The movement of the artistic image to more and more mediation
If we trace the fate of the concept of mimesis in European art theory and practice, we can find that the movement of artistic creativity was on the way of seeking more and more indirect connections between the surrounding world and those meanings that the artist sought to generate, mastering his subject- a sensual texture. Already at the end of ancient culture, in the early Christian art the image increasingly acquires a character, its image and meaning begin to bind together not spontaneously, but in many ways conventionally Naturally: symbolism of the image must unravel, its iconography (appearance) is often encrypts the content that does not flow naturally into the designated. The esoteric nature of the artistic image was elaborated in detail in the philosophy of early patristicism (see Chapter 3). All these trends brought together the concepts of image and of the sign.
The higher the semantic (semantic) density of content, located in in an artistic way, the stronger its character character. For example, a medieval man (before the Renaissance) which means just admire the scenery. Since the ideal aesthetic objects at that time were ineffable and hidden entities, the language of art was also subject to a certain cultural and historically established "semantics" and syntax. The condensation of the iconic nature of the artistic image in any epoch presupposes the existence of a single, for members of a given socium of a countable alphabet of signs and the rules of their compatibility.
The study of the symbolic nature of artistic creativity deals with a special scientific discipline - semiotics of art. It is quite natural that the interest of the spider in how this or that mentality is melted into the language of art is associated with attention to the most "semiotic" ; genres of art. According to Yu. Lotman's accurate observation, the "still life is usually given as the least" literary " kind of painting. One might say that this is the most "linguistic" its kind. It is no coincidence that interest in a still-life, as a rule, coincides with the periods when the question of studying the art of one's own language becomes a conscious problem. "Indeed, the penetration of a certain social and historical-cultural code into the interior of the designated one makes it possible to understand and appreciate the essential role of the iconic figures or of the iconic images of this era, to better understand its mentality, internal aspirations, hidden experiences. It is important, however, to avenge that the process of meaning formation in art can not be reduced to the study of external and internal connections between images-signs. The artistic image can never be interpreted as a means to convey any meaning (although it has these capabilities). The subject-sensory texture of the image has, to a certain extent, an purposeful character. Any artistic image is just as much an object-thought, in what and the subject-feeling. Flickering and layering of emotional reactions that causes the sensual effect of a work, are consciously "laid down" its author. For this reason, images of any kind of art are always provocateurs the elements of lyrical memory, immediate immediate experience, flashing instantly, even on the pre-logical perception of art. As much as the condensed or rarefied character of the artistic image of different epochs was condensed or rarefied, the nature of artistic perception does not imply any division of the image into a sensory appearance and sign, to an artistic reality and separately to the symbol . Such indissolubility of artistic forms limits the possibility of a semiotic analysis of art that leaves "behind the scenes" all the living sensual richness of the image, its unaffected by the reflection of the paint.
However, the increasingly sophisticated search for mediated links between the surrounding real world and the meanings that the artist seeks to convey through this world is an objective process. It expresses not only the artist's desire to differentiate himself in any way, to be unlike anybody; in many ways this and respect to the reader, viewer, listener. The artist refuses to rolled up methods of recreating linear relations, direct associations, but tends to stimulate the richer internal possibilities of the viewer, the reader, to provoke his imagination in a new way, teaching to unite the formerly incompatible, making art not merely informative but interesting, entertaining, corresponding to the level of cultural self-awareness of the epoch.
Both aesthetics and artistic practice have realized, consciously and unconsciously, that all that is expressed indirectly, indirectly, is capable of charging us with a stronger aesthetic energy, than that which is stated directly, directly. Art, cultivating devices of allegory and mediation, is able to strengthen its heuristic nature, raise its own status, while realizing that it does not reside "in slavish" relations with the outside world.
