The theory of methods of scientific research and technical quality control is the fourth part of the general theory of artificial building conglomerates. It expresses a set of techniques and operations in the theoretical cognition of the qualitative characteristics of ICS, the regularities underlying the methods of testing materials in the evaluation of their properties in laboratory and production conditions by destructive and destructive methods, devices, devices and automated means.

The primary cognitive process is observation, conducted in necessary cases with the use of measuring tools. The information obtained is usually sufficient to judge the quality of the material when compared with standard or project requirements. This cognitive process as the first stage of experimental research is essentially adequate to technical quality control.

High level of knowledge of the structure and properties of ICS is an experiment. The scientific depth of the experiment depends first of all on the state of the theory. The new experimental data obtained as additional facts are used in the further development of the theory or serve as an objective criterion for the reliability of theoretical propositions, as a means of proving the correctness of scientific assumptions (probable hypotheses). The sciences that were not born from experiment, this basis of all knowledge, are useless and full of delusions (Leonardo da Vinci).

Experimental investigations of ICS are carried out mainly with the involvement of specific independent methods. To obtain reliable and objective results, several independent methods can be used simultaneously, which can be combined into complexes. The choice of methods of scientific knowledge, combining them, if necessary, into complexes and generalization of research methods constitute the main link of methodology in the general theory of ICI. For different conglomerates, the same or closely related independent methods and their complexes can be used, especially when the experimental studies are carried out at the same level of the dispersion of the material particles or at one scale or structural level.

In the theory of methods of scientific investigation of ICS, five scale levels and five classes of complexes of independent methods of scientific knowledge are established (Table 5.1). In them, objective complexes of independent methods of scientific cognition and separate independent methods are concentrated (Table 5.2), which is the basis for coordinated, or harmonious, application of qualitative and quantitative methods of scientific research. Another regularity in this theory establishes an interconnected and interdependent character of classes, complexes, independent methods of scientific cognition and scientific information obtained with their help about structural levels and objects of research as a whole. The real possibilities of this regularity are shown methodologically in Fig. 5.1.

Table 5.1. Classes of complexes and scale levels of research





Scale levels of the learning object






Learning Objects








Up to 10

Nuclei, atoms, ions, molecules


Microscopic (colloid-dispersed)

Electron microscopy and optical

10 7-th -

Macromolecules, crystallites, crystals, spherulites, phases and phase contacts, micropores, microcracks


Mesoscopic (pulverized fractions)



Globules of cement matter, fillers (pulverized grains), mesopores, contact zones


Macroscopic (sand fraction)

Optical and visual


Interlayer, interporal partitions, aggregates (sand), macropores


Megaposical (gravel-chippy fraction)


Over 0.5

Mortar part, aggregates (gravel, crushed stone, megapores, cracks)

Table 5.2. Complexes and independent methods

Classes of complexes of independent methods






Radiometric, electron microscopy, X-ray, thermal, optical, chemical, etc.

Electron microscopy, X-ray, thermal, optical, chemical, electrical and electrochemical, planimetry and porosimetry, rheological, dilatometric, defectoscopy, etc.

X-ray, thermal, optical, chemical, electrical and electrochemical, planimetry and porometry, rheological, dilatometric, defectoscopy, sedimentation and granulometric, analyzes, physical and mechanical tests, tensometry, etc.

Optical, chemical, electrical and electrochemical, planimetry and porometry, rheological, dilatometric, defectoscopy, sedimentation and granulometry, analyzes, physical and mechanical tests, tensorometry, stability testing, visual observations, etc.

Planimetry and porosimetry, rheological, dilatometric, defectoscopy, sedimentation and granulometry, analyzes, physical and mechanical tests, tensorometry, stability testing, visual observations, long-term stress tests, megascopy, etc.

The choice of independent methods, their combination into classes and selection into complexes is coordinated with the definition of the scale level of the object of study. Highlights its significant structural characteristics and their influence on the key properties of the conglomerate. Establish the relationship and interdependence between the object, the purpose of research and methods of scientific knowledge.

