After studying Chapter 3, students should:


• basic theories of spatial placement and nucleation;

• Information theory of global development;

• features of spatial organization of productive forces and regional economy;

be able to

• Identify the problems of locating productive forces;

• use different theories of economic geography and regionalistics for the analysis of the location of economic and social objects;


• skills in the analysis of spatial placement and nucleation.

Theories of spatial organization of productive forces and regional economy

There is nothing more practical than a good theory.

P. Kirchhoff

Consider the development of theories of the spatial organization of productive forces, in particular, Weber's theory.

The followers of A. Weber tried to investigate not the isolated economy, but the interrelation of farms. The first of these was the German economist O. Englender, who attempted to create a general theory of the shtandort (economy as a whole), while he tried to combine theories of industrial and agricultural standart. As the main factor in the allocation of productive forces, they considered transportation (criterion - the minimum transportation costs).

Another follower was G. Ritchl, who was studying the peculiarities of placing a single isolated enterprise. He believed that the placement of commodity markets is not set unambiguously, but is placed in dependence on the location of the enterprise; the location of industrial production is influenced not only by economic factors, but also depends on the historical development of economic systems.

Thus, G. Ritchl identified two areas of research:

• pure dynamics of the standart (like Weber's theory);

• historical dynamics (analysis of changes in costs due to non-economic factors).

He introduced the concept of economic circle - economically independent region, the object of production of which forms a single economic system under the influence of many factors: the division of labor, the exchange of products, the formation of infrastructure. In this case we can talk about the origin of the TPK theory. Moreover, each economic circle is something that is changing in the course of its development, most often expanding. At the same time, the number of production centers is decreasing. Note that there is a significant expansion of the range of factors that are taken into account when placing productive forces (Figure 3.1).

Factors of the economic circle

Fig. 3.1. Factors of the economic circle

The most famous of the followers of A. Weber is T. Polander, who tried to develop economic methods for analyzing the influence of standard factors on markets (ie, he considered not only production but also markets) and proposed two theories of the standard:

• universal (all economic activities in the country);

• Special (the peculiarities of placing individual industries or groups of interrelated industries).

New in his theory was the introduction of analysis of market categories. He considered competing enterprises operating on the linear market, which is characterized by a uniform distribution of consumers and the same constant demand for goods.

In the future, for the starting point, researchers began to accept not the object of location, but the territory, the features of regional systems. This approach underlies the central location theory (TCM).

The founder of this theory, which arose in the 1930s, was the German economist W. Kristaller. He explored issues related to the nature of the location of cities and, naturally, came to the rational territorial structure of the country. The main prerequisite is the fact that on the territory of any region there are different kinds of settlements, between which a certain hierarchy is established - the distinction of functions, dependence, connections, ie, the subordination of the lower to the higher forms of settlement. The smallest settlements are distributed evenly throughout the territory and form triangular networks. Evenly distributed sales areas of goods and form regular hexagons.

Central places are economic centers that have economic links with surrounding areas (from the center to the surrounding territories supplies are provided).

The area surrounding the central place is called the " interland ". Each central place has its own sales area, which is greater the higher the level of the hierarchy to which this central place belongs.

The hierarchy type ( k ) is determined by the number of central locations of the next lower level (or level) of the hierarchy, subordinate to one central place of the given level, including this place (k = ... + 1).

Each stage of the central place has the following parameters:

• a certain population;

• the size of the interlane;

• a set of functions (production, administrative);

• type of connection with centers of higher and lower orders;

• the number of central places of higher order.

The range of sales of goods and services is different for their different types. Its value depends on how frequent and everyday is the demand for the goods.

If there is, for example, a three-level hierarchy of the settlement, then the products must go to the settlement, for clothes - in the village, and for furniture - in the city.

Thus, each central place of the highest level has that set of services that is necessary for all lower levels.

This system operates, for example, in the field of education in the United States:

- elementary (primary) school - countryside;

- incomplete secondary school - city;

- college - city;

- University - within the state.

As you move from the lower stages to a higher range of services increases.

There are hybrid, or hybrid, hierarchies when at each stage of settlement there are different numbers of dependent central places.