This observation is equally applicable to both high philosophical images of art and everyday. One of the heroes of AP Chekhov, for example, well understood that any compliment pronounced directly, "in the forehead" ("I like you"), as a rule, is insipid, vulgar, turns into failure. In contrast to the language of linear speech he invented his techniques, at the right moment, suddenly asking with surprise, "Where did you get the eyes of the sea siren?" and immediately the next question: "Do you always smile as if trying to hide your beauty?" Similar dictionary mediated ways of expressing on different occasions can be fixed both at the ordinary level and among artistic stamps.
As already noted, the dominant ideological context of the epoch actualizes such types of creativity that correspond to the spirit of the given society. Therefore, the typology of relations between art and reality can be represented through two polar tendencies. In the first case, the artist sees his task as expressing the ideal position of man in the world, in the second - by artistic means to embody the forms of human presence in the world. The difference is obvious. Recreating the ideal position of the person proceeds from the belief that under any conditions the author must find and affirm the positive poles of reality, depicting the world more sublime than he really is. In the second case, the basis of creativity is the idea that, by idealizing reality, the artist disorients the person, immerses him in an illusory state. Art will help a person only in the event that he will show it and from an impartial side. Recreating all possible forms of human presence in the world involves involving a mass of negative material into art - for all disastrous and catastrophic tendencies, no matter how disastrous, exist as components of the real world.
Choosing this or that optics of creativity, the artist somehow relies on global ideas about the possibilities of his art. What does a person expect from a meeting with art? The epistemology of art proceeds from the fact that a person not only wants to receive artistic pleasure, but also pursues the goal with the help of art to find stability in this world. He would like to be aware of his hidden springs, to compare different types of human relations, to put himself in the place of different characters, to live many lives and, as a result, to deepen in himself the measure of understanding of the surrounding. Therefore, for a person, Artistic patterns and patterns of behavior, according to which he could build his life. They were particularly insisted on didactically oriented art, the cultural policy of totalitarian states.
However, cultivation of internal experience can not occur in "sterile" conditions. Art allows you to try on the opposite roles, to be tempted not only in the realm of good, but also evil, without limiting the perception of the world in certain frames. Until the XVIII century. in philosophy, the formula was distributed: being so refers to non-being, how life relates to death.
Insolvency is obvious, because being is something that is internally consistent, constant and eternal. Life is dualistic, antinomic, all woven out of contradictions. Therefore, being includes life and death. M. Foucault specifically noted: "Life kills, because it lives .
For the emergence of new forms of life, capable of greater self-protection, it is necessary that the old ones leave; The experience of defeats charges new generations with a greater vital and life-affirming force. And if so, then the subject of art are not only creative, but also destructive processes of life. When we evaluate the super-task art, having in mind its operation with the negative and positive material of reality, we must also see the difference between the goals of man and the goals of mankind. The life of every individual can come to a dead end, but the life of mankind as a kind is not so folds. In the end, everything comes down to specific gravity, to components, the interpretation of positive and negative material, when we are talking about the artistic reconstruction of global contradictions. In fact, from the moment when the beautiful became associated with the art cathartic in antiquity, an aesthetic substantiation of the stability of the artistic world, which was not susceptible to the invasion of negative images of life, was given.Thinking about the interaction of art and reality, about the nature of artistic mimesis, one can not help touching the problem of realism. Until recently, this concept had an estimated character, i.e. not just served as a designation of a certain artistic flow, but opposed to all other styles, trends and trends. Criteria of realism have always been blurred, because this or that conjugation of art and reality can be found in anyone. For ideological purposes, Rembrandt, NV Gogol, and M. Yu. Lermontov were included in the realists.
