Keywords: real white mans burden analysis, kipling poetry symbolism
I aim to evaluate the use of irony and mark in the poems "The White Man's Burden" and the "Real White Man's Burden" to observe how effective both freelance writers were in using these elements to convey meanings. Regarding Kipling, I'll consider two tips of views. The first point of view is the fact Kipling was an imperialist who facilitates the dominate of other governments showing superiority. The next viewpoint is the fact Kipling was an imperialist who helps the dominate of other government authorities as an work of humanity to bring civilization to the uncivilized and, that he warns of the perils of exhibiting superiority as oppose to providing true liberation. In the case of Crosby, since he reveals a single view point, I am going to evaluate his success of using irony and symbolism in parodying the task of Kipling. Effectively used, irony and mark could convey a note with more than one interpretation as showed in Rudyard Kipling's poem "The White Man's Burden" or, they could communicate a single subject matter demonstrated in Ernest H. Crosby's poem "THE TRUE White Man's Burden". In the final analysis, I submit that the effective use of the components of poetry, in cases like this, irony and mark, are essential to the correct interpretation and knowledge of this is of both poems.
Imperialism is "the plan of increasing the guideline or authority associated with an empire or region over international countries, or of acquiring and positioning colonies and dependencies. Irony is the discrepancy between what's said, done, expected or designed, and what's meant, what goes on, and what others understand. Satirical irony is the coverage of the vices or follies of an individual, a group, an institution, an idea, a population, usually with a view to correct the folly. Icon is whatever stands for another thing". (Dictionary. Com)
Having establishing the definitions, I'll now analyze the use of irony and symbols in Ruyard Kipling's poem. While Kipling uses both irony and icons, his use of irony is increased. Kipling's expertly uses irony to effect a result of the intended end result of two opposing perspectives as to whether imperialism is made for 'human being good' or 'elitist gain'.
Take the White man's burden / Send forth the best ye breed / Go bind your sons in exile / To provide your captives' need; (1-4)
The first observation of the poem is Kipling's decision to call the poem "The White Man's Burden". Undoubtedly, the use of the expression 'White Man' is the lightening rod that sparks the view that Kipling's position was that of the imperialist having at its primary the tenets of Friendly Darwinism. Relating to Kretchner, the idea of Public Darwinism purports that "natural order obligates powerful, civilized countries to appropriate the limited resources of the fragile. " (Kretchmar) Hence, Kipling's urging of America to assist the Phillipines to attain civilization may be interpreted as him assisting the imperialistic activity.
Even further, Kipling's encouragement that the empire should 'send forth the best ye breed' has very strong racial connotations. During that time in history, blacks were not regarded as equals to whites in the us. The unequal treatment of blacks was so prevalent in America's monetary, political, and interpersonal systems that Wayne Weldon Johnson, writes "Lift Every Tone of voice and Sing" also called the "Black Country wide Anthem", to encourage black visitors to sing and march until success is earned. This cry for equality proceeds in 1968, with Martin Luther King still only developing a imagine equality. Though, in 2008, Barrack Obama becomes the first dark President, there still remains the cry for true equality.
In addition to the charges to "Take up White Man's burden / Send forth the best ye breed"(1-2), Kipling's use of phrases such as "To veil the threat of terror / And check the show of take great pride in. " (11-12) asserts that the Empire should do what is necessary to eliminate resistance and also to subdue insurrections against Imperialism. Not only if the Empire silence the voices of the captives, but she must also limit or remove any signs of delight that they might muster.
Further, Kipling's characterizations of the individuals as "On fluttered folk and outdoors / New found- sullen individuals, / Half-devil and half-child. " (6-8) may be easily construed as connatively condescending. Kipling seems to imply the empire must anticipate to reinforce her stance "By open speech and simple / 100 times make simple" (13-14). Kipling's variation of the empire appear to be lofty in its firmness. By marrying the icons of the captives as being inferior visitors to the santimonious responsibility of the Empire to bring civility to the uncivilized, one can conclude that Kipling supports that the Empire is superior and hence gets the responsibility to bring civility to the uncivilized.
"I have, I confess it now, done my best for approximately twenty years to make all men of
the sister countries within the Empire enthusiastic about each other. Because I understand that at heart all our men are just about alike, for the reason that they have the same dreams, and when all is said and done we've only each other to depend upon. " (Dobree 80)
Take up the White Man's burden-- / The savage wars of tranquility- / Fill full the mouth of Famine / And bet the sickness stop; (17-20)
By all ye cry or whisper, / By all ye leave or do, / The silent, sullen individuals / Shall consider your gods and you simply. (45-48)
Take up the White Man's burden-- / Have done with childish days-- / The casually preferred laurel, / The easy, ungrudged reward. / Comes now, to search your manhood / Through all the thankless years / Cold. Edged with dear-bought wisdom, / The wisdom of your peers! (49-56)
These words clearly suggest that Kipling encourage the Empire to be honorable in its dealings with the Natives.
Contrary to the school of thought that Kipling advocates civilization with true liberation, is Crosby's position that the Empire uses 'blessings' as a doorway to go in and 'take away' the real riches of the folks and in trade offers them an oppressive life-style. Unlike Kipling's making of his poem, "The White Man's Burden" where he shows his trust for the Empire, Crosby in his parody "The Real White Man's Burden", blatantly shows his mistrust of the Empire. Most of all, though he utilizes heavy use of irony and symbols to show his opposing view of the Empire, Crosby will not dillute the sole note of his poem.
