OPTIMIZING FACTORS IN IMPROVING TECHNOLOGIES TO THE LEVEL OF PROGRESSIVE
Below are the main optimizing factors that affect the value of progressivity indicators (generalized optimality criteria), accounted for by simplex quantities after their implementation in production, with observance of appropriate dimensions adequate to those accepted in world practice.
1. Factors to ensure the highest quality of manufactured products directly and directly depend on the progressiveness of the technology. The selection of factors (measures) that are capable of favoring the formation of finished products (material, products) of the highest quality in the technological period should be very careful in each specific case. At the same time, there are common measures applied to most materials and products. These include: optimization of the composition and structure of the ICA; a significant increase in the quality of the binder used, predetermining, according to the law of congruence, the highest quality of ICS; all-round improvement of the quality of aggregates and fine fillers if they are components of the finished product (material or product), by activating, enriching, classifying dense mixtures, improving the shape of the particles by reducing their roundness, etc .; use of mechano-chemical treatment of mixtures with the introduction of functional or polyfunctional additives (additives); optimization of thermal and heat and moisture regimes, realization of other physical influences favorable to the formation of micro- and macrostructure and structurally sensitive properties of ICS at various stages of the technology; the utmost assurance of the greatest homogeneity of the semi-finished product (mixture) and finished products with control over its level; ensuring the compaction of the mixture (mass) to the formation of a structure of high density or with the necessary porosity; development and introduction of technological, structural and operational measures to increase the time elements of durability and, in general, the reliability of materials in structures; making materials and products complete external forms and transportability, contributing to the high quality of products of necessary competitiveness in the domestic and foreign markets; ensuring technological flawlessness of finished products and, as a result, the complete exclusion of marriage; the maximum reduction in the cost of production by all possible technical means (see below).
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The above and other activities, not mentioned here, are carried out in the technological period with using modernization of equipment and tools, automation, use of optimal modes of synergistic processing of raw materials and their mixtures, etc.
Based on the simplex quantities obtained for each realized factor, calculate the complex value of the criterion of optimality for the highest product quality as one of the main indicators of the progressiveness of technology.
2. The factors of the highest labor productivity in output of finished goods per worker (working) depend on a number of indicators, the dimension and numerical estimation of which can be different. With expert evaluation (quantitative or ordinal), each point should be given a justified content: the number of flow-mechanized and automated lines; the amount of microprocessor technology installed in individual nodes of these lines; number of possible permutations and readjustments of technological lines using the flexible technology (FMS) system; number of active robots, especially on
labor-intensive operations; number of automated control systems and automated control systems with the appropriate allocation of self-diagnosis of malfunctions; duration of the cycle of production of a single mass of products; availability and number of automated technological complexes (ATC).
An important characteristic of enterprises is their capacity for the quantitative production of finished products per year, especially in comparison with the project or expected in the introduction of progressive technology. These values of capacity (real and project or expected) can be correlated with each other and obtain a simplex dimensionless characteristic of the capacity of the enterprise. And then it too can make its input factor a generalized criterion of optimality. The same with regard to updating the active part of the main fund with the replacement of physically worn out and obsolete equipment with a new, highly effective.
Very relevant are the comparisons of the number of employees on a real and foremost enterprise, if the volume of output per year remains almost the same for them.
3. The factors of careful consumption of natural raw materials are composed of the following main elements: the minimum consumption of rocks and rock-forming minerals per unit of mass or volume of finished products; minimum consumption of fresh water; maximum use of technogenic raw materials and other by-products of industry, agriculture and wood waste, as well as mining and processing plants; maximum replacement of traditional types of raw materials by local raw materials resources; low percentage of waste when using natural raw materials and natural additives in the production of finished materials and products; a low percentage of rejected products with raw materials used in vain; economical use of materials in technology.
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Thus, this indicator of progressivity includes 7 or 8 basic elements both in real technology at the given enterprise, and at the enterprise with progressive technology. The simplex numerical values are calculated and the generalized optimality criterion is taken from them, taking into account all or the main part of the elements that form the index of careful (economical) expenditure of natural raw materials and natural additives in the production of manufactured products.
