As the history of the development of mankind shows, the universal morality is one of the main essential achievements of human civilization and is itself the most important social value. Today, awareness of the priority of universal values comes with an urgent need to resolve global problems in the form of planetary hazards.Achievements in scientific and technological progress have actualized the problem of moral responsibility to humanity for the possible social consequences of their implementation and use, for immoral, incompetent political and managerial decisions that may pose a threat to the health, well-being and even life of entire regions, countries, continents and humanity as a whole. "Man first realistically realized that he is a resident of the planet and can - must think and act in a new aspect, not only in the aspect of an individual, family or clan, states or their unions, but also in the planetary aspect."
Increasing pollution and depletion of critical life support resources pose a threat to environmental catastrophe, and behind this are ill-conceived, and even criminal decisions of officials capable of causing irreparable harm to life and health of people.
The development of technical means of information transfer, which allows manipulating mass consciousness, forming interests, tastes, lifestyle and even the world view of virtually unlimited audience of radio listeners, viewers, Internet users ". and other modern technical means, testifies not only to the growing process of the internationalization of modern life, but also to the formation in the mainstream of this process of new ideas about the role of morality in the life of man, society, all mankind.
Each historically specific social form is characterized by a specific set and hierarchy of values, the system of which acts as the highest level of social regulation. In the process of formation and development of society, its value-normative system is formed, which reflects the degree of the real correlation of ideals and interests of all social strata and groups of society.Socio-political and ethical principles stemming from the content of the US Constitution and shared by the majority of citizens - peace, patriotism, commitment to public interest, the rule of law, social justice, social justice and the rule of law - are the highest values in our society in the conditions of the formation of a legal, social, democratic state, duty and responsibility, human dignity.
Moral values - the highest impersonal values, acting simultaneously in the form of requirements, principles, norms and rules, and as evaluation criteria; one of the forms of manifestation of the moral relations of society.
The multifunctional and fundamental nature of moral values recognized by society is expressed in the fact that they act in the unity of universal values (meaning of life, freedom, happiness, humanity, duty, responsibility), democratic (public service, legality, loyalty), professional (professionalism, responsibility, innovation) and moral values (honesty, decency, justice, responsibility, incorruptibility), inseparably related among themselves.
Moral values always arise to meet the needs, conditioned by man's striving for good, justice, honesty, welfare of society as a whole, acting as the highest reference and the content that is asserted in any norm without exception. In a personified form, they appear in the form of ideals (good, good, duty, responsibility, conscience, honor, dignity). Therefore, they are always absolute, transpersonal and objective, forming the basis for motivating human behavior and actions, the moral foundation of their life position.
Specific expression of moral values found in the content of principles, norms and rules governing the behavior of the individual, social groups, the general rots.
The ethical principle is one of the forms of moral consciousness in which moral demands are expressed in the most general form, reflecting the requirements developed in the moral consciousness of society or certain social groups concerning the moral essence of man, his purpose, meaning hundred activities, the nature of his relationships with people.
Moral requirements, expressed in the ethical principle in the most general form, are specified in the moral norm.
The moral norm (lat sweat rule, pattern) is one of the simplest forms of moral demand; an element of moral relations, a custom that is constantly reproduced in the same acts of a multitude of people as a moral law, mandatory for every person; form of moral consciousness, expressed in the form of commandments and formulated in the form of a command, equally addressed to all people, as well as self-direction.
Ethical norms crystallize in the process of the progressive development of mankind, clothed in the forms of universal values, are developed by each society in its specific historical origin, separate groups, including professional groups and each individual. By belonging to the carriers of values are distinguished:
are personal norms.
Universal moral standards express the universal moral requirements of the hostel, based on the recognition of the absolute value of human life. As the history of the development of mankind shows, "universal human morality is one of the main essential achievements of human civilization and is itself the most important social value."
Human values constitute the foundation of the morality of each society. Spontaneously emerging on their basis in the public consciousness, formed in the practice of mass behavior, in the process of interaction of people norms of public morality serve as a means of organizing the hostel of their members, formulating, regulating, regulating, assessing relationships, interaction and behavior of people.
Verbalizing in the form of commandments, rules, norms of public morality apply their demands to all members of a given society, regulate human behavior in all spheres of public life, supporting and sanctioning in a general form certain social principles, the system of life, and communication. Their regulating action is routinely ensured, on the one hand, by the force of mass habits, demands and assessments of public opinion, on the other, by the dictates of the "inner voice" an individual based on his personal conviction.
In the process of primary socialization and the subsequent expansion of social experience, a person is included in various social groups, including the professional ones, which make up his nearest social environment, providing conditions for the manifestation of the personality, the deployment of its behavior, the formation of socially significant qualities.
In the process of his professional activity, a person is included in a complex system of formal and informal relations, becomes a member of the prescribed and self-arising groups. Each of them develops its own system of values and group norms, between which there is always a greater or lesser degree of inconsistency, and sometimes even inconsistency.
The main regulator of intra-organizational relations is the norms of behavior adopted in the group, the "prestige scale". And that they act, a mechanism is developed for the socio-psychological control of the group for each of its members in the form of positive sanctions (satisfaction of the need for recognition, respect, belonging) or negative (condemnation, ostracism).
Group norms are standardized rules of behavior that are accepted by group members as legitimate definitions of the group's expected functions. They ensure the inclusion of the individual in the group, in the processes and mechanisms of group interaction, affect all types of human behavior, even when he becomes a member of another group. The informal sanctions reinforced by the system, they are one of the most effective mechanisms of social control over the individual, the means of intragroup cohesion, intragroup solidarity, cohesion and mutual understanding directed against centrifugal tendencies leading to the destruction of the community. This is facilitated by the very fact of recognition of belonging to the group, common group interests, goals and values, reflected in the mind and feeling "we".
This enhances the moral density (E. Durkheim) civil servants and the sense of their group identification.In morally healthy groups, group norms, while not ignoring universal human values and not conflicting with the requirements of public morality, play a positive role, supporting in their members a sense of professional patriotism, "team cohesion", social responsibility for their actions and deeds, meeting the requirements of professional ethics.
In groups with deviant goals that serve the departmental or personal interests of their members, neglecting the interests of society, the state and even their organization, their own "wolf" moral laws, the pressure of which on the members of the group, backed by a system of informal sanctions, is known to be one of the most effective mechanisms of social control over a person, forcing her to commit abnormal acts that contradict the norms, rules, attitudes, values that are shared or recognized by lawful in society. Such a group is able to subordinate a person, compel him to act contrary to his convictions, but only if staying in a group for a person is more valuable than being true to one's own principles, or if rejection from or leaving the group jeopardizes material well-being, health or even life.By occupying a certain position in a society, social group, and fulfilling one or another social role, a person assimilates given and develops personal norms, prescribes a personal position and forms of social behavior in which the process of his existence personality. Personal norms act as an integrative characteristic of the subjective world of man, correlate with his concept of self, therefore they do not need to be internalized, "assimilation". Adherence to personal norms strengthens self-esteem, high self-esteem, confidence in the correctness of their actions and deeds. Retreat from them is associated with a sense of guilt, self-condemnation and even a violation of personality.
If ethical principles and norms contain requirements for the behavior and actions of the individual, indicating what to do, to be a moral person, then the rules of behavior prescribe, how this should be done. >
The rule of behavior is a specific prescription that establishes the order of actions and actions of a person, the algorithm of his behavior in accordance with established principles and norms.