A RESEARCH STUDY On Warlordism In Africa Record Essay

Warlordism has made an appearance in many areas and cultures in history. Presently there are two countries, where warlords play an important role - they are Afghanistan and Somalia. In my own paper I am going to try to express this form of ruling in an instance of Somalia - what have warlords brought to common people, how have they damaged their lives and perhaps how may their future look like.

Warlordism is known as the prevailing form of political firm in the south-central regions after the show up of Siad Barre's program in the early 1990s. Warlords, the leaders of Somali newly emerged politics factions, begun to try out an important role mainly after the land of Siad Barre's program in 1991. These powerful men, who base their support mainly on clan identification, changed the united states of Somalia a great deal when they were seeking their own ambitions. The main goal of might work is therefore locating the answers to these questions - what caused warlordism to go up in Somalia, what happened during their rule in the 1990s and what impacts experienced warlordism on this country.

For better lucidity, I divided my seminar work into four major chapters.

The first section is quite theoretical - it explains the meaning and origins of the word warlord" and it tries to provide some exact meaning of warlordism".

The pursuing part of my paper seeks a conclusion of why has warlordism become such a significant phenomen of Somalia, where rest its roots looked after reminds of the role of Siad Barre in Somali history. It identifies the surge of warlords and also their progressive fall through the second 50 percent of the 1990s. For better understanding, I added two subchapters - the first is about clans in Somalia and the second one requires a closer look about how the situation looks like in several Somali locations.

The third section examines the impacts of warlordism on common life of Somalis, that which was their contribution to Somalis following the 12 months 1991. Again, two subchapter were added. The first subchapter clarifies, where warlords gain there resources for maintaing warfare and keeping their rule; it offers somewhat interesting conclusions of researchers from the planet Lender about Somali economy and Somalis themselves. The second subchapter explains to about rather miserable remains of Barre's program - about militarization of contemporary society.

The last chapter takes a simple look on the way how have warlordism and civil conflict modified the role of the ladies in Somali society. It shows that in spite of their inferior situation, they still carry on some important function in common life of Somalis.

1 A explanation of warlordism

Warlord is somebody who controls a specific region of his country with armed forces makes that are dedicated to him and not to a central federal government. He uses his ability beyond his legitimacy, often thinking that war is the only way of ruling. Using this method, he is different from a feudal, who in addition has military vitality, however he still keeps loayl to a central governmant (or innovator).

This term (warlord) originates from the German term Kriegsherr", that has similar so this means. Even Germans use nowadays the English term rather than their own.

Warlordism is therefore a kind of ruling by warlords and can be detailed above all in so called failed claims. Generally, in these says there exists either no central government or specialist, or this federal government has lost its control over the country. Corresponding to Anderson, the majority of the failed says talk about these three characteristic features: Firstly, the central administration has effectively lost control and authority over the territory. Secondly, interior violent conflict is - or has been - rampant. Finally, the level of human hurting is appalling. Extreme poverty and craving for food are widespread and growing. Atrocities are being committed. Human protection under the law grossly violated and in any other case curable diseases turn into epidemics. ".

The Fund for Serenity creates each year so-called Failed Expresses Index, which mixes cultural, economic and politics indicators. For the entire year 2009, 38 countries - almost all of them from Africa - were labeled as alert". The best index level was given to Somalia (114, 7). In a specific circumstance of Somalia, we can therefore speak not only about a failed condition, but many scientists and journalists illustrate it as a collapsed one. This means lack of point out institutions and talk about coercive power who cannot offer public services anymore.

If we would like to be more specific at the description and source of warlordism, there can be found four major characteristics

1) Rule over a small part of country is overtaken by trained and armed man, who use instability of an central authority

2) These men seek their own self-interest, not really a public favour

3) Legitimacy of warlords comes from their personal charisma and the devotion of followers

4) Because of their self-interest, country is split into small politics and economical sections, free trade is disrupted, therefore economy is slowing and international shareholders do not wish their capital to be part of this place.

Examples of the system are available in many countries. It appeared and looks in Afghanistan, Iraq, Burma, Chechnya, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sri Lanka, Sudan and Pakistan. In this particular paper, I will describe the existing situation in Somalia.