4. Factors of saving natural fuels and heat energy can be obtained in various ways. The main methods include the following: complete elimination from the technology of natural species fuels - oil, coal and natural gas - with the replacement of their renewable sources of thermal or mechanical energy; use in technology when performing as many operations as possible of non-traditional fuels or thermal
energy; decrease in the amount of heat consumed per unit of output per unit time; fuel enrichment with an increase in its calorific value; the introduction of pipeline-flow technology.
Of these methods, the most diverse and often difficult to implement - reducing the amount of heat consumed per unit of output. There are both thermophysical and technological options for saving. They have been considered above, but here it is required to enumerate them more clearly so that it can be expressed in the form of simplex and complex quantities.
The amount of heat consumed per unit of output can be reduced by: recovering the products of burning fuel; use of secondary heat resources in the main production and, separately, for side events - heating of auxiliary rooms, ventilation devices, etc .; transition to dry technology instead of wet during heat treatment of raw mixtures; use of additives and other ways to reduce temperature when firing raw materials or semi-finished products; use of vacuum during heating and drying; Reduction of the time of exposure to high and high temperatures during heat treatment of raw mix or semi-finished products; use of firing in the fluidized bed & quot ;; use of refrigerators and heat exchangers of the best models and models; replacement of old furnaces with new ones, more economical in terms of heat consumption during firing; renovation of heat networks and thermal insulation of units; reduction of losses during transportation of heated materials; reduction in the finished product of the share of baking raw materials; increase in overall dimensions of furnaces with increase of their productivity; optimization of the designs of kilns, modernization of injectors, thermal insulation, lining; blocking of kilns and drying plants; autoclave treatment when drying raw; replacement of double firing with a single one; use of an impulsive fuel combustion system, etc.
5. The energy saving factors in kWh for the total or specific consumption attributed to a quantitative or qualitative unit of production, or per person-hour, or per worker per year, are the most important indicators of advanced technology. An analysis of the activity of manufacturing enterprises has shown that there can be quite general and highly specific, but significant ways of reducing power consumption without reducing the capacity of enterprises or deteriorating the quality of finished products. These include the following: the introduction of automated control systems, the USTCP or ATC; introduction of a line-conveyor line, which reduces the duration of the product release cycle and, as a consequence, reduces the consumption of electricity; replacement of equipment with a new one, with a higher efficiency with less power consumption for performing previous operations; the introduction of rational technological operations that favor the reduction of electricity consumption while maintaining or improving the quality of products; change in the design dimensions and physical properties of manufactured products, contributing to the reduction of power consumption and quality improvement.
Examples of a favorable change in technological operations: grinding of raw materials, not by open but by closed cycle; temperature reduction in mills; introduction of various sorts of grinding intensifiers, electroactivators, plasticizers of mixtures in order to increase the productivity of molding aggregates; translation from double to single firing (for example, in the production of glazed tiles); the use of vacuum in electric furnaces, etc. Examples of the beneficial effect of replacing equipment with new ones: the use of cascade multi-chamber mills; replacement of spherical, separation and other traditional mills with new ones - roller, jet; the use of dryers based on electric heat pumps, which shortens the drying time and, consequently, electricity consumption; the use of spray drying, for example in the manufacture of press powders (as compared to filter presses with drying drums), etc. Some ways to reduce the consumption of electricity, just as it was when saving heat or fuel from dissimilar components, for example, the establishment of various rational technological operations, or a method of economy by changing the physical properties of the product or its design dimensions, etc. And then the calculation of simplex quantities is somewhat complicated, since the overall efficiency of this method is made up of the individual effects of each action taken in place of the previous execution of the technological operation. In the numerator and denominator of the simplex, there appear the terms of individual effects and their total values. It is clear , that they continue to be dimensionless and they can be combined with simplexes obtained from the realization of other ways of saving electricity. As a result, a generalized optimality criterion for saving electricity consumption at a given enterprise that has undergone improvement and modernization is formed.
