantic hero, and as such there is absolutely no incongruity in the delineation, which is basic to the ironic portrayal. He's first and last, a victim rather than a rebel and, therefore, is with the capacity of rising to a tragic stature.

Structurally, Coolie is less closely knit than Untouchable. It has a different kind of unity, Comparable to a symphony V. S. Pritchett sees in it the glimpse of an Picaresque novel and the emergence of a fresh type of hero. If Untouchable is a microcosm, Coolie is microcosm that is Indian society is the estimation of K. R. S. Iydengar. Its loose, panoramic structure, with immense variety of characters and incidents, represents a thorough picture of life itself. The novelist sees in the formless flux a cycle of recurrence and provides it a meaningful expression. The power of the novel derives from its fidelity to truth, from its capacity to probe beneath the sordid and the banal, and from its ability to touch the tragic, the sublime and the beautiful.

The setting of Coolie merits special attention. The scene of action shifts in space in orderly sequence. So does the centre of gravity. However, the shift in scene of action is by no means arbitrary; it is conditioned by the certain principle of organization to point the macrocosmic character of the theme. The action commences in the village of Bilaspur and may be taken as time of pain at birth. In sham Nagar, the hero fined himself in virtual serfdom. In Daulatpur, he loses his job and it is trashed on the streets. In cosmopolitan Bombay, He gets the taste of the slum and the fifth; finally, in Simla, his cup of misery full, he goes under. Simla, it could be said prepares the stage for his crucifixion.

Coolie is hardly less poetical than Untouchable. A deep under current of pathos runs through both; "We participate in suffering! We participate in suffering! My love!" (Coolie 207). Sometimes Anand lifts the veil of the world of appearance, lapsing entirely into a kind of poetic trance, freeing language from the confines of plain prose. For the most part, however, the battle to forge a fresh indo-English idiom continues, especially when Anand handles matter- of fact situations and events or hastens the pace of the narrative. As a whole, Coolie is a landmark in indo-Anglian fiction.

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