2 The origin and improvement of warlordism in Somalia

The beginnings of warlordism in Somalia can be viewed after a coup d'etat in 1969, when basic Siad Barre had taken control over the country. He rewarded well those were dedicated to him, to his clan, but with the aid of bribes, gossip and intrigues, he were able to fragment other factions (which were likely to get weaker) - this tactic is described as divide-and-rule. Home resources and foreign aid were not used for development, alternatively for rewarding Barres dedicated clans and their armed forces leaders and to punish disloyal ones. This helped bring an enormous instability, causing armed oppositionist clans to rise against Barres routine, first in the northeast region, and then in the northwestern, southern and central parts - all except the place ruled by Barre. Combined with rather disastrous result of the war with Ethiopia, Barre began to lose control and other factions began conditioning their positions. It resulted into civil war, where Siad Barre was overthrowned and anarchy again reigned this country. Cause of the Somali civil war isn't just clan system, however the roots lay in wrong syndication of resources and vitality, long-lasting problem, exploation, despotic plan and wrong development. Each one of these elements mixed together caused that which we noticed in the first 1 / 2 of the 90s in Somalia.

The lack of battle with Ogaden offered a birth to new political factions. Folks from the Majerteen sub-clan of the Darod founded the Somali Salvation Democratic Forward (SSDF), functioning in central Somalia, as the Isaaq clan got control over the north, under the name of Somali Country wide Movement (SNM). The very last important faction, emerged through the reign of Siad Barre, was the United Somali Congress, comprising the largest clan of the Hawiye, and occupied central-south Somalia. During Barre's fall, there was about 15 political factions in Somalia. A yr later, major centres were occupied by the four strongest warlords. While Mogadishu was split into two parts between Aidid and Ali Mahdi, Mohamed Said Hersi controlled Bardaro and the slot of Kismaayo was under the guideline of Ahmed Omar Jess. All four fought strongly among themselves, bloody fights occured especially between the two leaders of Mogadishu.

Therefore we can say that past clans emerged now as politics factions with warlords in their lead and these factions often crossed clan lines. That which was also shattered and absent, was the Xeer legislation. Regrettably after the collapse of regime, warlords were not in a position to unify, to keep up central administration with warlords in its lead. They might well have governed the complete country, nonetheless they were unable to make an arrangement, so all that remained was shattered country with relatively small territories, handled by military innovator. Militias weren't struggling for taking place in administration; the war simply degenerated in anarchy and banditry. Really the only exceptions rised in the north, building Somaliland and Puntland.

Fights among the leaders for remaining resources and then for strategic points (harbours, airports, major metropolitan areas etc. ) helped bring great havoc to this country and because farmers weren't able to work on their fields scheduled to persisting warfare, craving for food pass on quickly among inhabitants. The consequence of their warfare was also pass on of armaments, the nearly complete damage of the administrative centre of Mogadishu, plundering of virtually all open public goods and state properties, fleeing of almost one million of Somalis overseas and separation of at first Somaliland, and than Puntland in the north. The civil war destroyed virtually all state organizations, the cultural and financial infrastructure and broke all food items, both from inner and external sources.

Boundaries of traditional clan territories have quite improved since the start of civil conflict. Weaker clans have been influenced out of these homeland, while more robust ones got their positions. The raids were targeted at profitable areas (wealthy agriculture lands, slots, cities etc. ) and locals often fled because of assault that is helped bring by attacking warlords. It is also an example of Puntland, that many people have fled through Yemen to Australia, America or Scandinavia.

The main interest of growing warlords was prolonging of statelessness, as their offences agains locals errupted massive stolen property, unresolved property disputes and occupied territory. It weren't only warlords, who acquired a pastime on prolonging of civil battle and anarchy. Also some businessmen voted firmly against a rebuilding of administration, as a new administrative could easily see through their business and lower their increases from against the law trade to minimum

Since 1995, conflicts have transformed a great deal in Somalia. From a large-scale warfare betwen clans that plagued the whole country to only local issues between sub-clans began to emerge. These conflicts had significantly less length and were also not so bloody, as only few people were involved.

