Accounting for transactions in corporate bonds from issuers...

Accounting for transactions with corporate bonds from issuers

Issue of securities as debt obligations in compliance with the relevant conditions is carried out by organizations in order to attract funds. Under the security of the funds received, organizations can issue both bonds and promissory notes.

Bonds issued by organizations are classified as equity securities. The issuer's obligations include ensuring the regular payment of interest income to bondholders, timely informing them of changes in their activities and, if necessary, providing their property as collateral.

The organization of accounting for the issue of bonds depends on the timing of their circulation. For example, when you issue bonds with a maturity of less than one year, you use account 66 "Settlements on short-term loans and loans", and with a maturity of more than one year - account 67 "Calculations on long-term loans and loans." The difference between the nominal value and the sale price of bonds is taken into account in account 98 "Deferred income" and is written off to profit during the period of circulation of the bond.

In the accounting of the issuing organization, the bond issue is reflected in the following records.

1. Receipt of money from the sale of bonds:

D accounts 51 Settlement accounts or 50 Cash - To account 66 "Settlements on short-term loans and loans."

2. The amount of excess of received funds over the nominal value:

D accounts 51 Settlement accounts - To account 98 "Deferred revenue."

3. Monthly write-off of the difference on the financial result:

D bills 98 "Deferred revenue - To account 91, "Other income and expenses."

4. Accrual of interest on bonds:

D accounts 91 Other income and expenses - To account 66 "Settlements on short-term loans and loans."

5. Transfer of the amount of income on bonds to owners:

D Accounts 66 & "Settlements on short-term loans and borrowings - To account 51 Settlement accounts & quot ;.

6. Redemption of Bonds:

D Accounts 66 & "Settlements on short-term loans and borrowings - To account 51 Settlement accounts & quot ;.

A joint-stock company may use this circumstance for the issue of convertible bonds to exchange bonds for shares with a view to increasing the authorized capital. In this case, the postings are as follows:

1. Exchange of bonds for shares:

D Accounts 66 & "Settlements on short-term loans and borrowings - To account 80 Registered capital.

2. Deduction of the difference:

D Accounts 66 & "Settlements on short-term loans and borrowings - To account 91, "Other income and expenses."

Accounting for securities transactions with investors

The account of operations with securities from investors is slightly different than that of issuers. The main difference is that the content of operations performed by investors in terms of goals and content does not coincide with the objectives and content of transactions carried out with securities by issuers. Investors, buying securities, mainly pursue the goal of generating income. Having them in the property, investors can act with them at their own discretion. Investors can be both legal entities and individuals.

The investment of the investor organization in the form of investments in securities in accounting is considered as financial investments and is accepted for accounting in the amount of actual costs. To account for the actual costs of acquiring securities, the investor uses account 58 "Financial investments".

The actual costs for the purchase of securities include amounts paid in accordance with the contract to the seller for information and consulting services, remuneration to intermediaries, as well as other costs associated with their acquisition. All these operations are accompanied by the following posting.

D Accounts 58 Financial Attachments - To account 51 Settlement accounts & quot ;.

In addition to the listed costs, they include the costs of paying interest on borrowed funds used to purchase securities before they are registered. In this case, you can do so, as is customary in the performance of accounting transactions for the recording of interest on borrowed funds.

1. Interest on borrowed funds for the purchase of securities:

D accounts 91 Other income and expenses - To account 66 "Settlements on short-term loans and loans."

2. The amount of actual costs for the purchase of securities:

D Accounts 58 Financial Attachments - To account 51 Settlement accounts & quot ;.

If, at acquisition of securities, an investor resorted to the services of a financial adviser or an intermediary, payment of their remuneration is reflected as follows.

1. Amount of remuneration calculated:

D accounts 91 Other income and expenses - To account 76 "Settlements with different debtors and creditors".

2. Services of intermediaries are paid:

D accounts 76 "Settlements with different debtors and creditors" - To account 51 Settlement accounts & quot ;.

Special mention should be made of the movement of funds under account 58 "Financial attachments" from the investor organization. This situation arises in the case of an increase in the authorized capital of the issuing organization by the value of revaluation of fixed assets. As a result, an increase in the authorized capital of an issuing organization can occur in two ways.

The first way provides for the issuance of shares of the same type and denomination as at the time of the primary issue when creating a joint stock company. The investor organization previously acquired shares at actual costs accounts in account 58 "Financial Investments". Accordingly, in the Securities Storage Book, a record is made of the nominal value of the acquired shares, their actual value, the number of shares and the date of purchase.

When transferring additional shares due to the issuer's increase in the authorized capital by the revaluation of fixed assets, an entry is made in the accounting of the investor's organization with a simultaneous mark in the Securities book indicating the nominal value of the shares to be accepted, indicating the date of transfer of ownership on these securities.

1. The amount of shares received but nominal value:

D Accounts 58 Financial Attachments - To account 83, "Additional capital."

The second way increase in the authorized capital of the issuing organization involves changing the nominal value of previously issued shares. The increase in the nominal value of shares entails the withdrawal from circulation of shares and their replacement with new ones, with the introduction of appropriate changes in the register of shareholders. In the Securities Storage Book, two entries should be made: the first one - on retirement of the old stock, and the second - on the receipt of shares of a new par value. The investor organization performs the following entries in the accounting records:

1. The amount of retirement of shares of the old par value:

D accounts 81 Own shares (stakes) - To account 80

Authorized Capital.

2. The amount of taking a new face value to the balance sheet:

D accounts 80 Registered capital - To account 81 Own shares (stakes) .

3. The difference between the book value of shares of a new and an old sample:

D accounts 81 Own shares (stakes) - To account 91, "Other income and expenses."

The rules established that with the increase of the authorized capital in connection with the revaluation of fixed assets, the value of shares additionally received by the decision of the general meeting by shareholders - legal entities, is proportional to the number of shares they owned earlier, or the difference between the nominal value of new shares received in exchange for the initial shares changes in the proportion (share) of shareholders in the authorized capital of the joint-stock company, shall not be included in the tax base of the shareholder.

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