Principles of the budgetary system of the United States
The US budget system is based on the principles, as a result of which the particular model of the country's budget structure is formed, its balance is ensured at all stages of the budgetary process. Principles are the goals that determine the vector of the development of certain relationships.
According to the BC, the state budget system is based on the following principles:
- the unity of the budgetary system of the United States;
- delineation of revenues, expenditures and sources of financing of budget deficits between budgets of the RF budget system;
- independence of budgets;
- equality of budgetary rights of subjects of the United States, municipalities;
- the completeness of the reflection of revenues, expenditures and sources of financing of budget deficits;
- the balance of the budget;
- the effectiveness of using budget funds
- general (cumulative) coverage of budget expenditures;
- transparency (openness);
- the reliability of the budget;
- targeting and targeted nature of budgetary funds;
- subordination of expenditures of budgets;
- unity of the cashier.It is important to note that the last two principles, the subordination of expenses and the unity of the cash desk, are new for the BC and were introduced as part of the implementation of the Concept of the Budget Process Reform in the United States in 2004-2006.
The Unity Principle of the RF Budget System means the unity of the US budget law, the principles of organization and functioning of the US budget system, the budget documentation and budget reporting forms, the budget classification of the US budget system, the budget coercive measures for violation of US budget law , a unified procedure for the establishment and execution of expenditure obligations, the formation of revenues and the implementation of expenditures of the budgets of the US budget system, the maintenance of budgetary accounting and the preparation of budgetary reporting b yudzhes of the US budget system and budgetary institutions, the unity of the order of enforcement of judicial acts on foreclosure on the budget of the US budget system.The principle of distinguishing between incomes, expenditures and sources of financing budget deficits between budgets of the budgetary system of the United States means the fixing in accordance with US legislation of revenues, expenditures and sources of financing budget deficits for the budgets of the US budget system, bodies of state power (bodies of local self-government) and bodies of management of state extra-budgetary funds to generate budget revenues, sources of financing budget deficits and set-up the implementation and execution of expenditure obligations of public entities.
Public authorities (local government bodies) and government extra-budgetary funds are not entitled to impose financial and other obligations on legal entities and individuals to ensure the fulfillment of their authority.
The principle of independent budgets means:
- the right and duty of state authorities and local self-government bodies to independently ensure the balance of their respective budgets and the effectiveness of using budgetary funds;
- the right and duty of state authorities and local self-government bodies to independently implement the budgetary process, except for the cases provided for by the BC;
- the right of public authorities and local governments to establish, in accordance with US law on taxes and fees, taxes and fees, the revenues from which are subject to enrollment in the relevant budgets of the RF budget system;
- the right of public authorities and local governments in accordance with the BC to determine the forms and directions of spending budget funds (with the exception of expenditures financed by inter-budgetary subsidies and subventions from other budgets of the RF budget system);>
- the inadmissibility of setting spending obligations that are subject to execution at the expense of revenues and sources of financing deficits of other budgets of the US budget system, as well as spending obligations that are simultaneously executed at the expense of two or more budgets of the US budget system, at the expense of consolidated budgets or without determination of the budget, at the expense of which the fulfillment of the corresponding expenditure obligations must be carried out;
- the right of public authorities and local governments to provide funds from the budget for the performance of expenditure obligations, established by other government bodies and local governments, solely in the form of intergovernmental transfers;
- the inadmissibility of the enactment during the current fiscal year by public authorities and local governments of changes in US budget law and/or legislation on taxes and fees, legislation on other mandatory payments, leading to increased costs and (or) income reduction other budgets of the US budget system without amending the laws (decisions) on the relevant budgets, providing for compensation for increasing expenditures, reducing revenues;
- inadmissibility of withdrawal of additional revenues, savings on expenditures of budgets obtained as a result of effective execution of budgets.
The principle of equality of budgetary rights of the subjects of the United States, municipalities means the definition of budgetary powers of state bodies of the subjects of the United States and local governments, the establishment and execution of expenditure obligations, the formation of tax and non-tax revenues of the budgets of US subjects and local budgets , determination of the volume, forms and procedure for providing intergovernmental transfers in accordance with uniform principles and requirements established by the BC.
