Natural conditions and resources. Classification of natural resources
One of the directions for studying the interaction of nature and society and the reflection of its territorial organization of life is the geography of natural resources (geographic resource knowledge) - social geography, part of socio-economic geography, studying the location and structure of individual species and combinations of natural resources, their economic problems assessment and rational economic use. The central concept of this science is natural (natural) resources. The only source of all substances and energy required for social production, the condition of existence and economic activity of people is the geographic envelope of the Earth. It provides the natural goods needed by mankind, which are a combination of natural resources and the natural conditions of society that are used at present or can be used in the foreseeable future.
Natural conditions - is a combination of natural factors that affect people's lives and activities. In addition, natural conditions can be defined as the bodies and forces of nature, essential for the life and economic activities of society, but not directly included in the final product of consumption. For a long time Soviet science has given the advantage of studying the influence of natural conditions on various branches of the economy. However, at the end of the XX century. in the light of the humanization of scientific knowledge, the emphasis was shifted to the assessment of natural conditions from the point of view of their favorableness for man. Special attention should be paid to the problem of human adaptation to the natural conditions of the habitat. In this connection, the direct and indirect effects of natural conditions on people's lives are distinguished. So, for example, weather and climatic conditions (temperature, its contrast, wind regime, amount of precipitation, magnitude of solar radiation), affecting the health and working capacity (labor productivity) of a person, are subdivided into direct, direct, and indirect,
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Direct, or direct, influence of weather and climate is manifested through the impact primarily on the human thermal state, meteotropic reactions and psychophysical state. Mediated impact - through landscape and vegetation conditions, meteorological potential of atmospheric pollution, self-cleaning ability of the atmosphere and through epidemiological situation.
According to the research of anthropologists, natural conditions (or rather, a warm climate) had a decisive influence on the appearance and settlement of man as a biological species, as well as the geographical position of ancient civilizations. The population settlement of territories with more favorable climatic conditions was associated with population growth and the need to meet the growing needs of life. The first mass migration of the population is associated with sharp fluctuations in climate, for example, periods of glaciation. At present, the problem of climate warming raises the issue of resettlement of people from coastal areas and island settlements. Climate assessment on its influence on the human body can be presented in the form of anthropoclimatic zoning.
In addition to the climate component for humans as a biological species and, therefore, as a direct participant in food (trophic) chains, the content (as well as the concentration) in the water is of significant importance geochemical conditions and soil chemical elements that are vital to human health. The zoning of the territory from the point of view of this component of natural conditions (geochemical zoning) makes it possible to identify geochemical anomalies.
Biotic natural conditions or plant components of the human environment should be considered from the perspective of their potential health hazards (as pathogens and vectors of infection or simply as depressing vital activity). Based on medical-geographical zoning identify natural foci of disease.
Indirect effects of natural conditions have on individual aspects of human life through the nature of the dwelling (the degree of isolation of housing from the natural environment), food (caloric content), clothing (raw material, tailoring). These features of the life of the population are associated primarily with the climatic characteristics of the natural environment.
A large theoretical and constructive value is attached to the regionalization of the territory on the basis of a comprehensive assessment of the natural conditions of life of the population. Such an assessment was carried out for the territory of the USSR by OR Nazarevsky in 1974. 30 indicators were analyzed in his work, most of them climatic. The assessment made it possible to introduce the concept of the degree of comfort (comfort) of natural conditions for the life of the population. On the basis of regionalization, regions with extreme habitats are identified. Human life in these territories is associated with the need to adapt - adaptation to a natural environment. Adaptation occurs in different directions. It can be associated with changes in the morphological and functional characteristics of the human body: body structure, skin color, etc. - biological adaptation. In addition, this process can be non-biological (non-biological adaptation) and expressed in the adaptation of a person to unfavorable environmental conditions through a well-isolated dwelling, the modification of some natural characteristics in the desired direction (for example, a change in the wind regime of desert territories by artificial stands Whether humidity reduction, putrefactive vapors due to drain swampy areas and others.). The process of non-biological adaptation is called culture, putting in this concept all that is created by human civilization. The set of transformed elements of the natural environment in their spatial combination is called the cultural landscape.
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It is necessary to emphasize the special significance of the process of mutual influence of man and the natural environment. By adapting and at the same time transforming (acculturizing) the natural environment, human society subsequently continues to adapt in its behavior and economic activities to another already-changed natural environment, which is called the "quasi-natural environment."