The are several known reasons for this change - clan elders gained a lot more specialist, also warlords have finally secured their regions and also have less resources to buy means of war - weapons and ammunition. The largest incentive gave however Somalis themselves - people became finally fed-up with the tyranny, especially businessmen, who refused to pay any fees and fees just for moving through warlord managed territories. Therefore they chosen Islamists militias, who symbolized a formidable danger to warlords. Islamic radicals quickly limited warlords rule. The true power had only those warlords controlling tactical places (like jacks, cities, international airports) or those in high positions (memebers of the government etc. ) In the mean time, businessmen produced their own private security causes to guard their house - because the new federal was unable to do that; these private forces are ranked among the most powerful in Mogadishu.

Although crimes of warlords are deceasing happening, white collars are beginning to represent a new risk to Somali stability, since their increasing counterfeiting of currency, which firmly undermines Somali current economic climate.

2. 1 Clannism in Somalia

Clans are basic units of population in Somalia throughout its background. Yet their role has relatively modified in previous years, especially after the accesion to vitality by Siad Barre.

First I'd like to characterize a Somali clan. Clan personal information is not fixed here, which is subject to change. Warlord maipulates people to gain their loaylty to achieve his goals, (where they are political, territorial, economic or armed forces). However, it does not mean that the associates of clans change their regular membership constantly every day. It happens only when see that another person can offer them better conditions. A couple of points can be viewed about the changes of clans and clan identities in Somalia:

a) traditionally, clans served similar to mediators, their purpose was to bring peacefulness and steadiness to the united states, also shifting of clan identities was not so often. This is changed through the rule of Siad Barre, when clan leaders manipulate other fans to obtain their goals, and this shifting of clan identities became a primary source of issues (not clans themselves.

b) in the beginnings of Somali civil battle, conflicts occured especially between major clans. In progress, conflicts became more and more localized, even between your leaders of the same clan (fights between subclans andeven between sub-subclans), like it took place for example in Somaliland - eventhough they gained some self-reliance, new clashes surfaced inside ruling Isaaqs clan.

As I brought up, the primary way to obtain conflicts are moving clan identities. But it it also true that clans are main and probably the only way how to bring tranquility to Somalia, as they it is at past Somalia. Legitimacy of clan elders and of traditional customary legislations (xeer) may be the sources of co-operation and reconciliation. A clan is Somalia is a double-edged sword - it closely web links Somalis and tears them apart".

2. 2 Divided country

The following lines identify the variations between the key Somalia region.

From 1991, many formal, self-declared adiminstrations have arisen. We are able to differentiate between these four types - transregional, local, region and municipal. Examples of transregional and regional entities can be found obviously in Somaliland and Puntland. The issues is the fact although they provide some basic functions, they do not posses the marks of your internationally known sovereign express like issuing of passports etc.

But not only both of these have tried to get some autonomy - the Rahanweyn Resistance Army's administration of Bay and Bakool locations in 1998-2002 and the Benadir Regional Power in 1996. These territories are often made on clan homelands or ex - colonies, like Puntland, which can be found on the territory of the Harti clans, or Somaliland, the area of the ex - Brittish colony. Warlords could therefore create a new state by adding existing blocks along. There may be however another clash - between centralists and federalists. Centralists dread that a divided state can be much weaker and will offer an possibility to neighbouring countries to slowly appropriate separeted territories, while federalists are mainly those, who dont have any associates in authorities and fear that the TFG could take too much from them.

There is a solid regional diversity in Somalia - from the relatively peaceful and secure provinces in the north to the war-torn territories in the south. Wealthy lands of southern region, plug-ins and acces to sea are the sources of turmoil that still prevails in this part of Somali country.

The Lower Shabelle region doesn't seem to be to create some regional specialist, as clashes between various factions and warlords over wealthy agriculture and sea resources still continue. On the other hand, the Middle Shabelle region proves to be relatively secure lately because of new formed supervision.

Other clashes persisted to torment the low Jubba region, especially those about the port of Kismaayo. The champion of factions wars was the clan Juba Valley Authority, which holds a comparatively strong position over this territory. Neighboring Midsection Juba and Gedo locations also lack some strong regulators; the Gedo region must in addition face episodes form Ethiopian soldiers, who want to pacify local Islamic categories.

The parts of Mudug, Galgaduud and Hiraan in the northwest of Mogadishu officialy lay claim some expert, but de facto have none of them. They offer no basic functions, haven't any expert or legitimacy to govern. Security is provided by traditional leader and Islamic courts, somewhat.