First, Crosby's name of the poem is a specific indication of his dissent from Kipling's views. He uses the term "White Man" to solidify the object of his remarks, but, he moves further utilizing the term "Real" which ironically implies that there is a masking of the reality. Crosby's title talks highly of his view against the Empire. Historically, his viewpoint is drawn from his experience as a interpersonal activist and since a black man moving into America during the Spanish North american War. According to a essay by Andrew Hebard, Crosby's position on Imperialism mirrors that of Amy Kaplan who says imperialism is "as a network of electric power relations that changes over space and time and is riddled with instability, ambiguity, and disorder, rather than as a monolithic system of domination that the very expression 'empire' implies. " (Hebard)
Next, are observations of the mixing of icon and irony used by Crosby to demonstrate his view of the Empire. Crosby thinks that the motive of the Empire is ill-willed. He also thinks that their 'chaiotic sytems' bring inability, and the Empire dangle 'proverbial carrots' in exchange for a lot more valuable benefits. Crosby's position is usually that the eventual result of imperialism will be communal, economical, and political oppression.
Take the White Man's burden; / Send forth your durable sons, / And load them down with whisky / And Testaments and guns. (1-4)
Ironically, these lines subliminally say that the drinking alcohol of whiskey cover up the reality, since it is widely known that people who consume too much alcohol are not as cognitively aware as they should be and, therefore, unable to think correctly are apt to believe anything told to them. Further, being filled down with whiskey triggers a usually sturdy person to stagger, and even fall season. More overtly though, is the actual fact that "Testament" represents truth and wholesomeness, and "guns" represent power and destruction. But, because the minds are improved with liquor, the masking of the real purpose is easily perpetrated. There is a strong probability that the troops will create the social sick of alcoholism to the natives, and can also help disperse propoganda about the 'good' of imperialisim in doing so causing the natives to be drunk and misinformed. The abililty of the natives to believe reasonably appropriate about their condition will be diminished.
Throw in a few diseases / to propagate in tropic climes, / For there the healthy niggers / Are very behind the times. (5-8)
Give them electrocution recliners, / And prisons too, galore, / And if indeed they seem
inclined to kick, / Then spill their heathen gore. (21-24)
The symbols of 'electrocution seats', 'prisons', and 'gore' ironically speaks of fatality both literally and mentally. Physically speaking, you have the death of the individual whether by electrocution, or the spilling of the blood. Then, there is certainly death of experiencing freedom of space, since prisons limit activity. While subtle, predicated on Crosby's profile, the purpose to eliminate the dreams of the natives, screams from the pages of background. Crosby understands from his experience, that if any form of amount of resistance, whether through expression or action, is shown, if any try to follow any dreams, ideologies, or traditions that threatens the goals of the Empire is made, that the Empire would at all necessary, ensure that the pursuit of those dreams was deferred and dry up like "A Raisins in the Sun". (Diyanni 1870 )
And remember the factories. / on those benighted shores / They haven't any cheerful iron mills / Nor eke departmemnt stores / They never work twelve time every day, / And live in bizarre content. (9-14)
Take in the White Man's burden, / And educate the Phillipines / What interest and fees are / and what a mortgage means. (17-20)
Again, in Crosby's thoughts eye, there is the irony of a folks who are successful in their simple but, unbiased life-style who being militarily second-rate are consequently compelled to be failures by their reliance on a monstrous economic climate.
They need our labor question, too, / And politics and scams. / We've made a fairly mess at home; / Let's make a mess in foreign countries. (25 -28)
The irony in these lines humorously evaluate the effort of the Empire to repair another's problem, when it cannot solve its problems. In a nutshell, Crosby believes that Imperialism is a preposterous veiled attempt to cloak greed in kind deeds by using methods that are disfunctional.
Take up the White Man's burden; / for you who thus be successful / In civilizing savage hordes / They owe a personal debt, indeed; (33 -36)
Concessions, pensions, incomes, / And priviledge and right, / with outstretched hands you brought up to bless / Pick up everything in sight. (37 -40).
Take in the White Man's burden, / And when your write in verse, / Flatter your Nation's vices, / And make an effort to make sure they are worse. / Then learn that if with pious words / you ornament each phrase, / In an environment of canting hypocrites / This sort of business pays off. (41 - 48)
Fittingly, Crosby uses satirical irony to uncover the true motive of the insincere enthusiam that Crosby thinks Kipling is exhibiting for the Empire's high ideals of pious goodness. Crosby is prosperous in delivering the single viewpoint of the Empire's greed disguised as having civility to the uncivilized.
In conclusion, the expert use of irony and image by both Kipling and Crosby prove to be excellent conveyors of the poets' communications. Kipling's use of irony and image brillantly supplied two very contradictory positions. He lauds Imperialism by advocating that it is the duty of civilized countries to help to bring civilization to underdeveloped nations. He also decries the pleasure of pondering to be superior and being unfair to people perceived to be less finanically fortunate, much less socially advanced, rather than as politically savvy. Like Kipling, Crosby employs irony and symbols to deliver his solo note. Crosby's message is that the Empire is hypocrital in its purpose and that the gist of what they really wanted to do was camoflagued by missions to humanity, and referred to as assisting to bring civilization to the uncivilized. Plainly, the poets' use of irony and sign designed the understanding and interpretation of the poems expected meanings. The usage of Irony and Image was so well executed, there remains no discussion as to the value of the elements in both poems.
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