Conclusion, Glossary - Business Ethics


To paraphrase the well-known saying of the times of developed socialism in the USSR, "The economy must be economical," one can say: "The economy must be moral," which depends on the level of morality of people included in the sphere of business relations. The great philosopher I. Kant believed that in any, even seemingly insignificant acts, a person should think with a thought to rise above the ordinary and momentary benefits and understand that each of his actions, involving certain people, things and circumstances, will somehow respond to all of humanity. And although there is a gap between what is proper and what is proper, morality and business practices, the ethical ideal of due and following it ultimately determines our future.


Altruism ( altruism from Latin alter - other) - the ethical principle, consisting in disinterested care of the "neighbor's good"; is opposed to selfishness.

Argument (lat argumentum - story, argument) is a proposition (or a set of interrelated judgments) by means of which the truth of some other proposition (or theory) is justified.

Argumentation (from Latin argumentatio - casting arguments) - bringing arguments or arguments to change the position or the belief of the other party.

Asceticism - restriction and suppression of sensual drives and desires, readiness for self-restraint to achieve religious or ethical goals.

Good (in ethics) is a synonym for good, everything that has a positive value for a person and society.

Politeness - a moral quality that characterizes the behavior of a person for whom respect for people has become a daily rule of conduct.

Question is a type of judgment that involves a lack of information about the relevant object and requires a response, explanation.

Hedonism - an ethical concept in which the content of moral requirements is reduced to the enjoyment and avoidance of suffering.

Humanistic concept - an ethical concept that recognizes a person as the highest value.

Delicacy (from Latin delicatus - gentle, subtle, refined, effeminate) is such a form of politeness , which manifests itself with particular softness, subtlety, sensitivity to people.

Business conversation - oral communication between people, related business relations, a specially organized subject conversation aimed at solving business problems.

Business communication - process of interaction of business partners, a specific exchange of information of intellectual and emotional content, meaningful for communication participants to achieve the goals of joint activities.

Business ethics - a historically formed set of moral precepts, norms, assessments, codes and scientific theories about the proper behavior of the individual in business activities, arising from social functions and conditioned by the specifics of the profession .

Business Communication is a specific form of communication, the defining content of which is the joint activity of people, their common cause.

Business Letter - is a kind of document whose function is to regulate business relationships between organizations and business partners.

Business meeting form of joint discussion of issues with the aim of making decisions on them.

Business negotiations - a form of communication between business partners, aimed at jointly solving problems affecting their interests.

Activity - is a specifically human form of active relation to the world around, the content of which constitutes one hundred expedient change and transformation in the interests of people.

Dynamics of the conflict - the course of the conflict development under the influence of objective and subjective factors.

Good - is what meets the needs, interests and hopes of people, which is good for them.

Contract - a document fixing the legal relationships of business partners.

Proof - the procedure for establishing the truth of an assertion by reducing other statements, the truth of which is unquestionable.

Debt - an ethical category that denotes the moral duty of a person to other people and society, state, party or social group; carried out from the motives of conscience or under the influence of public opinion.

Commandment - moral or political attitude in the form of behavior emanating from reputable individuals and organizations.

Evil - a phenomenon opposite to good; something that contradicts the needs, interests, goals and ideals of people, is not for their benefit.

Ideal (Latin idealis from the Greek idea - image, sample, norm) - an ideal image, having a regulatory character, determining the way and character of the behavior, activity of a person or social group.

Ideal moral - concept of moral perfection, the highest moral image.

Irony (from other Greek - eironeia - pretense) - denial or mockery, pretense; parable, when the true meaning of the utterance is not directly expressed, but opposite to it.

Communication (from Latin communicatio - message, transfer) - communication, exchange of thoughts, information, ideas, transfer of a content from one subject to another.

Compromise (from Latin compromissum) - an agreement based on mutual concessions; strategy of behavior in the conflict, focused on certain concessions in exchange for concessions from the opponent.

Competition (from Latin concurrere - collide, compete) is one of the forms of social interaction of people, consisting in the achievement of goals in the conditions of their confrontation.

