Third stage, Fourth stage, Fifth stage, Sixth stage - Enterprise planning

Third stage

Justification of the concept of enterprise development based on the purpose and mission of the enterprise.

The concept of an enterprise should reflect:

- a description of the services (product) offered by the enterprise in the long term, taking into account the current trends in innovative changes in the sphere of production and provision of services;

- the characteristics of the market (market segment), which focuses on the activities of the enterprise (organization): the level and strength of competition in the market, capacity, market conditions, trends in consumer preferences;

- the tasks of the enterprise (organization), clearly defining the scope of activity, growth, development, profitability;

- technologies used in the production, sale of goods and services, enterprise management, the level of innovation in the technologies used, the organization of production and management;

- the basic views and values ​​of the enterprise (organization), the main provisions of the staff motivation system;

- an internal understanding of the degree of competitiveness of an enterprise, its products and services, sources and opportunities for development;

- the external image of the enterprise (organization), its image, market share.

In the concept, in addition to the descriptive clauses, the main forecast parameters of development in the long term are provided, which are accompanied by the justification of the conditions for their achievement and possible risks in the implementation of the planned development directions. The nature of the presentation of the material in the concept is research. It assumes differentiated approaches to assessing prospects and identifying possible problems, taking into account their importance, justifying measures to address them, and reducing (preventing) threats to enterprise development.

Fourth stage

Rationale for the strategy, taking into account the mission and the concept of the development of the enterprise (organization).

A strategy is a combination of the main ideas and the main ways to achieve the given parameters of development and effectiveness. Perspective structural changes in the activities of the enterprise, the innovative nature of the directions of development and production technologies, the sale of products and services in the strategy are quite specific.

Signs of strategic planning:

- assumes long-term orientation of enterprise development;

- is based on future opportunities, risks, development conditions, innovation;

- relies on the resource potential of the future (technology, technology, personnel, etc.).

The development of the strategy is completed by the preparation of a strategic (long-term) plan, which, in addition to describing the future prospects of the enterprise development, provides the main indicators of its growth, taking into account the available ideas about the conditions for their achievement, the parameters of resource intensity, efficiency, competitiveness of products and services.

Fifth stage

Tactical planning involves the development of a decision on the optimal allocation of resources of the enterprise (organization) to achieve strategic goals (development parameters defined in the strategic plan). Thus, in the tactical plan, the indicators and parameters for the development of the strategic plan are concretized, which ensures their continuity, efficiency and feasibility.

Tactical planning is basically objective, and its task is to determine the necessary amount of resources, their optimal allocation to achieve the planned result.

Thus, in the tactical planning (for 1-3 years), the enterprise development strategy is implemented. Therefore, this plan is very important in the planning system, since not only development parameters, but also the necessary amount of resources for their implementation (by quantity and quality), sources of formation and modernization of the resource base, and also ways to organize production, techniques to stimulate sales and motivate staff to implement plans.

Sixth stage

Development of operational plans (short-term, from 10 days to 1 year).

The main objective of operational planning is to provide methodical, informational and instrumental support to enterprise managers to achieve the planned level of profit, profitability and liquidity of the enterprise in the short term. In operational plans, tactical plans are specified, and indicators are targeted for structures and activities.

Signs of operational planning:

o short-term (planning horizon up to 1 year);

o solved tasks:

- managing results;

- planning measures to ensure liquidity;

- monitoring of economic efficiency;

- the motivation and development of the staff are associated with the implementation of plans;

- is directly related to the existing resources (what opportunities the enterprise currently has).

The presented sequence and planning logic allow you to coordinate plans for the time horizon, ensure the unity of their goals and tasks, create conditions for the implementation of the mission, the concept and the strategic plan in tactical and operational plans.

The unity of technology for the development of plans for different time boundaries involves the consideration of specific grounds for their justification.

The main distinguishing features of strategic and tactical planning are presented in Table. 2.

Table 2

Signs of strategic and tactical planning

Symptoms

Strategic

Planning

Tactical

Planning

Hierarchical control steps

Basically at the senior management level

Includes all levels with a primary focus on the middle management

Uncertainty

Substantially higher

Less than

Problems

Most problems are not structured

Relatively well-structured

Time horizon

Focus on long-term as well as medium-term aspects

Focus on short- and medium-term aspects

Used Information

First of all from the external environment

First of all from the enterprise itself

Alternatives to Plans

The spectrum of alternatives is broad in principle

The spectrum is limited

Reach

Concentration on certain important positions

Covers all functional areas and integrates them

Degree of detail

Not high

Relatively large

Basic Controlled Values ​​

Successful potentials (for example, market share growth, competitive advantages, etc.)

Profit, profitability, liquidity

These specific characteristics predetermine the choice of principles and methods of planning, the level of disaggregation of plans and their specification.

Test questions and tasks

1. Why planning in a market economy is necessary?

2. Define planning in terms of process and methodology.

3. What problems can be solved through planning and how?

4. What principles should be considered when developing plans?

5. Give a description of the main planning methods.

6. What planning methods are used in tactical planning and under what conditions can they be used?

7. What is the sequence of the planned calculations?

8. What is planning technology?

9. What is the difference between tactical planning from strategic and operational?

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