The concept of creativity. The role of perceived and unconscious incentives

How does the art world, the new reality, which can not be wholly explained from the already existing world? Since the earliest treatises devoted to the study of the nature of artistic creativity, the thinkers have noted the irrational, incomprehensible mechanisms of this process, the impossibility of revealing the regularities in accordance with which the creative act is carried out. In the Ion dialog, Plato comes to the conclusion that at the moment of creativity the artist does not realize how he creates. The act of creativity demonstrates the artist's ability to go beyond himself ("ex-stasis", "frenzy"), when his soul penetrates into the world of transcendent essences. Of course, ecstasy is in a sense insanity, a change in the normal state of the soul, but this is, according to Plato, "divine" insanity, a divine obsession. Souls become the receptacle of the divine, are inspired by his power, and then they say with great efficacy, much and great, without knowing what they say ( Phaedr ).

Fixation of non-negotiable, irrational aspects of the creative act as if by itself removed the question of identifying certain formulas and algorithms in artistic creation. Indeed, by definition, creativity is the creation of something that did not yet exist. In this sense, any creative act can not be measured by the criteria that exist in the culture before it: Any creative action is in opposition to normativity, confronts adapted forms of activity. Where does the creative impulse come from, breaking the old rules, codes, techniques that give birth to a new artistic insight? The creative act is never completely determined from without. At the same time, it can not be completely reduced only to the realization of the "feelings of form" living in the soul of the artist. Neither objective nor subjective assumptions, taken by themselves, can serve as an explanation for the creative productivity that lives in the soul of the artist.

Obviously or implicitly, all forms of creative activity of the artist are ultimately subordinated to the goals of one type - the creation of a work of art, the anticipation of possible actions that are intended to lead to this result. Motivation of the artist's activity appears as a complex dynamic self-reinforcing system. The whole complex of his perception, thinking, behavior is stimulated by the goals of creativity as the highest in the hierarchy of the motivating motives of his personality. Achievement of these goals is facilitated, on the one hand, by the directed (conscious) activity of the artist, which includes his volitional efforts, rational evaluation of the intended goals, i.e. the definition of what genre the work he seeks to create, how much, at what time, the sense of internal responsibility for results, etc.

On the other hand, almost the most important role in the preparation and implementation of the creative act of the artist acquires the so-called involuntary activity. It is marked by continuous artistic fantasy, it is a kind of internal laboratory in which swirl, on each other, the latent experiences and their artistic forms grow. This hidden from the eyes, in many ways chaotic and involuntary process at the same time can not be estimated as inexpedient, falling out of the sphere of motivation of creativity. The spontaneous activity of the artist is always inherent in a certain intention. The famous German psychologist H. Heckhausen interprets the intention as a kind of intention, inscribed in the nature of the creator himself, bearing the imprint of the special coloration of his talent.

Motives of creativity, which somehow provoke the action of the artist's intentions, are essentially unobservable. The motive in this case can be described through such concepts as need, motivation, inclination, inclination, desire , etc. It follows that the creative process proves to be motivated even in those cases when it is not accompanied by the artist's conscious intention. There is already something inside the creative intention that allows choosing between different variants of artistic realization, not appealing to consciousness, that launches a creative action, directs, regulates and brings it to the end.

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