Psychology and ethics of business relations in business, Psychological...

Psychology and ethics of business relations in business

As a result of studying this topic, the student must:


• the psychological aspects of business relations;

• the basics of non-verbal communication;

be able to

• respect ethical norms and principles in business communication;

• apply knowledge of the foundations of psychology in conducting business talks and foreign trade negotiations;


• the skills of using different styles of business communication;

• skills in applying non-verbal communication methods during business negotiations.

Psychological aspects of business relations

Practice convincingly demonstrates that the success or failure of any communication largely depends on the appropriate preparation for it. Therefore, it is customary to allocate the preparatory phase (pre-communicative), the phase of direct communication (communicative) and the summation phase of communication (postcommunicative).

At first glance, the direct communication of the manager is a merging process, sometimes continuous. However, it can always be viewed as a local act: talking with a certain interlocutor, discussing specific issues with a group of people, informing the audience, meeting, negotiating, etc. In each such act of communication, we can distinguish the following stages:

- establishing a contact;

- orientation in the situation, discussion of issues, decision making, goal achievement

- Exit the contact.

In everyday communication, these stages undergo various transformations. However, regardless of who is involved in the interaction of the employee: with one person, with a small group of interlocutors or with a larger audience - these stages take place.

Begins communication with establishing a contact. Business communication with one interlocutor begins with traditional welcoming words. From the first minute contact should show that the employee is open for communication, benevolent. This is achieved by a slight smile (if it is appropriate), a slight slope of the body, a head towards the interlocutor, an expression of the eyes (attention and interest) that are directed at the interlocutor. It is advisable to sustain a short pause (1-3 seconds). If your partner does not look at you, it is better to address him by name and patronymic (if you know him), and then say the traditional: "good day", "hello" etc. And after that, it is necessary to sustain a pause, so that a person answers you, joined in communication. If there are more partners: two or three, you need to look through the eyes alternately to each.

When you contact the group, you also need a pause after the greeting. Only after it it is necessary to introduce oneself if they are unfamiliar. The tempo should not be fast, the words are clear, the intonation is calm. All this lays the groundwork for further communication and shows others that you are a correct, friendly and interlocutor interested in communication.

It should be noted that the establishment of contact is closely related to the perception of the partner in communication and the appearance of the first impression of him. The knowledge of the object of communication begins with acquaintance with information about a person. Receiving information from others at the stage of prejudice creates a certain opinion of a person about the future object of communication, an installation on his perception. Another way to obtain information about the object of communication is to directly perceive it when it comes into direct contact with it. Even a cursory glance allows you to see a lot in a person - his appearance, facial expression, posture, hairstyle, clothing, manner of speaking, whether he is neat, what level of his culture.

By studying the process of perception, social psychologists noted some typical distortions of ideas about another person that a leader should know and take into account. Among them is the halo effect. It manifests itself in attributing positive assessments and qualities to a person about whom there is a favorable opinion, which are not observed at the moment. Conversely, if the overall impression of a person is negative, then even good deeds are interpreted as negative.

The role of emotions in the organization of negotiations is illustrated in Fig. 3.1.

The role of emotions in organizing negotiations

Fig. 3.1. The role of emotions in organizing negotiations

The effect of stereotyping is that judgment about a person is made based on their limited experience or the established opinions of others. Stereotyping simplifies the process of knowing another person, but at the same time it leads to a prejudice that creates not only the wrong impression of this or that worker about a person, but also a bad opinion about him.

The effect of primary and novelty is that the first impression of a person is stronger than the next, and therefore the role of the first appearance of an employee in a team is great. Correction of the initial impression of a person requires a long knowledge of it and is done with difficulty.

The establishment of a psychological contact goes to the next ethane of business communication - an orientation that allows you to determine the strategy and tactics of the conversation, during which the discussion of the problem and decision-making follows. At this stage, in the process of studying people, the leader must understand the goals and motives of their behavior, their experiences, attitudes, state, expectation of praise and support, attention from others, their doubts and fears.

The adequacy of perception and understanding of the employee's goals, with whom he communicates, depends on his skills and qualities, which are the basis for the supervision of any leader. Women outperform their fellow men in observance. They fully and deeper understand the intellectual and volitional qualities, as well as character traits, expressing a person's attitude to other people and to himself. Men are better able to see those traits of character that express an attitude toward work, social work.

The main mechanisms of knowledge of another person, which are most clearly manifested at this stage of communication, are empathy, identification, reflection.

The main non-verbal signals and the main access signals are described in Table. 3.1 and 3.2.

