Forecasting of ore areas and mineral deposits, General provision...


A brief explanation of the principles and methods for forecasting deposits of solid minerals is given. Methods of regional and local forecasting of industrial ore areas , ore sites, ore fields and deposits are considered. The scientifically grounded criteria for the predictive estimation of territories for minerals are given with a view to allocating prime local areas , promising for the search for minerals. The possibilities of various methods and techniques for forecasting the ore-bearing territories and local areas, as well as methods for their rational integration are shown. Present-day requirements for the categories of predicted resources P 1 P 2 , P 3 are presented, as the final products of various-scale geological studies and the methodology for their geological and economic assessment.

General provision: principles and tasks of geological prediction

The search strategy for new mineral deposits is based on a purposeful and effective selection of objects for further geological research. Accurate and reliable geological forecast sharply increases the effectiveness of searches. Hence the most important direction is the improvement of methods for forecasting ore-bearing areas and deposits. Forecasting of ore-bearing territories and ore objects is carried out at all stages and stages of the general geological prospecting process. Forecasting the location of ore fields, deposits. their internal structure, scale and practical significance, contained in them mineral resources is the most important ultimate goal of geological study of mineral resources. The actual material obtained after the completion of each stage of geological exploration expands and deepens the idea of ​​the ore object under study, allows one to refute or confirm the conclusions drawn earlier, more accurately interpret the observed geological situation as favorable or unfavorable for the localization of industrial mineralization. Prospective resources of minerals P1, P2, P3 serve as criteria for the prospectivity of ore objects. Based on the results of the geological forecast, decisions are made on the expediency of further detailed geological survey, prospecting, evaluation and prospecting works on selected prospective areas based on the geological and economic assessment of the expected mineral resources.

The geological forecast is based on known and new evolutionary regularities of the geological structure of the earth's crust and mantle - on structural-tectonic, petrological, formational, geophysical, geochemical, metallogenic and other patterns of formation of deposits. The accuracy and reliability of the forecast depends to a large extent on the quality of the geological information that is involved in constructing predictive conclusions. The final result of abstracting the real geological system and ore objects is their simplified models-geological-genetic, structural-tectonic, geological-formational, geophysical, geochemical, physicochemical, isotope-geochemical, statistical, and others. These models, with the help of certain procedures, make it possible to obtain new forecast information about the behavior of the system under consideration. If the ore field is considered as a geological system, then the types of rocks and ores can be considered the elements of its structure, the links between the elements - all the processes of rock and ore formation, and the state of the system - the aggregate of quantitative parameters characterizing the resources of the deposits, its size, conditions of occurrence and m. [Kharchenkov, 1987]. The most important forecast indicators are the scale and quality of mineral resources, the volumes or linear parameters of deposits, ore bodies, their composition, structure, etc. A.G. Kharchenkov notes such features of the forecast of mineral resources:

1) the use of geological forecasts as the basis for economic forecasts for the development and development of the mineral resources base of the national economy;

2) the existence of a feedback between the forecast of mineral resources and the forecast of the development of the national economy;

3) the multivariance of the ways to realize the forecast resources in explored reserves and the need to choose the optimal ways to meet the needs of the national economy in mineral raw materials;

4) the validity of the geological forecast of mineral resources and economic forecasts of the development of the mineral resource base of the country or of a particular region on the assumption of a regular evolution of geological processes and the possibilities of identifying and using these regularities;

5) the direct dependence of the accuracy and reliability of forecasts on the quality of the initial information and the perfection of the scientific and methodological foundations of forecasting.

From the point of view of applicability of methods of analysis and forecasting of geological systems, the following approaches are used: 1) study of material bodies; 2) consideration of abstract models of behavior of elements; 3) study of sources and channels of information.

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