Modeling of industries - Economic geography and regional studies

Modeling of industries

The industry has a leading role among the sectors of the economy, as it determines the level of economic development of the country and its individual regions, the degree of use of natural and labor resources, etc. Consequently, a rational territorial organization of industry is the most urgent issue of the territorial organization of production. In this connection, in this section we will consider only models of industries.

The purpose of mathematical modeling of the development and location of the industry is to find the optimal territorial organization of its productions on the basis of taking into account natural, transport-geographical, technical, social and other factors. identify points of construction of new and reconstruction of existing enterprises, their capacity and specialization, a scheme of both internal and external transport links of the industry, etc.

Depending on the number of features, several types of industry tasks are distinguished.

One of the most important signs of classification of problems of optimal planning of industries is the possibility of representing the industry in question in the form of hierarchically subordinated subsystems (sub-branches). In accordance with this criterion, the tasks are divided into single-step (the industry is a single entity) and multistage (the industry is a set of interconnected subsystems, for example, the construction materials industry can be dismembered on the nonmetallic materials industry , binding materials, wall materials, etc.).

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Depending on the choice of the criterion of optimality, the tasks for the minimum of total costs and the maximum of the effect are distinguished (for example, the maximum of the profit or output of a certain type of product).

Depending on the number of segments of the planning period, industry tasks are divided into static and dynamic tasks. Static tasks are designed to establish the optimal state of the industry only at the end of the planning period. Dynamic tasks allow you to determine the desired optimal plan for each segment (for example, year) of the planning period. The results of solving dynamic problems are of great practical value, but their solution is associated with great computational difficulties.

By the way of setting options for the development and location of industry enterprises, the tasks of sectoral planning are divided into variant (with discrete variables) and invariant (with continuous variables).

Another important feature of the classification of industrial tasks is the degree of influence of the transport factor on the choice of location of the enterprises of the industry and their specialization. In accordance with this, the production and production and transport problems of optimal industry planning are distinguished. The branch problem refers to the production type, if transportation costs are insignificant both in absolute value and in comparison with production costs. This situation occurs in the textile, leather, watch industry, etc. Otherwise, the task relates to the production-transport type. There is an approximate quantitative assessment of the degree of influence of the transport factor on the formation of an optimal development plan and the location of the industry. Let i - the index of the point of production, j - the index of the point of consumption, k - the index of the type of production, l - the number types of products produced by the enterprises of the industry, c ik - the cost of production of the unit k - of the first type of products in the i point, S ijk - the cost of transporting the unit of the k type of product from the i i-th item in j - th. Then if

for all k = 1, 2, ..., l , we can assume that the influence of the transport factor is strong enough.

Among the production and transportation tasks, you can select two - and multi-stage ones. In two-stage tasks, the production of the industry is optimized and only one stage of transportation. This can be, for example, the transportation of only finished products, if the transportation costs for transportation of raw materials are so small that they can be neglected. In multi-stage tasks, all stages of processing raw materials from its extraction to the production of finished products, as well as several stages of transportation are considered. Depending on the way of reflecting transport links, the matrix and network productions of industrial and transport tasks of sectoral planning are different. In the case of matrix formulation, possible routes of supplier-consumer communications are established in advance and transport costs are calculated for these routes. In the case of a network setting, transport costs are determined for the individual links of the existing transport network. Link routes are refined during the solution of the problem.

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It should be noted that the signs that determine the type of problem of optimal development and location of enterprises in the industry differ from those of classification of industries. Thus, attempts to select some model models, applicable in all cases for certain industries, will be illegal. One can not, for example, argue that for one branch the problems should always be formulated in a matrix formulation, and for others in a network setting. In this regard, the classification of tasks of sectoral planning is based on the identification of characteristic features of models, regardless of the industries for which they are used.

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