Let's consider examples of influence of natural conditions on separate branches of an economy. Obviously, the impact of natural conditions on the development of primary sectors of the economy, i.e. raw materials industries: agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing, water management. As is known, the productivity of plants is determined by the amount of heat and moisture, the quality of soils. So, in the model of the "isolated state" I. Tjunena (1826) the factor of fertility of soils and properties of plants is determining for accommodation of agriculture.
Other types of economic activity are associated with natural conditions more or less indirectly, which has a specific economic and geographical expression, for example, an increase in the costs of production, production, transportation of products compared to benchmarks. So, the cost and terms of construction of industrial and residential buildings and structures depend on the features of the relief, the degree of seismicity, swamping of the territory, the presence of permafrost and other indicators; the location, capacity, and features of the operation of the energy sector are related to climatic indicators, the duration of a light day; extraction of minerals requires additional costs due to unfavorable conditions of their occurrence - high waterlogging, location in the permafrost zone, on the shelf of the northern seas, etc.
For the organization and optimization of the production process, certain climatic conditions are necessary: temperature, humidity and air purity. For example, sudden temperature fluctuations in the shipbuilding industry are seen as a negative phenomenon. Because of the difference between the high temperatures in the steel structures of ships and the low ambient temperatures in the winter, US shipbuilding was moved to the north-west of the country, where there are no sharp changes in temperature.
Natural air humidity is important in the textile industry, especially in woolen (humidity increases the moisture of the yarn, which facilitates the spinning process). In the UK, where due to the island's position of the country the humidity of air is constantly high, high quality of woolen fabrics is achieved. Low humidity has an adverse effect on natural fibers (they tear). However, for artificial fibers (viscose), there is an opposite relationship: with increased humidity, their strength decreases.
One of the technological requirements in the leather industry (skin dressing) is low air humidity (the relative humidity of the air in the tannery should not exceed 40%, otherwise the skin becomes moldy and loses its elasticity).
Food, perfume, pharmaceutical industries require clean air: without dust, toxic substances, odors and bacteria. Pharmaceutical enterprises should not co-exist with construction industry enterprises (cement production).
The environmental consequences of the negative impact of industrial complexes on the environment are one of the reasons for the division of production cycles and the weakening of ties in territorial complexes. The environmental factor of the location of industry is now widespread, acquiring increasing importance for production as a whole, not only for technological reasons, but also for people's livelihoods. From the economic point of view, this refers to the costs associated with possible harmful industrial emissions. In many cases, these costs are significantly higher than the operating costs. In this connection, when the new production is placed, the project financing is connected with the positive conclusion of the ecological expertise. During the reconstruction, expansion of existing facilities, an environmental audit procedure is carried out.
The importance is not only the location of enterprises within the same territory, but also their mutual location and combination with natural features, for example, relief. Thus, metallurgical and chemical production in Novokuznetsk, located in the valley of the river, causes a temperature inversion and, as a result, smog. In the valleys, as a result of temperature inversion, the upper layers of the air are warmer than the lower layers. Smoke, dust clouds in this case do not dissipate, because they do not miss the warm air layer, and accumulate over the terrain. When there is a fog for a long time in windless weather, a mixture of emissions can reach a concentration that is life-threatening. There are known facts of mass poisoning of people by industrial emissions into the atmosphere in the Maas valley in Belgium in 1930, in the American city of Donor in 1948. For the population of areas with constant air pollution are respiratory diseases.
Significant harm due to air pollution is applied to agricultural production: yields decrease, volumes of production of milk and meat decrease. In extreme cases, the probability of death of animals and plants is high. Often, industrial emissions of dust and gas lead to the destruction of forests. Thus, the wastes from copper mining at the mine in the Dakgaun area (USA) caused the death of abundant before vegetation on an area of 100 square meters. km. The erosion of the soil that followed this spread to large areas, and once the blossoming edge turned into a desert.
Increasing the airborne content of dust and gases - industrial wastes - also has other undesirable consequences. In highly polluted air, permeability for solar radiation decreases, the dose of natural ultraviolet radiation changes, which is of great importance for human health. The atmosphere is most polluted in places where coal is discovered, where chemical plants are located, and near thermal power plants. The availability of treatment facilities at enterprises of this type, as a rule, is not enough. Particularly adverse effects on the natural environment are caused by accidents at nuclear power plants: large areas become dangerous for life for many decades.
