The main problematic fields of bioethics are Bioethics

Main bioethical problem fields

The problems of bioethics today are truly immense, so it is difficult to give some acceptable classification. It is quite possible to distinguish several basic areas of bioethical research and discussions, which, however, do not have clear boundaries and often overlap. These areas are some stable complexes that constantly generate moral dilemmas and bioethical discussions. These include the following:

1. Developing biomedicine. This problem area is associated with the new horizons to which medical and biological science and technology have emerged or is about to emerge. We are talking about the most innovative, revolutionary developments in biomedical science that create fundamental challenges of a cultural, social, and moral character. The sociocultural effects of such studies enter into conflict with more traditional ideas and change our views on universal values, erase the most important cultural differences (between man and machine, artificial and natural, etc.).

Discussions related to molecular genetics, reproductive technologies, biomedical nanotechnologies, xenotranslantations, creation of direct interactions "brain-computer" and many other developments.

2. Rights and fairness. This is the sphere of complex ethical, social, political problems of medical science and practice, where the issues of protection of human rights and special groups of society, such as people with mental disabilities (mental illnesses), come to the fore, disability, HIV-infected, women, elderly, children, patients with some form of severe pathology. It discusses issues of equitable access to the benefits of medical science and technology, overcoming discrimination, the right to respect from the community and understanding of the problems of disadvantaged people.

3. Patient and medical care process. This area of ​​problems is closer to traditional medical ethics. Here the focus is on the relationship between the patient and the doctor (more broadly - the patient and the medical staff) and specific situations of medical care.

To this range of topics, one can include issues of informed voluntary consent, confidentiality, patient autonomy, decision-making for the patient, choice of a patient representative, search for clinical solutions in ethically difficult situations, and other problems. This should also include the problems of internal relationships in the medical profession (working conflicts, ethics of consulations, ethical problems of professional subordination, etc.).

4. The ethics of scientific and medical research. As already mentioned, this problem field was formed into an independent bioethical trend called "research ethics". (English, research ethics). It should be attributed, first of all, to the regulation of experiments on a person, the protection of his rights and dignity in the research process.

In addition, this area of ​​problems overlaps with the first problem field (discussion of developments in biomedicine), since with the advancement of biomedicine, the questions about the moral admissibility of research in certain areas or on certain objects (sex cells, embryos, genes, stem cells, etc.) .).

5. Goals and moral meanings of medicine. Finally, one can single out a special area of ​​bioethical discussions that go on a more general level about medicine in general and concern the content of medical activities in the modern world: "What should it be? What are its real goals? Where are its boundaries? What can and what can medicine do?

For example, these are discussions about how to treat euthanasia, whether medicine can act as an instrument of power and control over society, turn into a project of technisation of human nature itself or "improvements" humanity, etc.

In addition to these main problem areas, there are many other topics of bioethical discussions that are difficult to attribute to any of the above.

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