ONTOLOGY OF ART, Ontological status of a work of art - Aesthetics


The ontological status of a work of art

Ontology - the doctrine of the fundamental principles of being, about its essential foundations. The problems that the ontology of art considers are divided into two channels. The first is connected with the study of the mode of being of a work of art as a sensory-material object, i.e. we are talking about the ontological status of art, the degree of objectivity of its content, the forms of its dependence on the perceiving subject and the historical and cultural context.

Any work of art can be somehow represented as an objectively existing text, which has a corresponding material shell and structure. By virtue of which features this text with stable conjugations and interrelations can be opened for interpretation? Is there only one correct - canonical - reading a musical, literary, picturesque text? The discussion of the questions posed is provoked by artistic practice itself. If, for example, to compare the essay of N. S. Leskov "Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk uezd", the dramatic performance created on this basis, and the opera of the same name by D. D. Shostakovich, then in all three cases there will be different problem nodes of this narrative and even different existential-semantic initial positions. Therefore, the constancy of the image-thematic system is not a guarantor of the constancy of the meaning formation in different works and arts. In this - one of the basic provisions of the general theory of art, fixing non-coincidence of the theme and idea (pathos) of the work.

Integrative ideological meaning is born as a result of the complex interaction of the image-thematic system with the external and internal forms of the work. The external form includes the sensory shell of the image, directly turned to perception (color, light, timbre of sound, actor's appearance, suit), i.e. language means of different kinds of arts. The inner artistic form is the ways of developing, organizing and translating language means (compositional techniques in painting, literature, music, principles of editing, polyphony, ways of movement and recitation in scenic arts). The meeting of different language tools with the same theme does not simply formulate the existence of this theme in art in different ways, but also opens in it different ontological, content perspectives.

Is the opera J. Wiese & "Carmen continuation of the same "existential mythology", which was founded by the novel of the same name P. Merimee? Obviously not. "Threshold places", generating the basic meanings, are set differently in the style of the literary and musical text, plot moves, rhythm, composition and other details of the artistic language. Even more questions are asked by artistic texts, which, for their actualization, need not only the public, but also the performer. It is musical and theatrical art, where the initial intentions of the artistic text are essentially transformed from experience, temperament, interpretation, cultural-historical aura.

The musical text or the text of the play is nothing more than an physical object, imprinted in notes, typographical signs, kept for the time being on the shelf. The status of works of art he acquires only when actualized and perceived content is contained in it. To what extent this content is attached to the material basis of the original author's text, and to what extent is it open to transformations? In the performing arts there are creators who provide each turn of the text with detailed remarks for the performer (R. Schumann, A. Scriabin). Others, on the contrary, leave room for the performer, do not regulate it with detailed instructions (IS Bach, F. Schubert).

All such observations allow us to assert that as a physical structure art does not exist. If we consider the work from the side of its untouchable reality and thus do not introduce anything ourselves, it turns out, - wrote Martin Havdegger (1889-1976) - that the work appears in front of us as naturally, as things. The painting hangs on the steppe like a hunting rifle or like a hat. Quartets of Beethoven lie in the warehouses of the publishing house, like potatoes in a cellar. All products have this materiality. What would they be without it? & Quot ;. Thus, the true existence of a work of art is in its spiritual being.

Developing this thesis, the Polish aesthetist Roman Ingarden (1893-1970) is inclined to interpret the way of being a work of art as a "visibility." If one can not feel, touch his spiritual, psychic meaning, then it means that there is no air can not be determined. How can there be, however, something that is neither psychic (conscious) nor physical-and even exist when no one consciously engages in it? .. How is it possible that in the most varied performances it would be audible is it the same that each time we see the same work in the original, in its inherent appearance? Ingarden asks. Of course, this is impossible, moreover, the folklore work, for example, still lives, is always created and never is created once and for all - in the absence of the author and the reason for its multivariance lies.

Even according to Kant, the question of the existence of art in itself turns out to be meaningless. His interpretation of art as "expediency without purpose" implied the participation of the subject as an integral part of artistic perception. Only through the combination of the intention of the artistic text with the actual experience of the individual could the distribution and actualization of the content take place. Moreover, the very fact of ever more and more approximations to the already well-known work - dramatization, interpretation, variation - is evidence of the ontological inexhaustibility of the "reserves of meaning" contained in it. Hence the widespread judgment that the true meaning of a work of art is the totality of all historical meanings for which it gives rise. It is precisely the unsolved mystery, mystery, metamorphosis of the artistic text that allow each new era to "throw in" in the work its ontological problem.

thematic pictures

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