When air masses are transported, industrial emissions, having become involved in the general circulation of the atmosphere, can have an adverse effect on areas far removed from the source of pollution. The size of the range of air pollution depends on the speed of the wind and on the characteristics of air turbulence. The higher the wind speed, the higher the turbulence of the air flow, the closer the emission particles settle to the source of pollution. Consequently, the radius of exposure to harmful emissions is reduced. At a low wind speed, the emission particles settle at a considerable distance from the pipes.
If several sources of pollution are located in relative proximity, then depending on the wind speed, its direction, the distance from the source of the pollution area overlap. Thus, air pollution will be noted in the direction of prevailing winds, but its magnitude reaches a maximum where the winds are weak or where the air pollution areas overlap.
Water movement also affects the transport of pollutants and their placement in the natural environment, as the water cycle includes surface and groundwater runoff containing various types of contaminants. A significant part of them can return to the surface with precipitation (acid rain). The spread of acid rain increased in connection with an increase in the height of the chimneys of industrial facilities emitting sulfur dioxide (SO2). Increasing the height of the pipes reduces the pollution near the plants, but the pollutant is retained longer in the atmosphere, in the water-bearing clouds, as a result, more sulfuric acid is formed in them. Wastes from productions discharged into water bodies, as well as placed on the surface, can change the natural habitats of living organisms. Thus, radioactive wastes buried in the seas cause changes in the qualitative characteristics of the habitat of fish and marine animals. The storage of chemical (including radioactive) substances causes their penetration into the environment and ultimately leads to a change in its geochemical conditions.
Biological (especially microbiological) pollution of anthropogenic origin leads to an undesirable change in the biotic qualities of the human environment. This is evidenced by the emergence of new life-threatening viral diseases, some of which are transmitted at the gene level. At present, we are talking about the formulation of the problem of decay of the human genome (human genetic programs).
In general, a person as a biological organism can exist in a fairly wide range of natural and climatic characteristics. On this basis it is called a super-eurybiont. However, the types and forms of its activity, as well as their effectiveness, are significantly differentiated by the influence of the natural factor. The natural conditionality of forms and features of economic activity in the future is reflected in the socio-psychological characteristics of the population of the country, the features of mentality, mentality.
Natural resources (natural resources) are elements of nature, part of the whole set of natural conditions and the most important components of the natural environment that are used (or can be used) at a given level of development of productive forces to meet the diverse needs of society and social production. The main criteria for including certain elements of nature in the concept of "natural resources" (OL) should include: 1) the public need (economic need and appropriateness of use); 2) the technical possibility of involving in the economy; 3) a certain level of study.
Natural resources are the main object of nature management, during which they are subjected to exploitation and subsequent processing. Natural resources, devoid of natural connections as a result of the impact of labor, become natural raw materials. Raw material - is that part of natural resources that can be used for certain technical, economic and social purposes, and the estimated portion of raw materials that a person is able to use on the basis of the achieved technological, economic and social conditions in accordance with the order of their industrial operation, is reserves.
PR (land, mineral wealth, natural biological and underground water resources) are non-produced tangible assets. In this capacity, along with non-financial assets (basic and circulating assets, values), as well as non-material assets (patents, copyrights, etc.) and financial assets, they are included in the national wealth country. National wealth means a set of the country's resources that make up a necessary condition for the production of goods, the provision of services and the provision of people's lives. In this case, in the practice of domestic statistics, PRs are taken into account in physical terms.
Consider the existing approaches to the classification of PR. Given the natural origin of the resources, as well as their economic importance, the following natural resource classifications have been developed.
1. Natural (genetic ) classification - classification of resources by natural groups: mineral (minerals), water, land (including soil), plant (including forest), fauna, climatic, energy resources of natural processes (solar radiation, internal heat of the Earth, wind energy, etc.). Often the resources of plant and animal life are united in the concept of "biological resources".
2. Environmental The PR classification is based on the signs of exhaustibility and renewability of resource stocks. The concept of exhaustibility is used when accounting for natural resources and the amount of their possible economic withdrawal. Allocate resources on this basis:
• inexhaustible - the use of which does not lead to apparent depletion in the future (solar energy, terrestrial heat, energy of air movement);
• exhaustible nonrenewable - the continuous use of which can reduce them to a level where further exploitation becomes economically impractical; at the same time they are incapable of self-recovery for terms commensurate with the timing of consumption (mineral fuel resources);
• exhaustible renewable - resources that are capable of restoration, such as flora, fauna, water resources. In this subgroup, resources are allocated with extremely slow rates of renewal (soil fertility, forest resources).