Conflict (from Latin - joint blow) - the highest form of development of the contradiction arising in the process of interaction parties, manifested in an open clash of opinions, positions and forces.

The culture of business communication - the established order of behavior in business and business contacts.

Culture of communication - a complex integral concept that determines the quality and degree of communication perfection, includes a set of practical techniques, norms, rules of communication.

Personality is a concept that denotes the totality of the stable social and psychological qualities of a person that make up his personality.

False - deliberate distortion of the actual state of things.

Moral - is the spiritual and practical side of public life, a complex value-normative system that determines the relationships and activities of people from the standpoint of historically changing perceptions about good, evil, justice, duty on the basis of voluntary and conscious choice.

Moral (moral) activity (practice) is the sphere of morality in which moral consciousness and attitude are realized, incarnating into concrete deeds.

Moral (moral) consciousness - is a form of social and individual consciousness, which includes a set of moral norms, principles, values, knowledge, beliefs, ideals, feelings, emotions of people in terms of their perceptions of good and evil, honor and dishonor, justice, duty, etc.

Moral norms - rules of behavior that are established in society in accordance with the moral notions of people about good and evil, justice and injustice, duty , honor, dignity and are protected by the power of public opinion or inner conviction.

Moral (moral) relations - a kind of social relations that expresses the nature of the relationship between a person and society, a team, another person on the basis of existing moral norms and concepts. >

Moral principles - is a generalized expression of moral requirements to a person that directs him in moral practice, determine the nature of a person's relationship to the world and society .

Moral values ​​ are elements that are recognized as correct, important and should be accepted by individuals and society as a whole as established norms of morality.

Motivation - is the motivation that induces a person's mental activity and determines its direction.

Thinking - the highest stage of the psychic, including the cognitive activity of man, mediated and generalized knowledge of the phenomena of reality.

Morality - is a concept used in speech as a synonym for morality, and sometimes - ethics; practical actions, actions and their consequences in terms of their spiritual and moral assessment.

Moral needs - the highest degree of moral consciousness of a business person, characterized by the need for compliance with ethical requirements.

Moral beliefs - based on experience and knowledge, the confidence of a business person in the justice of moral requirements.

Feedback - the recipient's response to the sender's message, an expression of feelings and thoughts about the speech and behavior of the partner.

Communication is a complex multi-faceted process of establishing and developing people-to-people contacts, generated by the needs of joint activities and involving the exchange of information, the development of a unified strategy of interaction, perception and understanding of another person .

Control Object - is a single individual or a group of people targeted by the systematic and planned impacts of the management entity.

Optimism (from Latin optimus - the best) - the notion that the world is dominated by a positive beginning, good; expresses a trusting attitude to the world and opposes pessimism.

Reply - a new statement that specifies or complements the original information in accordance with the question posed.

Responsibility is a concept meaning a person's sense and understanding of his duty and duties to other people, groups, society.

Patriotism (from the Greek patria - fatherland) - love of the homeland, its people and its culture, readiness to serve their country.

Negotiations - a form of business communication, focused on joint discussion and resolution of problems affecting the interests of business partners.

Perfectionism - An installation that states that the highest moral value is perfection, which includes, first of all, virtues, as well as the development of talents and talents inherent in man.


Pragmatism - a concept expressing an attitude to act in its own interests, with benefit, benefit to itself.

Professional responsibility - is a concept that reflects a special social and moral attitude of a specialist's personality to other people, to a society characterized by the fulfillment of a moral duty.

Professional conscience - is an awareness of duty that helps a specialist to look at the content, results of his work from the standpoint of universal moral values.

Professional Honor - Awareness of high social value, need and importance of selfless performance of professional duty by employees.

Professional Debt - acting as an inner experience compelling to act in accordance with the needs emanating from the values ​​formed by professional activity.

Professional measure expresses the ability and ability of a specialist to realize moral values ​​in specific living conditions, especially in a business environment, where the object of activity is ultimately not a tangible product people.

Reflective listening - the process of actively deciphering the meaning of the message during the conversation. We use such decoding methods as asked questions, please repeat the phrase, paraphrase the spoken interlocutor, summarize.

