The result of forecasting and prospecting works is the identification and evaluation of an industrial mineral deposit. The industrial evaluation of the detected mineral is carried out by testing it at all stages of the geological prospecting process. At the same time, special attention is paid to the testing of minerals, since the final evaluation of the revealed ore manifestation depends entirely on the quality of the sampling performed. Therefore, in the third part of the textbook, brief information is provided on the requirements for the quality of the mineral, the tasks and types of sampling, rational sampling methods, methods for determining the quality without sampling and testing control issues are considered.

In the final part of the textbook, the principles for the formation of optimal forecasting and prospecting complexes, the geological and economic efficiency of forecasting and prospecting and evaluation works, their organization and design are discussed.

Concepts of the quality of a mineral

The properties of minerals that determine the industrial value, ways and possibilities of using them in the national economy, are united under the general concept - the quality of the mineral. Quality indicators are specific for each type of mineral raw materials. These include the chemical and mineral composition of the mineral, its texture-structural, physical and technological properties.

The most important characteristic of the quality of the prevailing number of types of mineral raw materials is its chemical composition. The more metal content in the ore, the higher its quality. In many deposits, ore bodies are delineated in the content of the metal in the rocks, and also industrial types of ores are distinguished in them. The chemical elements that make up the ores are divided into the main components (determine the industrial value of the deposit, the contours of ore bodies and ore grades) and associated (affect the quality of the ores). Among the components of the ores distinguish between useful and harmful. For example, in iron ores, iron is a useful component, and sulfur and phosphorus are harmful. With a high content of harmful components, the technology for processing ores must be changed to remove them. Therefore, the sulfur-rich iron ore is preliminarily exposed! firing (agglomeration) to remove sulfur. The valuable associated components of the ore are divided into two groups: forming their own minerals, which can be separated into the concentrate by enrichment; entering into the main minerals of ores in the form of isomorphic and other impurities and recovered only in the metallurgical processing of ores (dispersed elements of ore-vanadium in magnetite, gold, silver, palladium, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, bismuth, tellurium, etc. in polymetallic).

Along with the general (gross) chemical composition of the ore for many minerals, the phase composition of the components is of great importance. The phase composition shows the fraction of the valuable component in the ore associated with individual minerals or their groups. Determination of the phase composition allows predicting some technological properties of the ore and the likely percentage of recovery of valuable components from it. Thus, for example, only the sulphide part of copper, zinc and lead is extracted from the semi-oxidized polymetallic ores in the usual technological scheme, and iron, associated mainly in the form of magnetite and hematite, is advantageously extracted from ferruginous quartzites.

Mineral composition of mineral in some cases complements information about the chemical composition of ores, and in others - is the main indicator of their quality (placers). But the content of valuable minerals can outline the ore bodies and calculate their reserves. The mineral composition can determine the form of finding components in the ore, the balance of their distribution between minerals, suggest a possible scheme for processing ores. Sometimes ores of the same chemical composition differ sharply in mineral composition and require different processing schemes. For example, magnetite quartzites can be enriched with magnetic separation, and hematite quartzites of the same chemical composition - by flotation or reduction by firing followed by magnetic separation.

Textures and ore structures actively influence their enrichment. Of great importance is the size of the grains of minerals and their aggregates, as well as the coalescence of minerals. The larger the grains and their splices, the better the ore is enriched. Some very fine-grained ores are not enriched at all ("stubborn" bauxites, phosphorites). Copper and polymetallic ores of collomorphic or metacolloidal texture are poorly enriched.

Ore and minerals of these minerals have various physical properties. For us, there are important properties that somehow influence the prospecting, exploration, extraction and processing of ore or determine the scope of the mineral. Almost always it is necessary to determine the bulk density, porosity and moisture of the ore as the indices necessary for the calculation of reserves. The strength properties of the ore, the category of rock and ore burial, the loosening factor, the lumpiness of ore, etc. are determined. For loose minerals, the granulomegric composition, especially ore-bearing rocks and ores, is studied. For asbestos it is important to determine the length and flexibility of fibers, for mica - the area of ​​plates and electrical insulation properties, for optical raw materials - the size of monoblocks and the absence of defects in crystals.

Only some types of minerals are directly used in the national economy. Typically, they are subjected to a particular processing using the end product in industry. So, for example, several concentrates (copper, lead, zinc) are obtained from polymetallic ores, from which the whole gamut of basic and accompanying metals is extracted.

The ore processing scheme is determined by its chemical and mineralogical composition, texture-structural features, sometimes physical properties, as well as the level of development of the processing industry. Practically for each kind of mineral raw material, its scheme of processing. Moreover, sometimes in one field there are industrial ores that require different processing schemes. For example, on skarn-magnetite deposits, the richest and "clean" the ore goes into smelting, the rich sulphurous ore is preliminarily subjected to roasting (agglomeration), and the poor ore is enriched by magnetic separation.

Technological properties of processing of minerals are characterized by different indicators. The most important of them - the output of finished products, the quality (composition) of finished products, the extraction of valuable components. To ensure the reliability of these indicators, it is necessary to classify ores into natural types (reflecting the mineral composition, texture and structure of the ores) and industrial grades of ores (isolated according to the conditions predominantly in terms of chemical composition). The fact is that ores belonging to different industrial varieties (often also to natural types) possess different technological properties, i.e. are processed according to different technological schemes. Hence the need to test ores for natural types and industrial varieties, separate counting of their reserves, accounting and production.

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