3. From the standpoint of the possibilities of economic use IIP is classified:
• The technical resources of exploitation are allocated to natural resources real - those used at a given level of development of productive forces, and potential (predictive) - resources established on the basis of theoretical calculations and works, including the part that can not be mastered at present by technical capabilities;
• In view of economic expediency, the resources replaceable and irreplaceable are distinguished. For example, fuel and energy resources (they can be replaced by other sources of energy). To indispensable - life-supporting resources: atmospheric air, fresh water, solar energy.On the basis of economic importance and the economic role of the PR are divided into three groups: the resources of industrial production, agricultural production, non-productive sphere.
1. The industrial production group includes all types of natural raw materials used by industry. In connection with the diversified nature of industrial production, PRs are differentiated as follows:
1) energy , which include a variety of types of resources used at the present stage for energy production:
• combustible minerals (oil, gas, coal, bituminous shales, etc.);
• hydropower resources (energy of river waters, tidal energy, etc.);
• Bioenergy sources (fuelwood, biogas from agricultural waste, biofuel (pellets) from wood waste);
• sources of nuclear energy (uranium and radioactive elements);
2) non-energy resources representing raw materials for industries or participating in production according to its technical characteristics:
• ore and non-metallic minerals not belonging to the group of combustible;
• water used for industrial production;
• land occupied by industrial facilities and infrastructure objects
• forest resources of industrial importance;
• Biological resources of industrial importance.
2. Agricultural production combines the types of resources that are involved in the creation of agricultural products:
1) Agroclimatic - the heat and moisture resources necessary for the production of cultivated plants
2) soil-soil - the earth and the top layer - soil that has a unique property to produce biomass;
3) plant biological resources - feed resources;
4) water resources - water used for irrigation, etc.
3. To resources of the non-productive sphere (non-productive consumption - direct or indirect) include resources taken from the natural environment (wild animals representing commercial hunting objects, medicinal raw materials of natural origin), and resources of recreational facilities, protected areas, etc.
The combination of natural and economic classifications makes it possible to identify the possibility of diversified use of various natural resource groups, as well as their substitutability, to draw conclusions about the tasks of rational use and protection of individual species.
In terms of the relationship between uses, the following classification exists: 1) single-use resources; 2) resources for multipurpose use, including interrelated (integrated) use (water resources); mutually exclusive (competing) use (land resources).
There are other groups of natural resources. For example, sources of homogeneous resources (mineral deposits, land, forest resources, etc.) can be divided by the size of reserves and economic significance. Conditionally distinguish: the largest (of national importance); large (inter-district and regional values); small (local value).
Private classifications of natural resources, reflecting the specific nature of their natural properties and directions of economic use, are also being developed. An example of this kind are various reclamation classifications, river groupings according to the degree of regulation of runoff, etc. Geological and economic classification of minerals is widely used in the main areas of their use in industry:
• fuel and energy raw materials (oil, gas, coal, uranium, etc.);
• black, alloying and refractory metals (ores of iron, manganese, chromium, nickel, cobalt, tungsten, etc.);
• noble metals (gold, silver, platinum);
• chemical and agronomic raw materials (potassium salts, phosphorites, apatites, etc.);
• technical raw materials (diamonds, asbestos, graphite, etc.);
• raw materials for the production of building materials.
Under the market conditions of the economy, the classification of natural resources, taking into account, in particular, the nature of trade in natural raw materials, is of practical interest. For example, you can select the following resource groups:
• having strategic importance, trade should be limited, as it leads to the destruction of the state's defense power (uranium ore and other radioactive substances);
• having a wide export value and providing the main inflow of foreign exchange earnings (oil, diamonds, gold, etc.);
• resources of the domestic market, which tend to be ubiquitous, for example, mineral building materials, etc.
The use of various classifications makes it possible to clarify the patterns of the formation of resource groups and their genetic characteristics, the possibilities of economic application, to draw conclusions about the directions of their rational use and protection.
Territorial resources . As noted above, the concept of territory is considered one of the fundamental in geography. The territory is the bearer of various types of natural resources. At the same time, it has the quality of the producer of renewable resources and the "container" non-renewable and can be represented as a specific resource. Specificity and the most important property of the territory as a resource is that it acts as a specific geographic basis ensuring the placement and performance of all types of economic functions. Due to the limited areas with relatively favorable conditions for the placement of certain activities, the territory should be considered as a special kind of resource. In this respect, scientific literature uses the concept of "territorial resources".
