In this newspaper we are going to discuss the positioning of Laura Malvey in her work "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema". The psychoanalytic interpretation of the position of women audiences gets back again to the famous essay by Laura Mulvey "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema", the original thesis which was that the film form is structured by the unconscious of the patriarchal population and that female as a spectator is definitely imposed the rules of a "foreign" game - getting of the male kind of pleasure - for example, inherently scopophilic pleasure from the study of the female body.
But the issue in this work isn't just and not very much about the pleasure itself, but about much more serious things - how the "vision" is the illustration of identification creation of the topic through the visible practices and how the power is contained into the play - that is, the question is elevated in the task about the ideological effects of the essential cinematic apparatus.
Mulvey argued that ideology is involved in building the subjectivity of the average person at the level of the unconscious - that is certainly how a feminine spectator, through borrowing the male gaze, can take the ideology of a patriarchal population, which is enforced.
Laura Mulvey (1975) in "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema" explains how the traditional Hollywood film boasts the scopophilic view: "In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been separated between dynamic/male and passive/female. The determining guy gaze projects its phantasy on to the female form which is styled accordingly. Within their traditional exhibitionist role women are concurrently looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong aesthetic and erotic impact so that they can be thought to connote to-be-looked-at-ness. " The woman, proven as a erotic object, serves as a leitmotif of erotic spectacle.
The developed problem in this framework may be fixed through a strong deconstruction of the eye-sight machine, which takes its woman as a graphic, and a man as an owner of the sight. Mulvey proposes to damage the voayeristic-scopophilic view, constantly destroying cinematic rules that postulate such view.
Will this be the solution of the challenge? Mulvey's emphasis on the analysis of the precise of the cinematographic system, with all its radical and provocative judgements, appears to be legitimate. The true is the question of the discursive mediation properties. However, generally, the psychoanalytic criticism of aesthetic representations may also have a deep methodologic impact.
As we've alreqady stated, the key ideas of Mulvey's research procedure are formulated by her in the task "Visual pleasure and narrative movie theater. " The impact of the approach prolonged not only to the tudy of films but also to television, advertising and other types of aesthetic culture. The researcher begins her studies with the basic ideas of psychoanalysis - a postulation of sexual differences as the axis of interpretation and the center of the "oedipal drama".
Mulvey (1975) made the psychoanalytic theory as the foundation for interpretation of the "enigma" of movie: "The fascination of film is reinforced by pre-existing habits of fascination already at work within the average person subject and the social formations which have moulded him. "
According to the researcher, the movie will not only stimulates and trains scopophilic bents (the pleasure of spying), but also satisfies the repressed want to "showcase", the exhibitionism. Even so the movie will not only quenche the scopophilic thirst, but also brings it to the narcissism, fulfilling the real human need of recognition with others, in cases like this with anyone or anything on the display screen.
On the main one palm, the film is made for the actual fact that the audience recognizes itself with a particular character, his reasoning, so that for the audience everything could be clear. Alternatively, the viewer will present himself in a weird role. Just with time for psychodynamics occurring between both of these processes, the phenomenon of narrative movie theater, about which Laura Mulvey writes, is built. With this vein, it is appropriate to recall the ideas that the movie theater performance actualizes and intensifies the procedures of your affective internal projection-identification in the viewers, who has the capacity to react and move. At the same time Laura Mulvey is developing a theory of the "male look" under which a woman appears as an image, and a guy - as the bearer of the appearance. That is, in line with the researcher, in the films women simultaneously work as erotic objects for the male audience, that gets a scopophilic pleasure from their presence, and as erotic objects for the male heroes, with whom the male audience may identify itself. The third and decisive spectator, as well as the guy protagonist and the male audience, is a camera, which by means of choosing a specific perspective, and a sequence of frames represents an chance to increase the pleasure of scopophilia and recognition.
The researcher securely binds the audience view with the function of the movie theater in general. Hall (2003) mentioned that theatre is capable to control our mind, to make us identify with its images. It was originally designed for the aesthetic experience and then for the audiences' empathy. Therefore, the idea of the positioning of view, its place and its own direction, according to Mitchell (1995), are extremely important and determine the film industry as such. Such a perfect ability to focus the mind distinguishes theatre from other "shows".
