Objects of forecasting in geological survey and prospecting...

Predicting objects in geological survey and prospecting

The main objects of study and forecasting in the process of geological survey and prospecting are ore-bearing territories and areas - mineralogical provinces and zones, ore regions, ore sites, ore fields and mineral deposits.

The ore content of the territories, local areas is forecasted on the basis of the regularities of the spatial distribution of mineral deposits in structural-formational zones, mineragenic belts, ore areas, ore sites, ore fields. For prospecting (stage and stage exploration of geological exploration), forecasting consists in justifying the greatest likelihood of spatial localization of ore objects in the areas of various stages of geological exploration. Hence geological forecasting is divided into regional, small-, medium-, large-scale and local. The purpose of such a forecast of any scale is to identify and quantify the ore content of promising areas, structures, sites in the rank of the mineralogical province and zone, ore region, ore site, ore field, deposit, ore deposit. Then, the tasks of forecasting and mineralogical research will be: 1) collecting, summarizing and systematizing existing geological information on the scale of the planned works; 2) analysis of the obtained data with the identification of the main geological preconditions for the prediction object (mineralogenous province - ore deposit) and its real models; 3) synthesis of data and an overall assessment of the prospects of the area under study, with the identification of potentially ore-bearing areas and structures corresponding to the scale and type of the forecast model; 4) quantitative estimation of the forecast resources of ore-bearing mineral resources (potential mineralogical province - ore deposit) and their geological and economic significance in the conditions of a specific region; 5) determination of rational ways, a set of methods and volumes of geological exploration to implement the forecast.

According to the conditions of conducting predictive-mineralogical studies, the importance of typing the territories becomes important. This typification allows us to outline a rational set of forecast methods and to form an idea of ​​the possible industrially significant mineralization in the area under study. The conditions for conducting predictive works are influenced by landscape geochemical, geographic and economic features, geological-tectonic situation and zonal location of deposits. There are three types of regions that have a specific use of different methods of prognostic-mineralogical studies [Instruction ..., 1983]:

1) mountain-folded with a cover of loose deposits - well secondary aureoles and scattering flows of ore elements are manifested;

2) the regions of predominant development of powerful sedimentary strata, with a deep-lying crystalline basement - secondary halos and fluxes of scattering of minerals, elements are not manifested;

3) closed folded regions of accumulative-denudation plains with a cover of allochthonous deposits up to 500 m of power - secondary halos and fluxes of scattering of minerals and elements lie in the cover.

The industrial development of the region plays an important role in the geographic and economic conditions of conducting predictive-mineralogical studies. It determines the depth of work, the amount of previous information, the detailed study of objects, the validity of forecasts. It is recommended to allocate such territories: developed and studied potentially promising, undeveloped and unexplored, within which there are no industrial deposits, but potentially promising.

The most important geological-tectonic conditions for carrying out prognostic and mineralogical studies are the stratification of the structure of the territory and the geological-tectonic conditions within these limits. The range of works and the depth of the applied research methods depend on the length of the area. Each tier is usually characterized by its degree of lithification and dislocation of rocks. Distinguish one-tier, two-tier, multi-tiered regions: a four-fold complex of loose sediments + a cover sedimentary complex + a cover volcanic complex + a folded crystal complex.

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