Table 3.1

How to treat some non-verbal signals




Hands clasped on the chest

Defensive Position

Easy tapping on the table


Praying palms, fingers slightly apart

A sense of superiority, the interlocutor believes that he is cunning

Hands under the table

Ns is ready to talk or is afraid to give out uncertainty, nervousness

Hands on the table (positions are diverse but not linked)

Readiness to enter social contact

Smile, easy tilt of the head, rhythmic nodding

Understanding, willingness to contact

A slight inclination of the head sideways



Raising the head and looking up or tilting the head with a concentrated expression

The partner is not ready to contact, thinks

A long, fixed look in the eye of an interlocutor

Desire to subjugate yourself

Looking Ahead


A look at the floor

Fear and the desire to escape

Table 3.2

Eye Access Signals

Eye movement

A leading representative system

Vertically upward

Visual (remembering the image)

To the top left corner

Visual (remembering the image)

To the top right corner

Visual (image building)

Defocused eyes

Visual (image)


Audial (internal listening)

To the lower left corner

Audial (internal dialogue)

To the bottom right corner

Audial (opinion formation)

Empathy is characterized as emotional understanding. It is associated with the ability to put yourself in the place of another, take into account his state, motives of behavior. The ability to look at the situation and yourself with other people's eyes is an important component of the general culture of the leader. There are two ways to implement this skill: identification and reflection.

Identification , or identifying oneself with others, consists of imagining putting yourself in the position of a communication partner, taking on the role that this partner performs, building your behavior in the same way as a partner, contiguity to its position. Put yourself in the place of another is not so simple as it might seem at first sight. In addition, imagining yourself in the place of another can sometimes not only fail to produce the expected results, but even complicate mutual understanding. This may be due to the fact that instead of a true reference to someone else's point of view, communicators have the illusion of looking from the outside.

Reflection in Latin - reversal, it also involves asking the question: And if I were in his place? " But it does not mean simply an understanding of the interlocutor, but a person's awareness of how he is perceived by the partner in communication, the correction of his behavior in connection with the possible behavior of the other. An example of reflexion is the guessing of the intentions of the interlocutor in the discussion of disputable issues. Reflection, as well as identification, is the most important mechanism allowing to penetrate the inner state, intentions, motives, thoughts, feelings and value orientations of another person.

In Fig. 3.2 presents the emotions that most often arise during negotiations.

Farewell, like the beginning of the conversation, should be affable. At this moment it is important to see and feel the interlocutor. At the end of a business conversation, it is desirable to express to the interlocutor hopes for further cooperation and future meetings. On the eve of the coming holidays or significant dates it is necessary to congratulate the participants of the conversation, to express their best wishes. When saying goodbye, the etiquette forms of attention are observed: they get up, see off, etc. All this speaks for courtesy when leaving the contact, regardless of the results of communication.

It is impossible to prove by scientific methods the existence of a biological connection between the sex and a certain way of behavior in the process of communication. If the fact that men do not know how to listen, and women park, was due to gender differences, then it would concern all men and women without exception. However, this is not so, otherwise men would not work as psychotherapists, and women would work as bus or taxi drivers.

Emerging emotions when negotiating

Fig. 3.2. Emerging emotions when negotiating

The situation in the field of communication is similar to the situation with listening and parking. Probably, it is possible to determine the gender-specific tendencies, i.e. models of behavior that occur more often in men or, conversely, in women. However, a certain type of behavior in a communicative situation, characteristic only of a man or only a woman, still does not exist.

The conclusions that are contained in these formulations are explained as follows: there is a certain set of behavioral patterns in the communicative situation and conversational techniques that are equally used by both men and women. Despite the equal opportunities for choice, it is still possible to identify the so-called male and female preferences. So, women during the conversation smile more often, soften confident statements with interrogative intonation, more often and more clearly give signals that they listen and actively try to support the conversation.

Men, on the contrary, have a certain desire to dominate, a more offensive manner of behavior, a stronger desire to succeed in a conversation, an active visual contact, a desire to occupy more space, etc.

However, many men and women behave differently than one would expect. We meet sensitive, understanding men and women with a desire to dominate. In this regard, you can see that the behavior in a communicative situation depends heavily on the social role in which one or another participant of the conversation is speaking.

This means that the similarity between men and women performing the same social functions is stronger than the similarity between each of them and representatives of the same sex, performing completely different social functions. In accordance with this, between the leader and the head of the department from the point of view of their behavior in the communicative situation and the use of methods of conducting conversations, there are more similarities than, for example, between the head of the department and the driver of a forklift - representatives of the male.

Communication is being trained, it does not directly depend on the biological sex. Culture and society have a decisive influence on the development of communicative competence.

Both men and women, thanks to social and cultural changes in society, have the opportunity to develop and have freedom of choice. This applies to the profession. Both a man and a woman can get almost any profession. These opportunities have their consequences.

There is an increase in the number of professions in which men and women need the ability to master a wide variety of conversation techniques and behaviors in the context of appropriate communication. We take into account the biological sex, but the professional need and the concrete situation. The question, the answer to which determines the choice of methods of conducting a conversation, is formulated thus: what do I need or what do I want to achieve in this situation and what behavioral models will help me do this?

Today, both men and women should have skills that were once divided: some of them were considered purely masculine, and some were purely feminine. Today, both those and others should be able to:

- listen, understand the essence of the matter, reckon with others, be able to succeed;

- act independently, criticize and accept criticism, admit mistakes, make concessions;

- to achieve the goal, delegate authority to another, collect and motivate, organize and advise;

- Be responsible for the assigned case and make decisions on contentious issues, seek compromise solutions and deal constructively with conflicts.

thematic pictures

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