Laura Mulvey concludes that the codes involved in the movie and having a primary relation to the external buildings (public and financial conditions), must be learnt for their transformation, for creation of other films and critics of the consequences and characteristics of aesthetic pleasure, which is provided by the traditional movie plot. The look at of L. Mulvey to show using psychoanalytic theory, how "unconscious in a patriarchal contemporary society forms the film" had an essential and significant effect on the further development of the feminist film criticism.
Further, the ideas of "the feminine look in artwork" are also actively appearing and developing For the contemporary ethnical and feminist theory, its main subject matter is an everyday activity, where there's a specific articulation of cultural structures. Today there's a fundamental shift in the feminist studies generally. According to Evans and Hall (2005) we see that is the move from the deterministic explanations of women's subordination to the advertising to the examination of the processes of symbolization and representation. Quite simply, the challenge of studies of media relocated from the deciding of the reasons of situation for women's subordination in culture and world to the review of symbolic areas of the functioning of ethnical products and tools of mass communication generally.
The advantage of the research procedure Mulvey is the fact she actually is one of the first ever to articulate the presence of a gender specificity of modern films, to draw attention to the occurrence of the 3rd spectator that was not previously discovered - a camera, on the positioning of "sight" of which further details of the building and connections of the images in the film is dependent. Her ideas acquired a strong effect on the avant-garde pattern in the movie theater. At the same time Mulvey was enthusiastic about the widespread mechanisms of building a storyline of the film, as well as the system of impact of specific film image to the audience through the identification process.
Laura Mulvey, the writer of this article "Visual pleasure and narrative movie theater", says that in the movie the traditional department of labor can be used: a woman serves as a topic for a glance, a man will serve as an evaluating person. The camera - a cinema eyes - inherits the role of a man, who appears through the lens of cultural cliches. The product of the view is an energetic authoritativeness of the erotic gaze fond of the feminine body, and narrative patterns of the melodramatic movie theater. An countless variety of genre tasks for the calibration of all the hues of seduction, desire, flirting or classical coldness are available to the actresses.
It should go without stating that the written text of the task, with today's perspective, appears to be too radical, too provocative, tapering to limit the love-making distinctions, abounding in "striking" (for the uninitiated in the mysteries of psychoanalysis) terminology and could be somewhat alien to your consciousness, but at the same time this is the most representative and the most authoritative work, gives quite a clear idea about the specifics of feminist psychoanalytic cinema theory. Furthermore, this work is an explicit demo of how the feminist critique has expropriated and used the psychoanalytic discourse to defeat traditional psychoanalysis negativism against women going out with back to Freud, along with his own means.
In our work we have to give two good examples from visual culture and discuss how Mulvey's thesis may be convincing in one instance but examined to its limitations in another.
For this talk I propose to have two movies: "Rare Screen" by Alfred Hitchcock and "Juno" by Jason Reitman.
The film "Rare Window" by Alfred Hitchcock is convincing the thesis of Laura Malvey that Man is the bearer of the appearance while Female connotes to-be-looked-at-ness. The main character of the film is devote such conditions that he needs to be scopophilic. A photographer Jeffries has shattered his leg and now he must watch everything going outdoors through the windows. The film reveals to us one of the main needs of men - peep through the keyhole, figuratively speaking. It is really impossible to stay away from such a forbidden fruits. As well as the blame of everything is attention, namely it steps the key mechanisms in a guy, allowing to forget about other equally important needs (food, rest, gender) and thrilling the imagination at a time. In this particular film everything is concentrated around the person, Jeffries, women are simply a telephone here.
As to the film that is examined to the limitations of Malvey's thesis it ought to be noticed it is very hard to find such because such films began appearing not so long time ago. These are the motion pictures with a strong woman in the primary role. For example I would like to propose the film "Juno" by Jason Reitman. The main heroine of this film is a girl who is pregnant and who gets flawlessly well with her problems. All of the activities in the film are concentrated around this dude - Juno and in difference to the movies in which everything is made "for men", this film limits the thesis of Laura Malvey that Man is the bearer of the appearance while Female connotes to-be-looked-at-ness by our eye-sight of the main heroine.
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