The problem of periodization of the artistic and historical process - Aesthetics

The problem of periodization of the artistic historical process

The stratification of such theories further exacerbated the task of explaining the artistic process not through the introduction of external points of view, but by uncovering the immanent stimuli of the most moving phenomenon, what art is. The conceptuality in this field of aesthetic knowledge should not grow in the schematic.

Of course, it is incorrect to look at one epoch of the artistic process as a step to the next. In this sense, Ranke is right: every artistic epoch already by definition has an objective in itself, each is self-sufficient and self-sufficient. Pafos Ranke was prompted by the desire to counteract the linear progressivist concept of art history as a collection of epochs located in subordination. No cycle of artistic creativity can be understood as a means to prepare another. The principle of historicism, therefore, is to study and understand the artistic epoch from within it, starting from that field of ideas, orientation, values, which constituted an unconditional myth of this culture that pulled all forms of spiritual creativity with a special formula.

At the same time, the content of the artistic life of any epoch can be considered from the standpoint of not only self-sufficiency, but also from the standpoint of succession. There are no cultures in history that operate inside of which the basic type of personality would be absolutely incommensurable with the type of person of the previous era. Shakespeare, Moliere, Ibsen,

Chekhov is put and re-published not because they are authorities that are known to know, but because new phases and cycles of artistic culture "scoop up" from their works many actual meanings for themselves.

Therefore, the principle of historicism should be understood widely - as a way of comprehending a particular epoch in its distinctive nature and at the same time as a way to identify such creative tendencies that acted as deep-seated bonds of cultures. The penetration of past artistic forms into the composition of the present confirms the relationship of coordination between the epochs, the complex relationships of their interflow and historical continuity.

It is also essential that the origins of the emergence of new types of artistic integrity must be sought not only within the artistic process itself, but also within the wider system of coordinates. Historical overflow artistic consciousness always depends on the evolution of the general foundations of culture, human self-awareness. No matter how complex and influential the complex of artistic and general cultural factors of artistic evolution is, both of them are united by the figure of the person who acts most in history. The history of art always unfolds a larger story, beyond which it is impossible to understand the principles of correlation different artistic epochs.

The paradox is obvious: if the history of the arts of our planet is compared with the history of the arts of another planet, then for the Earth there will surely be a single basis. When we try to find such a foundation inside our planet, it turns out that the whole history of art is scattered into a collection of different epochs, not known how interconnected.

The newest historical and cultural approaches open for art knowledge productive opportunities. The experience accumulated by the "Annals" School, aimed at recreating the "total history of mankind", is of considerable interest for the solution of the problems under discussion. The history of mentalities that the Annals have developed is actually a set of certain constants , sustainable durations, structured cultural history of mankind. By analogy with this approach, the philosophical history of the arts is posed by questions about the existence of an internal intention that operates during long historical and artistic periods.

Methodology Annals is identical to the positions of the theoretical art history; French researchers of this school also criticized representatives of empirical history, limiting their competence to the framework of the local period. The accumulation of such scientists for all their meticulousness and thoroughness, in the words. L. Febvre, like the "chest for the storage of facts", are vulnerable in the understanding of a common historical perspective.

On the contrary, the most authoritative approaches of theoretical art history, presented by the names of E. Panofsky, A. Hauser, G. Sedlmayer, E. Gombrich, allowed to explain the origins of the emergence of stable types of artistic thinking in different arts simultaneously; the reasons for the formation of uniform compositional techniques in the works of art of different societies that never came into contact with each other. An important distinctive feature of such approaches is a serious attention to diachrony, the desire to avoid mistakes of predecessors mechanically linking different artistic stages and epochs (the "binder synthesizer").

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