AESTHETICS AS ANTHROPOLOGY OF ART, THE MEASURE OF HUMAN IN ART...

AESTHETICS AS ANTHROPOLOGY OF ARTS

HUMAN MEANING IN ART: HISTORICAL MODIFICATIONS

Anthropic principle in art

A fairly new line of aesthetic research, called "Anthropology of Art" began to be intensively developed in the last century in parallel with the development of philosophical anthropology. The problematic of this section is connected with the study of the influence that new languages ​​of art have on human thinking, on the nonlinear " forms of his perception. The anthropology of art also studies the impact of the latest art practices on the discovery of new areas of human sensuality, new spheres of imagination, new artistic expressive spaces. The modern artist is burdened with pain, anxiety about the threshold of human senses in modern world. Is it not so, that the anthropological and aesthetic dimensions of art today are in sharp confrontation, confrontation and extremely rarely in symbiosis? The paradox seems to be that fidelity to the imperatives of the humanistic principle, to the ideas of human protection, prompts today in many ways to reject the aesthetic measure that has recently seemed unconditional and immutable.

It will not be an exaggeration to say that for the most part the ordinary viewer refers to the newest creative searches, especially to actual art negatively. "This is not art", "it has nothing to do with creativity"; - such assessments in their mass are ubiquitous. What causes rejection, rejection of our contemporary? The answer is approximately this: the new languages ​​of art are not organic to the nature of man, they are repugnant to his being, they sweep away the experience and accumulation of previous masters who fought over ways to achieve perfection and beauty. In the new artistic vocabulary there is an element of randomness, variability, and this destroys the notion of immutability, ie. the uniqueness and uniqueness of the artistic decision as the fruit of intense labor and the author's extreme spiritual tension.

Evolution of ideas about the human measure in art

A special study of how the notion of humanistic meanings in art creativity has changed and is being conducted within the anthropology of art. The anthropic principle in art is the idea of ​​the human measure as a criterion for evaluating artistically expressive forms, past and present. The understanding of the anthropic principle is historically changeable. Each epoch demonstrates its own balance of conjugation of new artistic expressiveness with the notion of "the measure of human" established in a given society. For the theory of art this topic is not simple, because ethical norms accepted and reproduced in any culture, representations about the extent permitted, united by the general concept of the "anthropic principle", quite often come into conflict with the innovative search of painters, sculptors, writers. Before, until the XVIII century, it was assumed that the nature of man as a whole is constant, unchanged. Most philosophical interpretations were based on an understanding of its stability, constancy. Today we can judge that the interpretation and adoption of a measure of the human in different periods of history was very dissimilar.

Revival, as we know, with new strength develops the anthropic principle of antiquity, with all the pathos of its artistic achievements, confirming the idea of ​​Protagoras: "Man is the measure of all things." Later, since the XVIII century, the Enlightenment quite consciously spoke and argued about the dramatic fate of individuality in the history of culture. The emergence of theories of the "partial man", losing the fullness of being, tied to the fulfillment of a single function in capitalist production, the loss of opportunities for self-realization gave birth to new discussions about the socially proper measure of the human. In connection with this, the seemingly somewhat encouraging idea expressed by Kant and Diderot was widely discussed: "The fact that a person loses in history as an individual, he wins as a kind." However, the subsequent stages of history have shown that the constantly erupting conflicts between the interests of the individual and the interests of society, the exploitation of man by systems of economic and political power have a distorting effect on the nature and historical destinies of man.

Why human measure constantly modified in the history of art? Of course, the dominant socio-ethical norms already had an impact on artistic creativity, but this is by no means the only factor of influence. In fact, any major artist - a person internally free, strong-willed, self-sufficient. He does not translate the generally accepted norms in his work, does not reproduce the ideas already adapted by society, but develops his own. The artist's task is to lead an unintended search, his own intelligence, interpreting the modern states of the world in their meaning for man. For this reason, every artist is a spontaneous existentialist.

Integrative observation of the artistic process prompts the conclusion that in a number of cases, creativity itself, without regard for customary norms, has been manifesting a new measure of the human in the history of culture. At the same time, the authors' artistic messages, their bold figurative equivalents of the surrounding world, entered noticeable tensions, discrepancies, gaps with the expectations of the society. Offering his interpretation of the world, revealing the wounds and vulnerabilities of a person, plunging into the depths of his subconscious, art systematically "broke", seemingly absolute, undeniable "scale" human and declared a new anthropic measure. Socium reacts painfully to any slightest shift in the interpretation of adapted and customary norms, both general cultural and artistic, whether it is a new interpretation of the principle of artistic integrity, bold conjugation of harmonic and disharmonic, dynamic experiments with composition, unexpected color and light solutions, "loosening" unusual iconography of the mimetic premises of the image. "Art overwhelms stereotypes that allow an ordinary person to sleep peacefully," Anatole France loved to repeat. This thesis captures the essence of the nature of creativity, when any artist actually starts from scratch. When he does not know in advance, "how should I". If the author does not want to be an imitator and imitator - he is called to surpass the already adapted measurements, he always starts again. In this sense, any act of creativity is, of course, a process of continuous self-elevation, the ability to go beyond yourself, beyond the boundaries of an already existing.

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