Subject, purpose and objectives of the discipline...

Subject, goals and objectives of the discipline "business ethics"

The effectiveness of entrepreneurship is largely determined by the attitude of a person to work, the level of his professional training, the understanding of personal responsibility, the ability to keep a word. The ethical aspect of this activity includes the evaluation of the final product, the result of this activity, the moral value for the whole society and a particular person. Ethical evaluation of business activity itself, essence, content, goals, tasks, means and methods of achieving the goals from the point of view of their conformity to the universal norms of morals is also of great importance.

Ethics as a theory of morality

Ethical regulation of the economic sphere of life in general and entrepreneurship in particular is extremely necessary for the stable development of the whole society. What has been said not only determines the special importance of respecting ethical standards by business people, but also generates the need for their special ethical preparation through the study of the discipline "Business Ethics."

The purpose of the discipline is to prepare theoretically and methodically the ethical attitude of a business person to performing a professional duty.

The task of the discipline is as follows:

a) give the necessary minimum of general theoretical knowledge about ethics and morality;

b) reveal the specifics of moral problems and moral relations in the economy and business;

c) Analyze the ethical aspects of the business person;

d) Form a moral motivation and contribute to the development of high moral qualities in future professionals.

The subject of the discipline is a system of knowledge of professional ethics, which includes ethical norms, principles, value orientations from the perspective of which entrepreneurship is carried on in modern United States society.

The study of the discipline should begin with an examination of the original concepts of "ethics" and " and "morality", their essence, content, features, relationships and functions.

It is ethics that determines the essence of such concepts as honor, dignity, justice, decency, compulsion, and also determines what is connected with the inner life of the person: a sense of shame for a bad deed, awareness of guilt, repentance. At the same time, it also reveals the negative moral qualities of the person, such as greed, greed, the desire for profit at any cost, sloppiness and slackness, frivolity and carelessness, laziness and unwillingness to live by one's labor.

Today, morality and morality are a powerful resource for the development of United States society, including its economy. According to the famous United States scientist, Academician O. T. Bogomolov: "No matter how perfect the laws and state institutions that establish market rules and monitor their observance, moral principles and principles that the market participants adhere to are also necessary. Only then can we hope that it will become civilized and contribute to the prosperity of the country. "

Ethics are an essential element of human culture. The study of ethics lays the foundations of a person's intelligence, fosters nobility and integrity, forms the citizenship of the individual. It is ethics that deals with issues related to the inner world of man. After all, every person thinks about how to act in this or that situation, what is good and evil, where honor and dishonor, what is justice, what is the meaning of life. A question may arise: what does this have to do with business communication? The answer is obvious: business communication is at the heart of the economic, financial and business activities of the enterprise, industry and the country as a whole. But what is the meaning of business communication without its main character - a person who is only able to create morally painted material and spiritual values.

Ethics (from the Greek-originally "nest", later "custom") -philosophical discipline that studies morality and morality: their principles, development, norms and role in society .

Aristotle formed the adjective "ethical" to denote human qualities of character, calling them ethical virtues (good, honesty, generosity), and the science that studies them is ethics. The Greek word ethos corresponded to the Latin mos , from which Cicero formed an adjective moralis (relating to morals), and then the word moralitas morality. Thus, initially the terms ethics and morals in the semantic meaning coincided.

In addition to the morality often used the word "morality". How do they relate? Some authors consider them as synonyms, expressing the same concept. Others interpret morality as a purely spiritual phenomenon: as a form of social consciousness or as subjective experiences, evaluations, plans of actions performed by man.

By morality, one should understand practical actions, actions and their consequences from the point of view of their spiritual and moral assessment.

Morality (morality) includes three components: moral consciousness, moral relations, moral activity.

Moral (moral) consciousness - a form of social and individual consciousness, which includes the totality of moral norms, principles, values, knowledge, beliefs, ideals, feelings, emotions of people in terms of their perceptions of good and evil , honor and dishonor, justice, duty, etc.

Moral norms (rules) characterize some one side of people's behavior (respect the elders, take care of children). Moral principles characterize the line of behavior of people (honesty, justice, patriotism).

A moral ideal is a collection of positive moral qualities. He can be personified in a certain person, and can be of a collective nature. The ideal acts as a goal, a model of human behavior.

Moral (moral) relations - is a kind of social relations, expressing the nature of the relationship between the individual and society, the collective, the other person on the basis of existing moral norms and concepts.

They are formed independently of the will and desire of people and in this sense are objective, but their character is determined by the moral position of the person, and in this sense they are subjective. Moral relationships include moral assessments, attitudes, attitudes, including self-esteem (reflection).

