Typology of artistic perception - Aesthetics

Typology of artistic perception

The study of socio-psychological problems of perception opens the picture of the coexistence of different types of perception of art in the same culture. Modern research makes it possible to differentiate the motives of familiarizing with art. So, according to a survey conducted in the late XX century. sociologists of the State Institute of Art Studies together with the Academy of Education, revealed a typology of the public, consisting of four main groups. The first is the so-called problem-oriented viewer (25-27%), the second - morally oriented viewer (14-15%), the third - hedonistically oriented viewer (over 40%) and to the last, fourth - aesthetically oriented viewer (about 16%).

Groups, as we see, differ in the nature of the original artistic settings that determine their need for art. The first (problem-oriented) group of viewers expects from art, first of all, the possibility of expanding their life experience, vivid impressions, the opportunity to live several lives, to experience situations that, perhaps, will never meet in their own destiny. The second group (morally oriented) is characterized by a primary interest in the perception of patterns and behaviors in complex situations, ways of resolving conflicts. The craving for the art of representatives of this group is connected with the need to acquire moral stability, the formation of communication skills. The third group of (hedonically oriented) viewers is the most numerous. This is an audience that expects from art first of all pleasure, pleasure, relaxation. For such a viewer, art is valuable primarily because it is able to perform the compensatory function of emotional saturation, rest, entertainment, - a function acting as the opposite pole of monotonous routine everyday life. In this hedonistically oriented viewer expects in advance that the perception of art will not require any special efforts from him and will happen easily, by itself. Finally, an aesthetically oriented viewer - one who knows the language of art well, is familiar with the variety of artistic forms and styles, and therefore is able to approach every work of art with its own standard. The aesthetically oriented viewer has both cognitive, and moral, and hedonic needs, but each time actualizes precisely those dimensions in which an artistic text needs. He considers the act of artistic perception not as a means of solving any pragmatic problems, but as a goal of value in itself.

From these observations and studies follows a simple conclusion: a work of art gives really everyone as much as a person is able to take from him. In other words, a work of art always answers the questions that are asked of it. It is known how much "multilayered" is artistic content. Each meeting with the already known work of art reveals new meanings, reveals the compositional relationships. In this respect, for the full and adequate perception of a work of art, the skills of one's own artistic creativity are of great importance. Anyone who in childhood was engaged in a music or art school, in a dance or theater studio, in adulthood is more responsive to the impulses of the artistic language, is able to feel it better "from within". Artistic skills make it possible to feel barely noticeable musical intervals, a different susceptibility of color-light relations, plasticity of movements, etc.

It is widely believed by critics that it is now impossible to do a serious work of any kind, which could inspire a thinking and prepared reader to draw a plot, that other incentives are needed. A dilemma arises: either high, but written in a very complex language, in need of "literary convoy", in additional knowledge, etc., or low, massive, calculated for a non-demanding and unpretentious taste, is largely artificial. Not only in the classical creations of the past, but also in contemporary art culture, there are authors who combine in their works both entertaining and intellectual depth. Such qualities are demonstrated, for example, by the literary works of M. Kundera, P. Ziuskind, U. Eco, D. Foulz, who are captivated not only by amazing stylistic, linguistic, compositional qualities, but also by the narrative themselves; musical creations of K. Penderecki, E.. Denisov, A. Pärt, G. Kancheli, V. Silvestrov with their inherent psychology, melodic, exciting orchestration.

An important condition for a full-fledged artistic perception is the ability to develop in oneself the ability to be independent and selective in artistic perception and judgments, to avoid automatisms, worked out techniques that impose mass communication media. Each person is unique, and it is possible to comprehend this uniqueness, only choosing the appropriate creative lines, most appropriate to his personality, temperament, personality type. Goethe somehow accurately noticed that even a limited person can be whole if moves within his abilities and preparation. A huge number of art genres and styles coexisting with each other provide unlimited opportunities for cultivating each person himself .

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