Fig. 5.1. Scheme of interrelation and interdependence:

a - between the object of study and the methods of scientific knowledge (object structural level - "class -> complexes); b - between the purpose of the research and the methods of scientific knowledge (goal -► complex - "independent methods")

Independent methods of cognition can be direct (for example, optical, microscopic, electron microscopic, x-ray) and indirect (for example, adsorption-for gases, vapor, solutions, mercury porosimetry, capillary condensation, permeability and etc.). Of all the methods of structural research, it is preferable to use straight lines when possible, although difficulties are encountered at some levels of research.

For each structural level, they choose their own classes, complexes of independent methods, corresponding to the phenomena and processes characteristic of the given level, which ensures the greatest reliability of the results of the research.

When developing new or improving traditional methods and complexes, it is important to proceed not only from factors that divide methods (the research objective), but also from factors that combine methods (object and levels of research). At the stage of experimental work preference is given to complex methods that allow studying both the change in the properties of the conglomerate and the structure-forming and destructive phenomena and processes. When analyzing the results of an experimental study of the properties of a CSI, they determine the degree to which they correspond to the law of the alignment and other laws of optimal structures. The latter additionally makes it possible to verify the reliability and objectivity of the accepted methods of scientific cognition and their complexes, as well as the optimality of ISK structures.

The practical significance of the above mentioned patterns and rules for the application of objective methods of scientific knowledge and their complexes is also in the fact that they allow us to improve known and predict, develop new methods of research and technical quality control. The latter constitutes an important task of the general theory of ICI and, in general, the construction of materials science. The theory of methods of scientific research and technical quality control continues to develop and improve in the direction of increasing the number of independent methods and their complexes, based not on conditional, but on invariant quality characteristics, to find more precise expressions in physical and mathematical modeling of technologies in laboratory conditions and conglomerates with similar (similar) optimal structures. Some new physical and physicochemical methods of research serve also for technical control both in the manufacturing process and in the evaluation of the quality of the finished product. Particularly useful in material technologies are methods of determining: the specific surface area of ​​crushed solid materials - powders as fillers, cements as binders, etc .; the effect of surface-active substances on the magnitude of surface tension at the boundary of two phases introduced into the system for the purpose of hydrophobization, hydrophilization, air entrapment, plasticization, etc .; the amount of heat released during various processes (wetting, adsorption, hardening of cement, crystallization, etc.) with the help of microcalorisms or other methods (thermosonic, adiabatic, isothermal, etc.); structural and mechanical properties of plastic viscous systems using plastometers, viscosimeters, shear devices; kinetics of setting and hardening of materials using electric and ultrasonic methods and their corresponding instruments; characteristics of the porosity of building materials by various methods - sorption, microscopic, mercury porosimetry, based on the interaction of the material with liquids and gases, radiographic, mechanical. Each of these methods has its own limits for measuring the radii of the pores, usually within 10 - 10- * see

Special attention is given in construction materials science to the adestitional methods of measuring quantitative indicators of the properties of products or samples. Tests are not accompanied by the destruction or disruption of the structure of the material. The most common are acoustic, complex, magnetic and electromagnetic, mechanical, radiometric, X-ray and electrical methods. They are based on direct and inverse relationships between the physical values ​​obtained by testing with a nondestructive device and traditional properties. Dependencies are expressed in the form of formulas, graphs, tables. With the help of these methods, strength and deformation parameters, moduli of elasticity, average density, humidity, phase composition are determined; produce quality control and flaw detection. Measurements become more effective when complex use of adestructive methods of investigation is used to obtain two or more physical characteristics.

In technological and, especially, during operational periods, it becomes necessary to measure deformations caused by swelling, force, shrinkage, temperature and other external and internal factors by means of optical comparators, dial-type indicators, dilatometers, strain gauges, and by combining different methods and instruments; corrosion resistance to the action of aggressive media in stressful and stress-free states. In order to reduce the time, accelerated physicochemical methods of testing frost resistance, microcracks formation, determination of thermal and acoustic characteristics, etc. are practiced.

thematic pictures

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