Problems of terminology - Ethics and etiquette of...

Terminology problems

The term ethics - Ancient Greek origin (Greek ethika). The word "ethics" was derived from ethos, denoting originally the abode of living beings. In this sense, it is found in the "Iliad" Homer. Later, it acquired a new meaning: a pattern, an internal form, custom, habit, temper.

This concept was introduced by Aristotle (384-322 BC), giving the first systematic presentation of ethics as a theoretical science. Ethics philosopher called the totality of virtues inherent in the perfect man. The purpose of this teaching is not knowledge, but deeds. " In the first deployed and systematized scientific work on ethics - the treatise "Nicomachean Ethics" Aristotle explores the content of such virtues as courage, self-control, moderation, generosity, generosity, prudence, majesty, ambition, meekness, truthfulness, modesty, friendliness, curiosity, justice, friendship. To be a worthy person, the philosopher asserted, is to have virtues.

The concept of ethics It is used by Aristotle to refer to the field of knowledge that explores these virtues. The purpose of this science, according to the philosopher, is to teach a person how to become virtuous, and therefore, to limit the elements of selfish needs and direct their activities to the public good. Therefore the philosopher called this area of ​​theoretical knowledge "practical philosophy".

The authors of the academic textbook "Ethics A. A. Huseynov and R. G. Apresyan propose, within the framework of the academic discipline "ethics" to name science, the field of knowledge, the intellectual tradition, and morality, or "morality" (using these words as synonyms) is what is learned by ethics, its subject, understanding by morality:

1) the domination of the mind over affects;

2) the desire for the highest good;

3) goodwill, unselfish motives;

4) the ability to live in a human hostel;

5) humanity or the social (human) form of relations between people

6) autonomy of the will;

7) reciprocity of relations, expressed in the golden rule of morality.

Thus, ethics studies morality on three internally related levels.

- empirical;

- theoretical;

- normative.

Ethics - a theoretical discipline that studies morality (morality), its origin and stages of development, nature, essence, functions; a normative discipline that systematizes and formulates the moral requirements that are formed in the moral consciousness of society; a system of universal and specific moral principles, norms and rules of behavior that are realized in the process of social life.

The term morals (lat. - relating to the character, character, soul, habits) was the Latin analog of the Greek term "ethics". Etymologically, these concepts coincide. Cicero (106-43 BC), relying on the teachings of Aristotle, called ethics "moral philosophy". However, d) the course of historical and cultural development, these terms began to be filled with different content. Today ethics stands for science that studies morality as a real phenomenon and the subject matter of this science, as a special phenomenon of human existence, one of the most important aspects of human life, a specific phenomenon of social life, a certain basis from which all other manifestations grow culture, spiritual life of people.

Morality - a specific type of regulation of people's attitudes, aimed at their humanization; form of public consciousness, acting as a way of spiritual existence of personality, one of the spiritual levers of human and society development; set of social norms of behavior and appraisal concepts.

Morality appears in the duality of personal qualities that characterize a person in terms of his ability to interact with other people, and the totality of social norms of behavior and appraisal concepts. Consequently, morality appears in two ways: in the form of moral consciousness (due) and social relation (being).

The original United States term "morality" (according to VI Dal, "temper - one half, or one of the two basic properties of the spirit of man") appeared in United States dictionaries only at the end of the XVIII century. as the equivalent of the Greek term "ethics". and Latin "morality", coinciding with them both in etymological content and in origin. In the United States dictionary of Polikarpov-Orlov, 1704, we find only the word "morality", but there is still no adjective "moral" and the noun "morality". Adjective moral appeared for the first time in the dictionary of I. Norde re & iacute; a in 1780. In the form of a noun, this word was first included in the Academic Dictionary of the United States Language in the edition of 1793.

In the process of development of the European cultural tradition and scientific thought, the concepts "morality", "morality" then they were identified or divorced, reflecting different approaches to their comprehension. Some scholars considered morality primarily in its ideal manifestations as a form of human consciousness, leaving behind morality the field of practical behavior in the forms of customs, manners and deeds. Others distinguished morality as a means of regulating behavior through strictly fixed norms, social control and moral sanctions from morality as a sphere of moral freedom of the individual, internal self-coercion, which encourages to do good. Hegel represented law, morality and morality as three consecutive steps in the development of the "objective spirit". AND. Kant considered morality exclusively within the boundaries of the phenomenology of consciousness. From the point of view of H. A. Berdyaev, "ethics ... this is a philosophical discipline that establishes the norms of due ... Ethics ... is not a scientific study of the essence of morality, morals and moral concepts: the moral problem with which it deals, lies beyond the ordinary, conventional worldly morality and empirical good and evil with their seal of existence. " The opposite position was held by Marxist ethics, which viewed morality as a product of people's real life activity, their practical behavior in specific conditions of social life.

As a result of many years of discussion, scientists agreed that ethics is a science of morality (morality), thereby determining the relationship of these concepts.

Ethics as a general scientific discipline, the subject of which is morality, is called moral philosophy, and the term "ethics" is used to denote the scientific disciplines exploring the characteristics of the moral aspect of a particular sphere of professional activity. (medical ethics, business ethics). But the concepts morals and morality are used as synonyms, all attempts to separate them, having fixed for each particular meaningful meaning, have not taken root in ordinary consciousness and general cultural practice.

The subject of scientific discussions in the field of ethics is not only the terminology, but also the meaning and content of the very concept of "morality", which is used both for moral assessment of the personality (set of moral qualities) and for characterizing relations between people (a set of moral principles , norms and rules of conduct).

Introducing a set of principles, norms and rules of behavior established in a society or a separate social group, morality includes both the area of ​​moral consciousness, that is, proper in the form of a system of values, categories, principles, norms, moral positions, and the real moral relations of people, i.e. a being that manifests itself in the forms of concrete actions, real individual behavior and the activity of a person and his relationships with other people.

By the ratio of proper and essential morality in each particular society or social group, one can judge the state of his (her) moral health. Therefore, the main problem of modern ethical science is the problem of revealing the correlation between existing and proper, ideal norms and actual morals, an abstract moral personality and specific individuals belonging to a given time, given a culture given to the people.

Having existed on two levels - personal and universal, morality is a way of harmonizing the individual and the general and resolving the contradictions between them. This explains the multiplicity of approaches to the comprehension of morality and emphasizes the multifaceted and comprehensive nature of this phenomenon.

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