The peculiarity of social geography as a geographical science
Social geography (SG) in recent decades has become, obviously, the most relevant scientific discipline in the structure of social geography. There are all grounds for its existence as an independent science, and at the same time it is an indispensable part of socio-economic geography, considered as a complex, multicomponent geographic science.
M. D. Sharygin characterizes SG as a science that studies the "patterns of spatio-temporal organization of the social sphere of society, the features of the functioning and development of territorial social systems, and the management of them ..." In his opinion, "the development of social geography gives impetus to the formation of such new scientific disciplines as behavioral geography, geography of science and education, social ecology".
The specific features of social geography are as follows:
• she studies "spatial processes and forms of organization of people's life and social production primarily from the point of view of man - the conditions of his work, life, recreation, development of personality and reproduction of life ... spatial aspects of human behavior (primarily process resettlement ... & quot ;; gives an explanation and forecasting of this behavior & quot ;;
• The main objects of research SG "are various territorial communities of people, their historical features of development, internal structure, links with production and the environment, the interrelationships between different territorial communities, different groups of the population within these communities ..."
In the generalized form, we can take the definition of social geography as a science that explores the territorial organization of all social life (sphere), the laws of its territorial development in concrete social and historical conditions.
In the world and domestic geographic literature, one can also find significantly different, too broad interpretations of the SG - in fact, as the "human geography". In this respect, BB Rodoman's views are noteworthy, which examines SG in two ways: as a complex science of the territorial organization of human society and as an aggregate of geographical sciences about man and his activities, i.e. private socio-geographical sciences.
In the first case, within the framework of the SG, its main branches are distinguished, such as the geography of human races; ethnic geography; political geography; geography of settlement (covering the geography of the population and the geography of settlements); sociological geography, or sociogeography (studying spatial processes and forms of organization of people's lives primarily in terms of working, living conditions, recreation, development of the personality and reproduction of human life, that is, what we considered above as SG proper); geography of culture; geography of communications (studying the flows of matter, energy, information); economic geography (studying the territorial organization of production). As can be judged from the available publications, this point of view did not find significant support in domestic geography. Territorial differences in social life, as a rule, are considered within the framework of the SG in the narrow sense of the word, or sociological geography (sociogeography), and, according to S. Ya. Nymmik, "the latter can not be included in economic geography as its component" .
The fate of the SG in our country was not easy. Characteristically, in the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Geographical Terms (1968) SG is "forgotten". To achieve this science in national geography, much has been done. N. Baransky, who in 1930 raised the question of the creation of "sociogeography". He stressed the importance of the organic fusion of the economic and social aspects of the study. Baransky believed that the economic geographer should know not only the composition of the population, the resettlement, the character of the settlements, but also the customs, customs, and culture. He was deeply troubled by the fact that information about the population, the social sphere in due time fell out of geographical work. In 1946 he wrote: "In what houses do the people of this country live, what do they eat and what they dress, what they believe in and how they spend their free time - our modern geographic descriptions are always silent about all this ... Man is a topic for our geographers definitely unpleasant, sensitive issue, which they prefer not to touch. After all, and as a result, "people forgot" !!! "
Another well-known domestic geographer, a disciple of N. N.S. Barashsky, Yu.G. Saushkin drew attention to the fact that SG, making up an inseparable unity with economic geography, assesses the territorial organization of the productive forces in general and its separate sides from the point of view of not only the economy, but and social effectiveness. Among the components of planning and achieving social efficiency, Saushkin identified:
• work with a high quality of the outcome in a supportive environment - a human collective with a high degree of mechanization and automation, in an environment that is close in purity to natural conditions;
• a good education - secondary or higher, which gave professional training, created the cultural basis of life;
• an intense social life;
• Successful personal life, including family life, and sufficient comforts, especially housing, including cleanliness of the environment in the place of permanent residence;
• significant real free time, which can be used creatively (fruitful creative life, related to science, invention, culture, etc.);
• Amateur tours around the country to get acquainted with its nature, history, monuments of art, etc.
Thus, the field of activity SG - the study of geographical differences in the conditions, level and nature of life of the population. At the center of her attention - a person, the conditions of his work, life, recreation, development of personality and reproduction of life.
The place of SG in the system of geographical sciences is determined by the role played by social relations (social sphere) in society. And their role is exceptionally great, because they cover the whole aggregate of relations between individual groups of people, the individual and the social community, the individual and the work collective, as well as the relations that are formed between the territorial communities of people. Proceeding from this, it can be considered quite justified to assert that the SG should occupy a central, nodal position in the system of geographical sciences, that only it is capable of assuming a geographical analysis of social development.
In its studies, the SG closely interacts not only with economic geography, but also with regional social sciences (regional economy, regional sociology, etc.), uses methods and methods of sociology, relies on a sociological analysis of the development of villages, cities, districts, enterprises , different population groups.
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