Specificity of Ethical Business Categories
The content of business ethics is determined by the existence and functioning of specific concepts that are nothing more than the concretization of more general, broader concepts of universal human morality as applied to the conditions of a certain type of activity.
The initial concept of business ethics is the notion professional duty, in which the duties of specialists in a particular field of professional activity are recorded quite clearly and in detail. It is the awareness of one's professional duty that prompts many specialists to treat the matter with the greatest responsibility, to focus not so much on personal interests as on public and national interests. According to VM Shepel, moral archetypes, which are biologically and historically embedded in United States people, predispose them to a certain moral manner of official behavior. For example, a United States manager, loving his work, enjoys not from having power over people, but from being able to be humanly useful to them, to establish themselves as an exceptional individual. Deprive this United States leaders, and many of them will lose the moral meaning to engage in professional activities.
Professional duty not only determines the general rules for the performance of professional duties, and sometimes dictates its behavior in various situations, is fixed in the relevant codes of a profession (psychologist, sociologist, journalist, etc.). So, a psychologist, a sociologist, a doctor, a soldier can be pressured by some persons (including managers) who are trying to find out information of various kinds from the lives of their clients, patients, colleagues. Compliance with the moral requirements of professional debt is necessary and important for professionals of any profession. Indeed, frivolous attitude towards professional duty has a very negative impact on the activity of a specialist (for example, disclosure of medical secrecy, preferential treatment of individual patients, neglect of sanitation standards may adversely affect the treatment and health of patients, ignoring the client's individual characteristics by the psychologist can cause mental trauma to the person for help, etc.).A component of professional duty is the notion professional responsibility, which reflects the special social and moral attitude of a specialist to other people and to society and is characterized by the fulfillment of a moral duty. Professional responsibility determines the ability of a person to consciously fulfill moral demands and carry out the tasks facing him, make the right moral choice, achieve a certain result. In particular, the content of this concept is very important for statesmen who make crucial decisions for the development of the individual, society and the state, for the activities of scientists whose research can affect the lives of many people and all of humanity, as well as for psychologists whose recommendations can be positive (or negatively) affect the fate and health of a person, etc.
The following basic concept of professional ethics is professional conscience, which helps the specialist to look at the content, results of his work from the standpoint of moral universal values. So, conscience will not allow a business person to deceive a business partner, even if the conditions for this are "favorable". The professional conscience of a specialist will help him more deeply, correctly understand the problems and experiences of other people, win true, not official authority.
An important notion of business ethics is the notion professional justice, which is especially important for analyzing the activities of those persons on whom the level of material well-being of subordinates depends. Equity should also be established in relations between colleagues. Double standards in assessing their own and foreign, comfortable people and uncomfortable, allies and competitors destroy the moral and psychological climate in the team, adversely affect the results of work.
The content of business ethics is filled with such concepts as professional honor and professional dignity. They reveal the attitude of the individual to himself and his attitude to him from society, other people. But at the same time these categories are not identical. The concept of professional honor is closely connected with the social position of a person, with social prestige and the genus of his activity. The notion of dignity is broader, proceeding from the idea of equality of people morally. Feelings of honor and self-worth as moral values, on the one hand, are a form of manifestation of moral self-consciousness and self-control of personality, on the other - one of the channels of influence of society and the state on the moral shape and behavior of a person in society.
Professional honor expresses the assessment of the importance of a profession in the life of society, the position, the role of representatives of a particular profession in a complex system of social relations.
In modern terms, professional honor includes the following main components:
• A businessman's awareness of the content of his professional duty, the need for his execution, a conscious and responsible attitude towards duty and duties;
• Recognition and evaluation by the society, collective of the actual merits of the personality, which is expressed in approval, encouragement, authority, moral regulation;
• The presence of a business person of constant readiness and willfulness in any conditions and at any time to the end fulfill his professional duty, preserve and not tarnish his honor, which is expressed in loyalty to the word, a high sense of citizenship, an inner commitment to the constructive social traditions of society.
It is necessary to mention and ambition. It expresses the desire of a person to strengthen his authority, achieve high results in work, sports, studies, in an effort to occupy a higher position. These feelings and aspirations are morally justified. However, one should also remember here the category of measures. If ambition is not opposed to collective and public interests, it can play a positive role, increase the social activity of the business person. In general, ambition is by its nature an individualistic motive of behavior. For a long time known folk wisdom, erected in principle, - "by work and honor". This means that the credibility of the business person, his promotion on the career ladder, promotion and reward are determined by his business and moral qualities, attitude to work, devotion to professional duty.
Deep awareness of the importance of their profession by each specialist is the essence of professional dignity.
The virtue of a business person can be considered in two aspects:
• Firstly, as a moral category reflecting the fact of the social significance of the individual (an objective assessment of its significance);
• Secondly, as an inner awareness of the personality of its importance and value (subjective side).
The dignity of a business person reflects, first of all, the concrete embodiment and use of his rights, freedoms, duties, responsibility as self-expression of a person. Consequently, dignity as a moral value finds its manifestation in the authority of this person, in its good deeds and deeds, is inextricably linked with the problem of self-affirmation and self-expression of the individual. It summarizes priorities and social attributes, value orientations and beliefs that express the person's self-worth, his capabilities and abilities. Dignity is the recognition of one's human value, the right to respect for oneself. It is inadmissible to show any negligence towards the employee as a person, restriction of his civil rights. The more a person is interested in himself, the higher his chances of revealing the natural and social potential. One of the postulates of Buddhist philosophy says: the dignity inherent in one person is present in all.
It should also be noted the need for the content of business ethics and such a notion as moral culture of the person, which includes the presence and development in the personality of the totality of social qualities and spiritual- moral values. Professional competence of a business person is not limited only to the presence of purely functional indicators, but involves the synthesis of all spiritual and moral qualities of the individual. It is not conceivable without reliance on fairly broad ideological knowledge, the general culture of the individual.
It is necessary to distinguish in the content of business ethics and professional tact, expressing the ability and ability of a specialist to realize moral values in specific living conditions, especially in business conditions, where the object of activity is ultimately not a tangible product, but the person himself.
The separation of the basic concepts in the content of business ethics is very important and necessary in the formation and manifestation of the moral component of the personality of the business person when performing professional duties.
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