Moral (moral) activity (practice) is the sphere of morality in which moral consciousness and attitude are realized, incarnating into concrete deeds.

In its pure form, moral activity does not exist, it is "dissolved" in economic, legal, political, religious and other types of activity and is an integral part, an aspect of these activities. It is necessary to distinguish between a moral act and moral behavior. The latter expresses the consistency and constancy of the personality's behavior, which is important for a more accurate assessment of its moral appearance. Moral activity, in addition, includes moral choice, conflict, compromise, retribution.

In real life, all components are in interpenetration and interaction. The most concrete moral of a person is manifested in his behavior, actions, where the moral consciousness and relations are specifically realized. In addition, moral activity does not exist in its pure form, it is an integral part of economic, political, legal and other types of human activity.

From this understanding of morality, there are two important conclusions.

The first conclusion is that when assessing the moral qualities of a person, it is important to take into account not only his moral consciousness, the notion of good, evil, duty, etc., but also his real behavior, concrete actions.

The second conclusion is that it is not only possible to create high moral qualities of people, but it is also necessary, using all types of human relations, the whole set of types and forms of activity, including business.

The specific features of morality as a social phenomenon include the following.

First, since morality encompasses all types of mental and physical activity of people, the sphere of its influence is much wider than the sphere of influence of economic, political, legal, religious and other kinds of influence on people.

Secondly, unlike the legal norms established and maintained in society by force, and sometimes with the help of organized state violence, moral norms arise spontaneously and are supported mainly by public opinion.

Third, as a result of this, morality does not have a clearly defined system of institutions. Of course, there are organizations that take and must take upon themselves the function of moral education of people, and it is bad for society when such organizations fall apart, and the state is left out of the solution of moral problems. Today, in United States society, the church largely seeks to assume the function of a leader of moral education on the basis of religious ideology. But still it is not a special moral institution, but serves mainly to meet the religious needs of people.

Morality is not a set of once and for all established norms, principles, values, ideals, traditions, etc. Like any social phenomenon, it is changeable and reflects the whole aggregate of social transformations in the course of the historical development of society. Therefore, attempts to create morality, acceptable for all times and all peoples, invariably failed.

But at the same time, in the content of morality there are stable, intransitive norms that do not lose value with time. These are the social norms of morality, which include caring for those who often do not have the opportunity to provide themselves: children, the elderly, the sick; refusal to infringe on human life; non-use of violence against women and children, etc. Thus, in the Bible (and in the Koran, the Tripitaka and other spiritual books of various religions), these and other norms are given the form of religious commandments, but they are universal just because they reflect the basic conditions for the self-preservation of mankind .

Since society is differentiated in professional, national-ethnic, social-class and other relationships, it is with good reason that they distinguish class, class, professional, collective, group morality, morality reflecting ethnonational features of people, their religious affiliation or belonging to certain institutions or activities (for example, business).

The social role of morality is expressed in the functions performed. These include:

• ideological (moral knowledge, norms, principles, beliefs are the most important elements of a person's views on the world and understanding their place and behavior in it);

• Regulatory (expressed in the fact that its norms and principles determine the nature of the relationship between people, as well as their relationship to the debt, profession, family, collective);

• axiological, or value (is that the moral norms themselves not only belong to the category of spiritual values, but also are the starting points, the criteria for constructing value systems in many spheres of human activity);

• communicative (expressed in the rallying, unifying ability of morality).

Morality is the spiritual and practical side of public life, a complex value-normative system that determines the relationships and activities of people from the standpoint of historically changing perceptions of people about good, evil, justice, duty on the basis of voluntary and conscious choice .

If morality emerged at the dawn of the formation of human society, ethics arise much later, during the period of the disintegration of tribal and the formation of class society. The basis for the emergence of ethics is a number of reasons.

First, human reflection, that is, developing ability for self-analysis and self-esteem: do I rightly act or not, do I create good or evil?

Secondly, the need to analyze spontaneously established moral norms, to express them in the form of concepts, judgments and formulate as criteria for a righteous or unrighteous life.

Thirdly, it is the need to comprehend the causes of the contradiction between the proper and the existent, i.e. between the ideal, the norm and reality in the minds and behavior of people.

Finally, fourthly, there is a need to morally justify the validity of the existing economic order, social inequality and exploitation of people. Thus, the emergence of ethics is due to the causes of both epistemological (cognitive) and social order.