Speech is a historically formed form of communication between people using the language.

Rhetoric - the science of oratorical art.

Manual - personalized activity of an official in the organization, related to the direct management of personnel.

Sinton (literally: consonance, unison, harmony) is a sign of a sincere acceptance of another person.

Listening is the process of a person's directional perception of auditory stimuli and attributing meaning to them.

Hear non-reflexive - a careful auditory perception of the message without interfering with the speaker's speech.

Listening reflexive is the process of decoding the meaning of messages and establishing an active feedback to the speaker.

Conscience - the property of moral consciousness, which means the inner conviction of a person in what is good and evil; awareness of responsibility for their behavior.

Rivalry - strategy of the opponent's behavior in the conflict, consisting in the orientation to his interests, imposing on the other side the preferred solution for himself in open struggle.

Collaboration - a strategy of behavior in a conflict, which consists in the orientation toward joint search for a solution that satisfies the interests of all parties.

Fairness - the notion of due, containing the requirement of conformity of deed and retribution: in particular, the conformity of rights and obligations, labor and reward, merit and recognition, crime and punishment .

Means of communication - ways of encoding, transferring, processing and deciphering information transmitted during communication.

Verbal communication tools (Latin - verbal) is a way of conveying information through speech.

Non-verbal communication means - extralinguistic forms and ways of conveying information through facial expressions, gestures, voice intonations, etc.

Controls are management methods that represent the system of measures used by the management entity to influence the management object.

Management style is a method, a system of methods for influencing a leader on subordinates.

The leadership style of the directive (authoritarian) - characterized by high centralization of leadership, unanimity in decision-making, strict control over the activities of subordinates. The style of leadership is collegiate (democratic) - characterized by the desire of the manager to work out solutions together with subordinates, the distribution of authority and responsibility between the manager and his subordinates.

Permissionary style (liberal) - is characterized by minimal participation of the leader in the management team.

Stoicism - direction in ancient philosophy, the general ethical position of which was the statement of the goal of human life as a pursuit of happiness, the path to which lies through renunciation of all passions.

Negotiation strategy - the most general, forward-looking negotiation planning, aimed at achieving the negotiation goal.

Governance - a leader, a person with authority and carrying out managerial activities.

Tactics - a set of techniques and methods that determine the way the strategy is implemented.

Tactfulness - a sense of proportion that allows a person to accurately capture the border between people, the violation of which causes resentment, irritation and creates a conflict situation.

Tolerance - Tolerance for a different worldview, lifestyle, behavior and customs.

Vanity (from vain (vain) + fame) is a socio-psychological property of a person, in which arrogance, reassessment of one's abilities, desire for veneration and glory is expressed.

Persuasion - A consciously reasoned effect on a person or group of people with a view to changing their judgments, attitudes, intentions or decisions.

Conviction - the confidence of the individual in his rightness, supported by appropriate arguments and facts.

Respect - attitude towards a person, based on the recognition of its merits.

Manage - the process of influencing an individual, a group of people or an organization aimed at solving the task.

Utilitarianism - is an ethical concept according to which the moral value of behavior or deed is determined by its utility.

Value - what is significant for a person, social groups and society to meet the needs and interests.

The values ​​of communication - those standards are due, which are realized in the process of communication and define it from a moral point of view.

Value orientations people's orientation to this or that system of material and spiritual values.

Cynicism (from other Greek - the teaching of the Cynics) is a frank, defiantly contemptuous and contemptuous attitude to the norms of public morals, cultural values ​​and ideas of decency.

Selfishness - behavior, wholly determined by the thought of one's own benefit, when the individual puts his interests above the interests of others.

Empathy - comprehending the emotional state of another person in the form of empathy, empathy, the ability to put yourself in the place of another.

Ethics - a philosophical discipline that studies morality and morality: their principles, development, norms and role in society.

Ethics of business communication - a historically formed set of moral precepts, norms, assessments, codes on proper behavior of the individual in business communication.

Ethics of management - a system of moral norms that determine the behavior of the subject of management in any managerial situation.

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