Of particular importance for the economy is a group of natural resources, called mineral. The term "mineral resources" includes all non-living inorganic substances of inorganic or organic origin that are useful in humans. Thus, mineral resources include all solid minerals, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas), water, atmospheric gases. According to the economic value, the reserves of solid minerals and the useful components contained in them are divided into two main groups, subject to separate calculation and accounting: balance off-balance (potentially economic).
The balance reserves include mineral resources, the use of which is economically viable and satisfies the conditions established for the calculation of reserves in the bowels. They are divided into two groups: 1) reserves, extraction of which at the time of assessment according to technical and economic calculations is economically effective in a competitive market with the use of technology and technology of extraction and processing of raw materials, ensuring compliance with the requirements for rational use of mineral resources and environmental protection; 2) reserves, the extraction of which at the time of assessment according to technical and economic calculations does not provide an economically acceptable efficiency of their development in a competitive market due to low technical and economic indicators, but the development of which becomes economically possible when the state exercises special support to the subsoil user.
The assignment of mineral reserves to a group of balance sheets is carried out on the basis of special feasibility studies, confirmed by state expertise. In the justification, the most effective methods for the development of deposits should be provided, their valuation should be provided, and the parameters of the conditions designed to ensure the fullest and most comprehensive use of reserves, taking into account the requirements of environmental legislation.
To off-balance (potentially economic) include: 1) reserves that meet the requirements for balance reserves, but the use of which at the time of assessment is impossible due to mining, legal, environmental and other circumstances; 2) reserves that are not economically viable at the time of valuation (due to the low content of the useful component, the low power of the bodies of minerals or the special complexity of the conditions for their development or processing), but whose use in the near future can become cost-effective as a result of higher prices for mineral- raw materials or in a more progressive way of development.
Off-balance reserves are calculated and accounted for if the feasibility studies have established the possibility of their conservation in the subsoil for subsequent recovery or the expediency of passing, storing and storing for future use. When calculating off-balance reserves, they are subdivided depending on the reasons for referring to off-balance reserves (economic, technological, mining, environmental, etc.).
A single object of mineral resources is the deposit. The deposits of minerals are divided into explored and estimated. Explored deposits include deposits, their reserves, their quality , technological properties, development conditions are studied with completeness sufficient for a feasibility study on the procedure and conditions for their involvement in industrial development, as well as on the design of a construction or reconstruction on their basis of a mining enterprise. The estimated deposits include deposits, whose reserves, quality, technological properties, development conditions have been studied to the extent allowing to justify the feasibility of exploration and production.
The reserves of solid minerals in terms of the level of exploration and readiness for industrial operation in our country are divided into categories A, B, C 1, C2.
Category A are fully explored, explored and prepared for production.
The In category is geologically justified, relatively explored, mined by mine workings.
Category C1 - reserves determined by approximate field testing.
Category C2 - stocks that have been previously estimated.
A similar classification of minerals is used abroad. For example, in the US, resources are divided into measured, shown and learned. In other countries, there are categories such as proven, possible, probable.
When dividing mineral reserves into categories as an additional classification indicator, quantitative and probabilistic estimates of the accuracy and reliability of certain estimated parameters can be used. Forecasted resources in terms of their validity are divided into categories PI, P2, R3. Resources category P1 take into account the possibility of identifying new ore bodies of minerals. To quantify the resources of this category, geological justifications for the size and conditions of occurrence of known ore bodies are used.
The forecast resources of category P2 take into account the possibility of discovering new deposits, the supposed presence of which is based on a positive assessment of ore occurrences, geophysical and geochemical anomalies. The quantitative estimation of resources of this category is based on analogies with known deposits of the same genetic type.
The predicted resources of category P3 take into account only the potential for the discovery of deposits of a particular type of mineral on the basis of interpretation of space images, in analyzing the results of geophysical and geochemical research.
Quantitative estimation of the forecast resources is made in a complex manner. At the same time, existing at the time of assessment requirements for the quality and technological properties of minerals of similar deposits, taking into account possible changes in these requirements in the short term.
Along with the classification and study of the location of certain types of resources and the natural conditions of economic activity and people's lives, the main areas of research in the field of geography of natural resources are:
• Estimation of resources and their combinations in terms of suitability for different uses;
• establishment of territorial combinations of natural resources and analysis of their role as a factor in the formation of territorial production complexes and economic areas; Identification of ways of effective integrated use of these combinations in view of environmental consequences;
• study of the availability of natural resources of the branches of the economy and areas, their place in the territorial organization of the productive forces;
• The search for ways to expand the reproduction of natural resources and forecast the state of the resource base of the national economy.
