THEORY OF STEEL MATERIALS SCIENCE, GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT...

THE FIRST THEORY OF STATISTICAL MATERIALS

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

SOME BASIC CONCEPTS

Construction materials science is a fundamental science of applied nature, which is a continuously developing system of knowledge about building materials and products. Without sufficient knowledge of the numerous varieties of building materials, their production methods and quality indicators, methods of their proper storage and use, it is impossible to design and build buildings, reconstruct or repair them, and actively participate in the activities of scientific, technical and construction organizations of the building profile. When solving scientific and production problems, they always strive to improve the quality and reduce the cost of building materials, and in architecture - and to increase their artistic expressiveness, as well as to increase the reliability of materials, products and building structures, their durability in buildings and engineering facilities.

Building materials science, like many other sciences, contains two main components - practice and theory. The structure of building materials science is very complex, but there is a close interconnection and interdependence of these two components.

Practice - the priority part of the fundamental science below, is the sum of knowledge: the production of building materials and products; on technological methods of processing (mechanical, chemical) raw materials with obtaining high-quality finished products; on technical characteristics of the quality of various building materials; on methods for testing their properties in laboratory and production conditions; on the practical use of materials and products in the construction of buildings, engineering structures and other construction sites. The level of practice and its success depend on the extent to which it is based on scientific principles (principles), whether modern achievements in science and technology are used in it, whether the effective basic elements of technology (raw materials, equipment and energy) are adopted and, most importantly, in due whether the degree of production corresponds to the level of progressive technology, taking into account the world's achievements in this industry.

In general estimates of a building object, the cost of materials usually accounts for 50-65%, so the savings in the construction of a building object depends largely on the effectiveness of the building materials and products used, the correct choice of them for the manufacture of structures and special purposes. In practice, various methods are being sought to reduce the cost of materials, increase their efficiency by reducing the material consumption and weight of structures, the release of building products and parts of increased factory readiness, and further expansion of the range. Particular attention is paid to the practice of matching materials to certain standards and standards in terms of appearance, properties. Deviations from standards and compliance with GOSTs can only be in the direction of improving the quality and artistic and aesthetic expressiveness (in architecture) of constructions.

Theory is the sum of knowledge about the significant links that arise in the processes of structure formation and the formation of properties of building materials at the stages of practical technology of processing raw materials or using finished products in construction. The main criterion for the reliability of the theory is, as you know, practice, which not only tests the theory, but enriches it with a set of new facts. On the basis of their subsequent analysis and systematization, the theory can be replenished with new regular connections. The latter become especially valuable if they refer not only to a single material, remaining a specific law (although usually very significant for a particular practice), but to a multitude of materials in their specific totality, for example, similar in structure. Then for such a multitude of materials, regularities become not private, but common. They can express themselves both in concrete and in abstract-logical form, for example, in the form of a mathematical equation. A certain physical meaning of the equation allows us to find methods for further improving practice.

'The theory of building materials science also reveals the essence of phenomena and processes associated with the emergence of new formations, micro- and macrostructural elements, their interrelations in the processing of raw materials and the formation (slow or rapid) of a single structure of monolithic building material or article during the technological period. In theory, there is also a single classification of diverse building materials, each of which, under appropriate conditions, obeys general scientific principles and basic objective laws. It focuses on optimization methods for the composition and structure of materials with the necessary properties, sets out a set of general scientific principles that underlie specific technological redistribution and are the essence of theoretical technology. Theories also include hypotheses, theorems, criteria and categories of building materials science.

In construction materials science, in addition to practice and theory as the main components, the third component is also presented - world outlook bases of science. They contribute to a sound forecasting of practice development, expansion and improvement of the nomenclature of building materials and products, their classification in communication with the use of new varieties of manufactured products.

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