Q. Kristaller distinguished the following types of hierarchies.

I. Market hierarchy (k = 4). With this hierarchy, the optimal configuration of market areas is achieved, the largest number of central locations. Each central location establishes a link to three dependent zones, whose population purchases goods and services at that central location.

II. Transport hierarchy (k = 3). Creates the best conditions for the construction of transport highways.

III. Administrative hierarchy (k = 7). Each central location is associated with six dependent zones. This hierarchy is suitable when strict administrative control is necessary.

The disadvantage of the Crystal theory is that it has an abstract character, i.e. correct hexagons are used. The theory of central places gives only a standard, i.e. an ideal settlement system.

Advantages of this theory are that it allows you to determine the important patterns of mutual spatial distribution of settlements; explore the placement of objects of the non-productive sphere, establish the hierarchy of populated areas.

The TCM complements the theory of the standart. It has been widely used to solve practical problems of the structural economy.

Theories of pins and central places did not give an answer to the question of where to place production from the point of view of maximum profit , they basically talked about the minimum transportation costs. A. Lesch developed a theory of spatial economics, which is based on economic principles, but also includes a philosophical approach. He considered the market economy with elements of state regulation , i.e. taking into account the interests of the entire national economy (state interests), although the maximum profit was taken as the criterion.

For such a connection, the equilibrium model of the production location was proposed, taking into account the balance of interests of the two forces: the state as a whole (the maximum number of economically independent objects) and the entrepreneur (maximum profit). The equilibrium point is the desired placement point.

In the middle of XX century. the focus of research is shifting: from the consideration of an individual enterprise, they move on to a comprehensive study and go beyond traditional accommodation patterns, while taking into account the interrelationships between and within regions.

You can name three points that led to a new stage of regional studies:

1) the transition from micro-analysis of allocation problems to macroeconomic (analysis in general);

2) changing attitudes towards traditional accommodation factors (labor, labor, transportation) and the emergence of new factors (NTP, environmental protection, mechanisms for state regulation of regional development);

3) the transition to a new level of accounting for factors and their reflection, while studying the territorial organization of productive forces began to use mathematical methods.

The founder of regional science, as already noted, is U. Izard. He proposed to synthesize the method of analyzing the comparative costs of Weber, the "costs-release" method. and analysis of interdependencies within the regional economic complex.

The theory of polarized development, proposed by the French economist F. Perru, explains the dynamics of spatial production structures, development processes in the sphere of spatial organization of the economy. Its purpose is to choose a strategy for the development of the economy within a particular region. To the objects of research are underdeveloped, new and depressed regions.

The key concept in this theory is the economic space - a kind of force field generated by firms, other economic actors and their connections.

Economic growth is unevenly spreading in space and is concentrated in a limited number of enterprises, firms that are capable of perceiving technological and innovation processes. Such enterprises, industries are called propulsive. They subordinate the surrounding economic space and influence the development of industries and industries dependent on them. There is a polarization effect, or dominance, i.e. economic development is uneven, processes are more efficient at the poles.

Growth pole is the core around which the process of development of the productive force is carried out and which includes a certain set of enterprises capable of perceiving technological innovations, spreading the growth impulses into the surrounding space. Polarization - the process of concentrating economic growth in individual points of such a space and spreading economic growth from the pole. The elements of the latter are:

1) The leading industry (ability to innovate):

2) a number of local or district-level productions that are related to the leading industry by a "cost-release" relationship;

3) the spatial combination of elements of productive forces, which provides an effect of external agglomeration.

Polarizing effect is the result of concentrated economic growth.

There are three effects: agglomeration; animated; innovative.

The agglomeration effect is the result of concentration of production. There are the following types:

- economies of scale

- localization savings

- economy of urbanization, i.e. benefit from using the same urban economy;

- the effect of social infrastructure.

The multiplier effect is due to the presence of branched forward and reverse links at the poles.

The multiplier is an indicator characterizing the measure of the multiplying effect of a change in one value (input) on the change of the other (output). Multiplicator

Keynes - income dependence on investment growth; production multiplier - matrix multiplier, which characterizes the dependence of releases on final consumption; employment multiplier - the ratio between employment in the sin sectors of the region.

Innovative effect - the effect of diffusion of innovations, the territorial aspect of the development of scientific and technical progress. Process generators are points of introduction of STP, where diffusion of innovations manifests itself.

thematic pictures

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)