In contrary to the southern and the central locations, the north-east and western terriotries have succeeded in forming stable and secure provinces without significant violent issues. Even administrative organs and state institution appear here, providing some basic functions. Somaliland, occupying the north-west part, made on bounderies of the former British isles colony in 1991. Despite two trivial civil conflicts in 1992 and 1994, it has created its onw bicameral parliament, judiciary, police and municipal set ups, also elections are regularly presented.

Somaliland was implemented by Puntland in the north-east eight years later. Very much like Somaliland, Puntland also encountered internal issues from 2001-2003 concerning constitutional turmoil, but those two were solved peacefully. Like in Somaliland, peacefulness and security has drawn some international investment and NGOs, yet, in a smaller quantity in comparison to its european neigbour.

3 The impacts of warlords' rule

In a case of Somalia, we can say that the absence of state authority or defined point out borders is no essential problem because of this country. Most African claims gained their freedom almost right away, which brought many problems. Cases may be cultural conflicts as a result of arbitrary restrictions, vulnerable institutional system filled with problem and bureaucracy, weakened links between state and civil culture or monocrop market too reliant on exports. Also most African folks have had bad experience with both colonists and post-colonial leaders, who've often cruelly exploited them and used talk about institutions and express power only for their personal earnings. No think about why many Africans somewhat do not believe modern systems" of free market and liberal democracy. For a long time, they had their own system of company that did the trick well. If we identify anarchy as a system without a central federal government, than in Somalia lasted anarchy all the time, before colonists appeared (the difference between anarchy recent and present is that in pre-colonial period, spherical of populace was not dying or being at risk of dying because of cravings for food, as it happened in 1992 ). Households, clans, tribes and villages possessed their own guidelines and practices, with which their could prosper relatively good. They also experienced their own head. Would it be so bad, if that innovator became a warlord?

Somali experience right answers us the question - yes, it would. Up to order within clans or tribes is well-kept, people still need basic functions of express to be organised. They have to have their protection under the law protected, their basic needs to be satisfied. Property rights, security, infrastructure, electricity, universities, health-care or (for common people not so important) some politics represantion; these things have to exist in case a state wishes to be succesfull and successful these days. If warlords got care of the, it could have been no problem. However, warlords in Somalia have never had the opportunity to secure these things, they may have cared rather about their personal gains while exploiting this already poor country and fighting for staying resources, than about people needs. That's why we can say that warlordism have afflicted the united states of Somalia quite negatively, it includes spreaded fear and hate among civilians and was profitable only for many who were devoted and near the warlords. Warfare helped bring among civilians was horrendous. THE LOW Jubba region was influenced probably the worst. To keep up the patronize system and to acquire more weaponry, warlords needed money. They gained money by reselling livestock and agricultural products of locals, later even that of foreign food help. Rural inhabitants were terrorized very quickly after Barre was overthrown. Destruction was organized, wells, ponds, grain stores, seed products and livestock used, carried off, killed or destroyed".

Because of many refugees, who were forced to flee the country and settle in abroad, we can say that warlords are accountable for Somali diaspora, which have damaged many Somali lives till nowadays. Somalia is highly reliant on remittance and for many people it is the only way how to make it through (remittances make up about 825 mil. USD in 2004, which is about 60 %60 % of GNP ). Warlords have also prevented people from reaching basic talk about functions - professional medical, education, infrastructure and so on. Especially education, which is important all over the place and everytime, was signifacantly missing, as new young people can help their country, at least by talking about and understanding what's happening there, therefore the foreigners could better comprehend the proceedings.

Furthermore, not just that warlordism doesn't help local people, it also will keep off foreign countries from aiding. Risky environment full of chaos will most likely not attract overseas investors. Foreign aid is stolen by the warlords, and the ones providing it are kidnapped or attacked. Under these circumstances, only few countries are prepared to help such countries, whether with humanitarian, development or military services aid. Especially in case of Somalia, following the debacle of the united states and the UN pushes in 1993, the Western states consider twice before they send some soldiers to these regions.

To summ up, no subject how lousy experience have Somalis with autocrative regimes, a creation of some express authority still appears better that status-quo. Better federal government (without warlords in its lead) with control over the country appears to be at least some means to fix current problems.