6. Factors of ecological purity of technology and materials
have a priority in the evaluation of advanced technology. To ensure that the technology is clean or as close as possible to that, it is necessary to provide for environmental measures. Conditionally they can be divided into basic and, as a rule, common for many technologies, and specific for this production. The main ones are the following: creation of wasteless technology; minimum expenditure of natural raw materials - rocks and rock-forming minerals, including water, especially fresh, which can be expressed by the ratio of the mass of finished products to the mass of raw natural raw materials consumed for these purposes in all its forms; prevention of violations of the ecological balance in the development of deposits of natural raw materials; elimination of possible soil erosion, reclamation of the developed areas, conservation and transfer of the fertile soil layer, checking the inertness of raw materials and waste from its development by means of radiometers, etc .; maximum use of various by-products so that they do not violate the ecology of the environment by blockages and harmful emissions; full or the maximum possible exclusion from the technology of harmful emissions when processing raw materials or raw mixtures into the environment, and in this connection, in particular, strictly take into account the maximum permissible concentration of dust in the air, equal to the norms of up to 0.06 g/m. As a consequence - the use of highly efficient gas and dust collection facilities, timely analysis of flue gases and their filtration; prevention of harmful emissions due to incomplete combustion of fuel, especially solid, and fuel-containing additives in the feed mixture and trapping them with the help of effective devices, followed by checking their concentration in the atmosphere; Exclusion of harmful emissions from the finished product during its operation, as well as during its storage and transportation, with the organization of a systematic control of the concentration of harmful substances in the working space or in the atmosphere and water bodies. All these measures can be measured quantitatively, although in different dimensions, but they are unified among themselves when translating them into simplexes.
Specific activities include: prevention of harmful effects due to the use of unstable additives, capable of evaporation, volatilization (sublimation), the release of harmful ingredients - from waste flotation of ores, or by coal enrichment, dissolving them in water with transfer of hazardous solutions to water bodies and pr.Dimensionless simplex quantities obtained as a result of the ratios of real values of ecological purity for each optimizing factor (measure) and nominal values with progressive technology, achieved at advanced enterprises and firms or calculated theoretically, allow us to proceed to the definition of a generalized optimality criterion.
The second environmental problem, named above as the ecology of materials, is also solved by implementing optimizing factors, either basic or general, or specific.
The main activities include: prevention of biodeterioration of exploited building products and structures with the help of preventive measures taken during the technological period; prevention of corrosion of exploited building products and structures against the effects of inorganic and organic reagents through preventive and subsequent measures taken during the technological and operational periods. It is important only to ensure the indifference of the measures taken towards the environment, especially when using additives introduced into the composition of manufactured products. The purpose of the optimizing factors should be based on the fact that the reagents of biodeterioration and corrosion can be contained in the environment simultaneously, for example, as noted above, in the wastewater of some enterprises.
7. The factors of the minimum value of the material consumption, especially of the metal consumption, should, apparently, be determined separately for the metal, mainly black, and raw materials, sent as a semi-finished product (mixture) for the manufacture of products. When developing optimization factors, it should be borne in mind that the increased consumption of metal is usually caused by: weighting of technological equipment against its design in more modern technologies; increased wear of friction parts; inefficient technology of semi-finished products or products with the use of additional metal or metallized aggregates in it; reduced strength or wear resistance of the received metal for equipment or its parts; use of excessive or imperfect auxiliary equipment and tools; use of metal in knots and parts that can be replaced with less scarce material without structural damage, etc.
Increased consumption of materials, increasing the material consumption of production, is usually caused by an increased mass of products; excessive size of products, for example, by their thickness; using many auxiliary materials in such operations without special need for it, etc.
The material and metal content is measured, as a rule, in absolute values of mass (t or kg) or with reference to the mass of the product.
8. Factors of minimum capital investment in new or modernized technology in terms of unit of output are divided into: reducing the size of capital investments without reducing the production capacity of the enterprise; increasing the production capacity of the enterprise with larger or smaller amounts of capital investments.