Calling ethics a theory of morality, we basically defined this essence and object of knowledge. But the study of various aspects of morality deals with other sciences: pedagogy, psychology, sociology, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the specifics of ethical knowledge of morality, in other words, to determine the subject of ethics. We can say that ethics is a system of scientific knowledge about the essence, laws of moral development as a social phenomenon and the formation of a moral personality. Ethics is addressed to society as a whole, to types of social communities and to each person.

In expanded form, the subject of ethics includes:

• clarification of the essence, structure and content of morality as a spiritual and practical phenomenon;

• study of patterns and trends in the emergence, development and functioning of morality, taking into account specific historical conditions;

• analysis and substantiation of moral norms, principles, values ​​of society;

• studying and developing ways and methods of moral education and resolving moral problems of society;

• study of historical stages and features of the development of morality and ethical teachings;

• an analysis of the main trends in the moral development of modern society and the possibilities of influencing them;

• Analysis of the interaction of morality with other spheres of social life and ethics with other fields of knowledge;

• Study of the specifics of professional morality and ethics.

In determining ethics as a spider, its subject and the range of problems to be solved, the answers to questions become important:

1. Is it an independent science or a section of philosophy?

2. How does it relate to practice, including business?

3. What is the nature of its connection with other branches of knowledge?

On the one hand, ethics is a relatively independent science, because it has an object, a system of laws of functioning and development, a categorical apparatus, and also the main question-the ratio of what is due and what is in the moral behavior of people.

On the other hand, ethics are inherently sharply philosophical.

First, because moral relations are universal universal in nature, since they affect all aspects of human relations, all spheres of human life. Economic, political, religious, legal and other activities contain a moral aspect and are subject to ethical evaluation. Consequently, the philosophical status of ethics derives from the universality of morality.

Secondly, moral problems belong to the category of eternal problems, which also gives them a philosophical character. Before each new generation and an individual in different historical periods and in different civilizations the same questions arise: what is good and evil, justice and injustice? And the peculiarity of historical time, social conditions and individual destiny determines the originality of answers to these questions in the system of ethical knowledge.

Thirdly, the question of the relationship between what is proper and what is in the moral behavior of people is one of the forms of manifestation of the more general question of the relationship between the spiritual and the practical, the material in the content of human activity.

Fourth, the philosophical character of ethics is expressed in the fact that it rests on a certain philosophical outlook and philosophical methodology, is their peculiar application to the consideration of moral problems. It is no accident that I. Kant called ethics "moral philosophy".

As for the nature of the relationship of ethics to other fields of knowledge, it is primarily expressed in the regulatory impact of ethical principles and norms on the activities of scientists in any field of knowledge and in the use of data from various spiders for ethical generalizations and conclusions. In addition, this relationship is expressed in the emergence of border areas of research in the form of pedagogical, medical, biological, legal and other types of ethics.

In a meaningful way, ethics includes:

1 . The general theory of morality or metaethics, engaged in the analysis of methodological, epistemological, worldview and other problems of ethics and morality.

2. The history of ethics and morality, exploring their origin, development, specifics at each stage, the features of schools and teachings, as well as the problems of moral progress.

3. The content and interrelation of the basic ethical norms and principles, the analysis of the categorical apparatus of ethics.

4 . Theory of the management of moral processes, moral education and the resolution of moral conflicts.

5 . Moral aspects of the most important spheres of life and the most pressing social problems (ecology, demography, consumption society, etc.).

6. Types of professional ethics.

The social role of ethics finds expression primarily in the functions it performs. These are:

a) worldview function is that ethics is an important element of the scientific worldview system, forming a person's view of the role and place of morality in people's lives, the maintenance of moral relations, a conscious commitment to certain moral values ​​and principles;

b) methodological function is the ability of a person with ethical knowledge, consciously apply them to the analysis of the moral state of society, the impact on moral processes, the resolution of moral conflicts at the individual and group levels, as well as in the ability to analyze other ethical theories;

c) regulative function - people, through knowledge of norms, principles, moral ideals and values, regulate relations among themselves, and knowledge acts as motives for concrete practical actions;

d) (cognitive) function consists not only in the detachment of ethics from the historical past, but also in a deeper penetration into the essence of practical moral processes and the causes that generate them;

e) educational and prognostic ethical functions consist in the desire to foresee with greater or lesser degree of probability possible trends in changing public morality.

These are the most general and significant provisions that characterize ethical theory and morality as an important aspect of the spiritual and practical life of society. Assimilation of them is a necessary initial theoretical basis for consideration of subsequent questions of business ethics.

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