The economic-geographical assessment of the PR includes an assessment of the size of the resource stocks, the needs for them and the possibility of their application. Valuation of reserves is primarily a quantitative assessment (for example, coal reserves in tons, natural gas or wood in cubic meters, etc.), which depends on the degree of exploration of a particular resource. Its magnitude, as a rule, grows with increasing degree of study and decreases as it is used.
The estimation of the PR of a given territory consists of assessments of individual types of resources, which makes it possible to determine their entire aggregate - natural-resource (or natural) potential (PRP). The territory's PRP is the aggregate of its natural resources. The value of the PRP is the quantitative expression of this aggregate. The structure of the PRP is the ratio between the different types of natural resources within a given territory. Natural resources in this case are understood in the broadest sense of the word, they include natural conditions, since it is difficult to separate natural resources from natural conditions. Thus, the physicogram position, relief, and so on. should be taken into account when assessing the overall PDP.
There are other definitions of PRP - broader, globally-ecological: theoretically the limiting number of PRs that can be used by mankind in the conditions of a finite whole planet and its closest environment, i.e. without undermining the conditions under which man can exist and develop as an ecological species and social organism.
In socio-economic geography, the idea of the PDP is used in a narrower, more economic sense of the word - as a combination of PR, available for consumption with specific technical and socio-economic relations. To assess such a set, a quantitative assessment of all the potentials of individual natural resources is necessary, given that many of them are in themselves quite complex. Thus, the mineral resource potential (ie the potential of minerals) is a complex combination of estimates of many types of fossils (fuel, ore, etc.). The general water (water-resource) potential also includes several particular components (energy, water transport potential, etc.).
Along with the overall assessment of the PDP of the territory, it is important to know its structure, i.e. the ratio of various types of natural resources, which makes it possible to identify the resources that occupy the main place in the PRP of the given territory. Depending on this, it is possible to identify countries and regions with the primary role of fuel-energy, agroclimatic, water and other resources.
Based on the study of the PRP, the natural-resource zoning is carried out, the natural and resource regions are identified. The natural-resource region is a territory that differs from adjacent territories with the specificity (size and structure) of its natural resource potential, all parts of which, with the current degree of study, are approximately equal natural conditions of production.
The next component of the economic-geographical assessment of the PR needs assessment (country, district) in resources, which must include: 1) the amount of needs that can be met for account of internal natural resources; 2) the amount of needs that can be met only through imports (from other regions or countries).
Finally, the main part of the economic-geographical assessment of the PR is the assessment of the possibilities of using PR, which is conditioned by many historical, socio-economic and geographical factors, for example, the economic and geographical situation, the scale and location of manpower, etc.
Its comprehensive economic and geographical assessment, obtained as a result of the PDP study, serves as a necessary basis for studying the degree and structure of modern use of this potential in a given territory. The degree of it is determined by the part that is currently involved in production. The difference between the PDP and the part used reflects the possibilities for further exploitation of the complex of natural resources of the territory. As for the structure of use, it is expressed in the degree and ratio of use of individual components of the overall PRP.In the final analysis, the study of the degree, structure, form and directions of using the PDP makes it possible to form a fairly clear idea of the socio-economic and economic-geographical type of the country or region.
The concept of PRP evaluation is associated with the philosophical category "value". Value reflects the value of the object, due to the need for it and the characteristic properties of the object itself. Thus, the evaluation of natural resources proceeds from general philosophical approaches to evaluation and consists in comparing the properties inherent in resources with the criteria of value that society puts forward. Depending on the type of human needs, value can be material, socio-political, aesthetic, etc.
Some resource sources (mineral deposits, forest tracts, water reservoirs, land plots) can serve as an evaluation object. In this case, the assessment will be of a sectoral nature. In addition to the sectoral assessment, regional evaluation is of great practical importance. Estimation of the aggregate of resources of a territory - territorial combination of natural resources (TPR). The TSRP is defined as a source of resources of various types located on a definite integral territory and combined by actual or prospective integrated development and use. The total reserves of the TSPR characterize the natural-resource potential (or potential) of the territory (region, region, country).
A special section of science - environmental economics - is devoted to the features and methods of economic evaluation of the PR.
The assimilation potential-the ability of the surrounding natural environment (atmosphere, water sources, soil) to perceive various anthropogenic impacts on a certain scale without changing its basic properties in an indefinitely long term is considered as special.
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