The first group includes activities that are able to reduce the size of capital investments against the new construction or reorganization of the existing enterprise as envisaged under the project. Among such measures: the enlargement of the enterprise to the optimum size in the construction of new ones with more powerful equipment and high productivity (with a reduction in the size of equipment per unit of capacity). So. for example, furnaces with a capacity of more than 1 million tons of clinker reduce the specific investment by about 5% compared to furnaces with a capacity of 600 thousand tons; reduction of the area of a new building or a reorganized enterprise; reduction in the size of the building and premises for equipment, for example, with the introduction of a new flow-conveyor technology for the production of ceramic tiles or spray dryers instead of filter presses for the same production (the area under the equipment is reduced by 10 or more times); providing the shortest ways of supplying raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products; reduction of the length of intra-plant communications; observance of minimum volumes of earth planning works; approaching or even adjoining warehouses to transport routes; the use of more economical materials and structures with an increasing positive role in the production cycle, for example, replacement of a piece of refractory bricks during the installation of thermal units for heat-resistant concrete blocks, replacement of bricks in the construction of chimneys with prefabricated elements, reducing the pipe weight by 7-8 times, in 6 times; replacement of capital buildings to accommodate tunnel kilns when bricks are fired to buildings made of lightweight structures or stoves outside buildings with a 10-15% reduction in capex for their "open installation"; the same - spray dryer in the production of ceramic tiles; installation of cement kilns and sludge pools without shelter, etc .; use of other possible measures that increase the efficiency of capital investments or reduce the size without adversely affecting the production work of the enterprise. So, for example, with a dry method of clinker burning, capex is reduced by about 50% in the construction of the enterprise compared to the wet one; when vibrating the production of cellular concrete, compared to the casting, the production areas for equipment installation and metal consumption of equipment are reduced by 30-40% and, correspondingly, their cost, etc.
The second group of factors include: the renewal of the active part of fixed assets, bearing in mind that with the increase in the share of equipment, especially new, in the total composition of costs, the value of unit investment is reduced; ensuring minimum downtime of new equipment during the reconstruction of the enterprise; all-round reduction of fuel and energy costs in capex investments in the reconstructed enterprise.
It should be noted that in the near future the reconstruction, which is understood as technical re-equipment, will, apparently, be the main direction of the reproduction of fixed assets. And the higher the share of renewed fixed assets relative to the original total value of fixed assets expressed in rubles, the higher the absolute economic efficiency of capital investments. The latter is defined as the ratio of the annual increase in profit as a result of reconstruction to the amount of capital investments in the reconstruction (technical re-equipment) of the enterprise. Note that the annual increase in profit, in turn, is equal to the difference in the cost price of a unit of output before and after reconstruction multiplied by the annual output after reconstruction.The effectiveness of capital investments, determined by the first and second groups of factors affecting them, allows us to proceed to the calculations of simplex quantities, guided by the same factors to the level of achievements of advanced new or reconstructed enterprises both in domestic and especially in foreign practice. For two or more simplexes, determine the value of the criterion for the optimality of capital investments in an existing or newly organized enterprise.
9. The factors of progressivity with respect to the culture of technology and production are difficult to quantify. Closer than others can serve as a scoring system for evaluating each individual event and the totality of them set out above.
But some of the activities of this set of optimizing factors still yield to the characteristics and dimensions. For example, the state of occupational safety and health is often estimated by the number of injuries and occupational diseases attributed to the number of employees in the enterprise. Another example of a characteristic with its dimension can be the saving of fuel and energy resources in production as a component of the culture of technology and production. However, this measure of progressivity is still more characteristic not of technology and not technological process, but of technological regulations and organization of production at this enterprise. This includes the culture of the production process and the enterprise as a whole. In principle, the individual elements from which the concept of culture is composed allow us to move from a dimensional or scoring system of assessments to a simplex and complex (through the criterion of optimality), especially if we first develop a scale of expert assessments applied to individual elements composing this index of progressiveness of production. >
10. Factors of high organization of technical control and management are based on timely quality control at all stages of the technological process. The main method of technical control is the experiment.
11. The economic factors, like some others, are complex, reflecting the increase in labor productivity, the reduction of the material consumption, the saving of material and fuel and energy resources, the reduction in the payback period of investments, labor costs, etc. Therefore, the choice of optimizing factors in the form of the most effective measures to reduce unit cost of production, correlated each time with similar quantitative values in enterprises with advanced technology, should proceed from this complex features of this indicator. As a result, simplex quantities are obtained according to the main technical and economic indicators, as well as the annual economic effect of the enterprise's production activity in rubles or other monetary symbols determined by formula (3.18). A very important economic characteristic is the cost-to-unit ratio of the key property of the product, for example, to compressive strength or other types of stress. Instead of the cost price, an in-house price can be adopted, i.e. with the addition of profit. The generalized criterion of economic optimality is calculated by analogy with other indicators of progressivity using the objective function of simplex optimizing factors. But another character of this objective function is possible: deterministic - with the inclusion of only certain values, and stochastic - with the inclusion of random variables and, therefore, requiring preliminary statistical processing.