Interesting ideas on this score was expressed by the French aesthetist P. Garaudy. In the "About realism without shores" he justifies the thesis that there are no criteria for realism in art that would act as an "extra-historic norm." Just as the value of scientific research can not be judged solely from already known laws of dialectics, so and the value of a work of art can not be judged on the basis of criteria derived from previous works. " When one speaks of realism, it is implied that its figurative system is entirely based on the images of the surrounding, visible world. This, of course, does not mean that realistic works take precedence in interpreting, interpreting, understanding human nature. The historical life of art demonstrates that some methods of artistic vision are replaced by others, which allow us to judge the extent to which the artist has penetrated the explicit and implicit sides of the world. It follows that the term "realism" in itself can not be considered either encouraging, or as abusive. This concept, uniting a large array of works and artists, is located in a series of other, denoting the trends of art to and after realism.
The idea that no type of artistic vision can be understood as a timeless norm of art, inspired the aesthetic creativity of Jose Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955). In the work of "Dehumanization of Art the Spanish theorist has developed the thesis that all artistic techniques and styles are transient, the constant and absolute is the process of a person's self-knowledge, always trying to view himself in a more complex coordinate system, to understand and see from the side. Ortega believes that at the beginning of the 20th century. there was a radical change that tore art from the classical forms of interaction with the surrounding world. Artistic techniques, developed in due time on the basis of traditional forms of artistic imitation (mimesis), in the late stages of the development of art were brought almost to automatism. The exploitation of the new art of the language of traditional art Ortega defines as "dishonest reception", in which melodrama and salon painting especially succeeded. Artists, in his opinion, know too well the evocative possibilities of art, the ways of creating emotional effects, achievable with the help of well-known dramaturgic moves, compositions, and they are easily calculated. However, aesthetic pleasure of this kind is "unclean", reduces the role of artistic influence to elementary emotional detente, while art is called to "unravel the metamorphosis of the world" and create "something that does not copy nature and, however, would have a certain content, it implies a higher gift".
According to Ortega, a man in the XX century. is so complex, ambiguous, knows so little about itself that art, referring to it, is already incapable of drawing on the visible realities of the external world, exhausted its symbolism and all its possible combinations. The new language of art, the philosopher believes, is designed to liberate artistic ideas and meanings from identity with things. The stubborn desire to keep oneself within the boundaries of the ordinary, everyday is always a weakness, a decline in vitality. If we are accustomed to the canons of classical art and live by them, then this is an element of degradation, "clinging" for the past. Art can make a new breakthrough, which should be associated with the ability to cultivate purely artistic techniques that allow you to comprehend the hidden, look beyond the visible and perceivable boundaries of the world. The categorical statement of the Spanish philosopher poet begins where the person ends means that human-sentimental content today is not the basis upon which great artistic generalizations can take place. In this and the meaning of the concept dehumanization as a trend of modern art.
Much can be said that Ortega is the theoretician of modernism. He tries in every way to show that the line, sound, color, light themselves can be sufficiently expressive, they need to experiment with, expand their transcendental possibilities. Despite the subjectivity of Ortega's predilections and assessments, it was certainly possible to grope for the core trends of the art of the 20th century.
The absence of obvious continuity in the history of the development of methods of artistic cognition, unlike the scientific one, is explained by the fact that for the artist the surrounding world is not interesting in itself, but always in its meaning for man. And if each new step in scientific knowledge can be made only on the basis of achievements of predecessors, then art, on the contrary, is very wasteful in their cognitive means. Certain mental settings of the Renaissance led art to the invention of perspective in painting, then it more than once easily parted with this principle. Naturalism forgot all the achievements of romantics, etc. In the final analysis, art is not concerned with preserving and multiplying the entire fund of accumulated funds, but in ensuring that the methods used are as much as possible adequate to the human states that the author feels are the most important in this or that historical second. This allows us to conclude that art does not just depend on the subjective world of the artist, but also treats this subjectivity as an undoubted value. Science, in order to be precise, must follow the indestructible boundary between the subject and the object, art - no. If, for example, DI Mendeleev did not create a table of chemical elements, its author would be another scientist. But if F.M. Dostoevsky did not create the "Player", then this work could not have a different source of birth. In this sense, the role of a unique individuality in artistic cognition is much more tangible than in the scientific.
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