Ethical norms of discussion and argumentationParticipants in business communication do not passively pass on information to each other and take note of it: they debate, try to convince interlocutors of the correctness of their views, defend, prove and defend the truth of their judgments, refute those views that are considered false.
Discussion (from Latin - review, research) is a discussion of controversial issues and problems that in business relations arise constantly. Which supplier to choose? How best to organize control of the performance discipline? What are the criteria for choosing the best employees? With what proposals to enter the negotiations? It is impossible to list all the problems that need to be discussed and identify the best ways to solve them. An important characteristic of the discussion, which distinguishes it from other types of dispute, is reasoning.
In the practice of business communication, questions inevitably arise: how to justify your position, how to convince an opponent, to persuade your point of view, what are the rules for conducting a discussion and dispute? These questions are not only technical, but also ethical.
The ethical nature of the argumentation is determined by the fact that the subjects of this activity recognize each other as free persons who have a moral right to their opinion, to the right to reject the argument. Let us note that in concrete situations of business interaction, argumentation is far from always moral. It can be used to deceive, deliberately mislead the business partner, to induce a person to commit acts that are contrary to his interests. Everything depends on moral attitudes.
Proof and reasoning in business interaction
Pointless disputes, when opponents do not understand each other's positions and misinterpret them, do not know how to justify their position, but also clearly formulate it, are often associated not with malicious intent, but with the lack of basic knowledge in the field of logic and theory of argumentation .
The laws of correct thinking are studied by logic.
The basic logical laws that determine the correctness of thinking are: the law of identity, the law of contradiction, the law of excluded middle and the law of sufficient grounds.
The law of identity says that in the process of reasoning, every concept and proposition must be identical to itself, i.e. must be definite and remain unambiguous throughout the entire reasoning and conclusion. The law of identity acts as a normative rule for any discussion and discussion of the problem. In the process of reasoning, one can not substitute one thought for another, one concept for another. You can not give identical thoughts for different, and different - for identical. Violation of the law of identity leads to ambiguity, as, for example, shown with humor by N. Gogol: "Nozdryov was in a sense a historical person. None of the meetings where he was, did not do without the story & quot ;. Violation of the law of identity manifests itself in the substitution of concepts, in their use not in the sense that is appropriate in this situation, in substituting one subject for discussion with others, and as a result people talk about different things, thinking that they speak about the same thing. >
The law of contradiction Aristotle considered the most reliable of all the beginnings. In short, it is formulated as follows: it is impossible to both affirm and deny something at the same time. The idea expressed in the law is simple: a statement about the same thing and its negation can not be true at the same time in the same respect. Attributing incompatible properties to the same object, one can make a mistake - a logical contradiction: "Two corpses have been found: one dead and the other still alive"; "Investigate an anonymous letter and report the results to the author". A logical contradiction is a contradiction of inconsistent, muddled reasoning.
The law of the excluded middle is formulated as follows: "Of two conflicting judgments, one is true, and the other is false, and the third is not given." This law can not be absolutized: it is applicable where there is a clear choice of one of the alternatives formulated in contradictory judgments. In the process of knowledge, uncertain situations are often found.
The law of good reason argues that each provision must be sufficiently substantiated. And if a particular conclusion claims to be true, then it must be built on the appropriate factual or logical, but in any case sufficient basis.
What is the proof? By the proof in logic is meant the "procedure for establishing the truth of some assertion by bringing other statements the truth of which is already known and from which necessarily follows the first".
In the proof, the thesis, arguments and the demon grace are distinguished.
Thesis is an assertion that you need to prove.
Arguments, or arguments, are the initial theoretical or factual positions that substantiate the thesis. They are the logical basis and answer the question: what, with the help of what is the substantiation of the thesis?
Demonstration is a logical link between arguments and thesis (see Figure 7.1). If there is no logical connection between the arguments and what is being proved, then the proof itself is not obtained (as a rule, in this case another, and not the desired, thesis is proved).
Beyond logic, a broader meaning is embedded in the concept of proof. In this case, the proof is understood as any procedure for substantiating the truth of the thesis.
Fig. 7.1. Demonstration
Although logic deals directly with the logical structure of evidence, the persuasive impact of judgments in the process of proof depends not only on the logical factor, but also on extralogical factors: linguistic, psychological, rhetorical. The complex doctrine of the most effective in the process of communication of logical and extralogical methods and methods of persuasive influence is developed in the theory of argumentation. This theory answers such questions as: the ways of substantiating and refuting beliefs, the dependence of these methods on the audience and the problem under discussion, the originality of the substantiation in different areas of thinking and activity.
Argumentation is the operation of justifying any judgments, in which, along with logical ones, speech, emotional-psychological and other methods and methods of action are also applied.Affect the beliefs of partners in communication can be not only through speech, verbally expressed arguments, but in many other ways: gesture, facial expressions, intonation, etc. Even silence in certain cases turns out to be a strong enough argument.
Argumentation is a verbal influence that includes a system of statements intended to justify or refute an opinion. It is addressed first of all to the mind of a person who is capable of judging, accepting or rejecting this opinion. The ultimate goal of argumentation is to convince the interlocutor of the fairness of the proposition proposed to his attention, to incline to his acceptance and, possibly, to the action he is supposed to take.
The logical basis of the argument is a proof, the structure of which is fully included in the structure of the argumentation, but does not exhaust it completely. This is due to the fact that conviction is connected not only with reason, but with feelings. Therefore, it is advisable to talk about the logical and psychological components of the argument.
The difference between proof and argumentation is contained in their goals and means. The purpose of the proof is to establish the truth or falsity of the thesis. The purpose of the argument is not only to establish the truth of the thesis, but also the rationale for making a true thesis.
The basis of the proof lies in logical means, and in the basis of the argument - both logical and psychological means.
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