12. Factors of effective product competitiveness in the market reflect the flawlessness and reliability of virtually all the preceding indicators of the progressiveness of technology and production as a whole. Mass production should correspond to world standards both on qualitative parameters, and on external "quot; appearance, expressiveness of external forms, convenience in storage, transportation, reloading, strength and reliability of packaging materials and containers, and, if possible, at a sufficiently low cost. The latter will have a favorable effect on the price reduction of products, which will positively affect its competitiveness in the external and internal markets.
Currently, there is no operational criterion for quantifying the competitiveness of products. But, given the existence of a criterion for the highest quality, with the law of the alignment reflected in it, and also the criterion of economic optimality, one can obtain a generalized and dimensionless quantitative indicator of competitiveness. For all its conventionality, it will help in the first approximation find the location of these products on the market among similar products, will allow in some measure to predict the likely outlook for the outcome of competition.
One of the reasons for low competitiveness, for example, United States metal products, is the high energy intensity of production. The enterprises of the industry consume more than 24% of the volume of electricity production. Low and economic indicator due to high railway tariffs.
Based on the analysis of the semantic content and quantitative determination of the criteria for the progressivity of technologies, such a sequence of attestation of them from the viewpoint of the world level of development of the industry of each variety of building materials seems likely.
1. Performing two preparatory operations: a) analysis of the technology being studied to identify the main indicators of progressivity, with the help of which it is possible to characterize the enterprise; b) finding an analog (an advanced company, advanced enterprise, plant, etc.) in the world practice and compiling a review of its activities taking into account the main indicators of progressivity adopted.
2. Fixation of the initial level of simplex quantities related to each main indicator of progressivity, adopted by the given technology in the enterprise under study (in the project, in scientific work, etc.).
3. Analysis of the most probable optimizing factors and allocation of a certain minimum of them, with the help of which it is supposed to improve the technology of the enterprise.
4. Work on the implementation of each optimizing factor, followed by the definition of simplex quantities, in order to calculate the optimality criterion in the first approximation (by the sum of simplices).
5. Corresponding correction of the values of the optimality criteria by solving the regression equations, compiled with the help of mathematical planning of the experiment (mathematical modeling), if necessary, to obtain a higher accuracy, taking into account the synergistic effect in the implementation of optimizing factors. Variable values are simplex quantities in their probable limits.
6. A complete characteristic obtained by summing up the optimality criteria, each of which was due to simplex values within the progressivity index adopted at the beginning of the study. The main or complete characteristic of the technology can be obtained also as an average value by correlating its total value to the total number of accepted progressiveness indicators.
A more abridged methodical system is possible due to the permissible reduction in the number of optimality criteria and optimizing factors introduced into the technology characteristic and the quantitative evaluation of the degree of its progressivity.
At the first stage of research, you can limit yourself to half of the progressivity indicators: the consumption of natural raw materials, the productivity, the number of energy inputs - heat and electricity. Estimates are made from the calculation of the normal or increased unit of production produced at the enterprise by the technology being studied. At the same time, two compulsory conditions are observed: the products must be of superior quality and competitive; production of products should ensure the ecologization of technology as an indispensable element of humanization, optimal conditions for life and human activity. The remaining optimality criteria in this first stage of research can be omitted, but not because they are less important.
You can also go for the maximum possible reduction in the number of factors and, consequently, of simplex quantities. Moreover, in the first stage it is possible to limit ourselves to only the final data on the influence of a group of factors on the accepted indicator of the progressivity of technology.
Thus, the all-round increase in the level of progressivity of technologies using the adopted set of optimizing factors and their implementation in production constitutes an essential part of the introduction to practical technology. When reorganizing and developing new productions of this part, considerable attention is paid to possible preliminary programming. However, in conclusion, it should be noted that every progressive technology, no matter how perfect, becomes, in a greater or lesser period of time, less progressive, one, two or more. Of course, the reverse process is also possible, under the influence of the implementation of prophylactic factors of progressiveness. Therefore, the study of the real level of progressiveness of the technology of an operating enterprise (or firm) is an indispensable condition for their constant perfection.
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