Agreements and agreements between US state authorities and state bodies of the US subjects, public authorities and local self-government bodies that do not correspond to the BC are invalid.
The principle of completeness of reflecting incomes, expenditures and sources of financing of budget deficits means that all incomes, expenditures and sources of financing of budget deficits are necessarily and fully reflected in the respective budgets.
The principle of budget balance means that the amount of budgeted expenditures should correspond to the total amount of budget revenues and the sources of funding for its deficit, reduced by the amount of payments from the budget related to sources of financing the budget deficit and changes in balances accounts on the account of means of budgets.
When compiling, approving and executing the budget, the authorized bodies should proceed from the need to minimize the size of the budget deficit.
The principle of effective use of budgetary funds means that when drawing up and executing budgets, participants in the budget process within the limits of their budgetary authority should proceed from the need to achieve specified results using the least amount of funds (economy) and (or ) to achieve the best result using the amount of funds (effectiveness) determined by the budget.
The principle of general (cumulative) coverage of budget expenditures means that budget expenditures can not be linked to certain budget revenues and sources of financing a budget deficit, unless otherwise provided by the budget law (decision) concerning:
- subventions and subsidies received from other budgets of the RF budget system;
- means of targeted foreign loans (borrowings);
- voluntary contributions, donations, self-taxation of citizens;
- budget expenditures carried out in accordance with international agreements (agreements) with the participation of the United States;
- budget expenditures carried out outside the territory of the United States;
- certain types of non-tax revenues proposed for introduction (reflection in the budget), starting from the next fiscal year;
- budget expenditures in cases and within the income of certain types of non-tax revenues.
The principle of transparency (openness) means:
- mandatory publication in the mass media of approved budgets and reports on their implementation, completeness of information on the execution of budgets, as well as the availability of other information on budgets by decision of legislative (representative) bodies of state power, representative bodies of municipalities;
- mandatory openness for the society and the mass media of draft budgets submitted to legislative (representative) bodies of state power (representative bodies of municipal entities), procedures for consideration and decision-making on draft budgets, including on issues that cause disagreement or within legislative (representative) body of state power (representative body of the municipality), or between the legislative (representative) body of the state authority (representative body of the municipal formation) and the executive body of state power (local administration);
- providing access to information located in the information and telecommunications network "Internet"; on a single portal of the budget system of the United States;
- stability and (or) continuity of the US budget classification, as well as ensuring the comparability of the budget indicators of the reporting, current and next fiscal year (next fiscal year and planning period).
Secret articles can be approved only as part of the federal budget.
The principle of reliability of the budget means the reliability of the indicators of the forecast of the socio-economic development of the corresponding territory and the realistic calculation of budget revenues and expenditures.
The principle of targeting and the targeted nature of budgetary funds means that budget allocations and limits of budgetary obligations are brought to specific recipients of budgetary funds with an indication of the purpose of their use.
The principle of subordination of expenditures of budgets means that the recipients of budgetary funds are entitled to receive budgetary allocations and limits of budgetary obligations only from the main administrator (manager) of budget funds, which they manage.
Major administrators (administrators) of budgetary funds are not entitled to allocate budgetary allocations and limits of budget obligations to administrators and recipients of budgetary funds not included in the list of subordinate administrators and budget recipients.
The manager and recipient of budgetary funds can be included in the list of subordinate administrators and recipients of budgetary funds only one major administrator of budgetary funds.
The jurisdiction of the recipient of budget funds to the chief administrator (manager) of budgetary funds arises by virtue of law, the normative legal act of the US President, the US Government, the supreme executive body of state power of the United States entity, local administration, and also by the establishment of the organization receiving the budgetary funds as institution of the chief administrator of budgetary funds on behalf of the United States, the US subject, the municipal entity, respectively.
The principle of unity of the cashier means the enrollment of all cash receipts and the implementation of all cash payments from a single budget account, with the exception of operations for the execution of budgets carried out in accordance with regulatory legal acts of the US government, subjects of the United States, municipal legal acts of local self-government bodies outside the territory of the United States, the United States entity, the municipal entity, as well as the operations carried out in accordance with US currency law.
The US budget system also includes the US budget classification.
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