Furthermore, except of breaking internal security, warlordism also threatens neighbouring countries. Collapsed Somalia, without a well-guarded border, is perfect for smugglers, against the law trade of weaponry and drugs. In addition, unpredictable environment will surely catch the attention of those who need to be hidden - radicals, extremists, terrorists. Somalia is a great example, as after reclaiming the power by Islamic Union Courts in 2006, some highly-sought terrorists from al-Qaida appered in these territories. Which enticed a major adversary of terrorists, the federal government of the United States, and the united states Army began as a result airstriking suspicous villages in the south region, where terrorists were covering. However, the US didn't well in cases like this, as they supported enemies of UIC - warlords, who on the contrary used these resources to get more ability, so they could continue with exploiting Somali inhabitants. Wii idea from the US, I'd say.

3. 1 Economic outcomes of warlordism

To maintain dissorder also to keep their electric power, warlords need money. The primary sources of their income are money they get from foreign sponsors, from fees and charges levied on trade routes, plug-ins, airports or in big locations or even on some parts of road, or, there have been attempts to utilize counterfeit Somali currency, which was printed abroad. Another issue of Somalia is qat (khat), a flowering seed with cathinone alkaloid, which is a stimulant causing excitement, loss of desire for foods and euphoria. The WHO considers this place as a drug of mistreatment. Since Islam forbids Somalis drinking alcohol, they chew this plant to possess at least some thoughts of intoxication. Similar to the Czech people, who meet in pubs and drink ale, Somalis meet in a place called mefrish", where they chew up en mass. Not just that employees are of course less effective while being drugged; what is more important is the actual fact that the distribution of khat is nearly entirely manipulated by warlords, who gain huge earnings from the medicine trade and they use these profits to obtain more weaponry and other means of warfare and therefore more vitality.

Conflicts between warlords also brought on massive monetary problems. Except of human casaulties - amount of people who had been killed by warfare and disease, who have been never born or who emigrated is projected about 2 large numbers, there is also a great poverty, where is afflicted about 43 percent of inhabitants Moreover, Somalia finds itself at the bottom of the most African (and worlds) economical positions. Also its external arrears has increased a whole lot right from the start of civil (2 billion USD) to nowadays (about 3, 2 billion USD). Nevertheless, trade was not so affected by warfare and private sector modified very quickly on having less state corporations. When Saudis located a ban on livestock (mainly sheep and goats), they simply point their trade elsewhere. This example shows us another quality feature of Somalis - their resiliance. As I said, many Somali monetary indicators rest even behind the world's poorest countries. Yet we have to mention that these data do not range a whole lot from those of pre-civil battle this shows us high resilience of Somali people, who could adapt to very difficult conditions. Moreover, status collapse taken to Somalia what even structural adjustment programmes cannot - privatization and liberalization of current economic climate and of most public services - drinking water, electricity or security; especially telecommuncation system have developed quite well up to now. It shows us, that Somalia had not been unified politically, monetary integration of Somali regions went on well through free flow of goods, services and informations. Current economic climate is able to develop itself, although overseas aid is either absent (after the debacle of UN makes in 1993-1994) or being looted by warlords.

Trade has to face some difficulties here though, as important market segments positioned in major cities have grown to be too dangerous and dangerous for trading consequently of warfare. So merchants need to operate on different trade routes. Also some areas, especially from Arabian peninsula, won't work with Somalis, as there are no veterinary controls. Menkhaus appoints however, that the demand of Somali vendors for new streets a trading routes, so they could trade more easily and safely and securely, is one of the principal causes of incurred peace functions and peace discussions. Furthermore, it is an argument for weakening position of warlordism. Without warlord rule, stock traders have better opporunities. If country is secured, if sellers can do their business without a fear of being kidnapped or robbed, if veterinary rules are instituted, than trade is flourishing and commonweal is incresing.

A final result of the World Bank or investment company research says that Somali war has its main roots neither in a warfare between clans nor in the Frosty war, but in a policy of Siad Barre, who shifted from demand overall economy to free market and financial liberalization, while still counting on the energy of his own clan and fomenting rivalry between other clans. Results of these activities weren't immediate, however in the future they may have proved to have a devastating effect on Somalia.

3. 2 Militarization of society

A significant feature of Siad Barre's routine (and consequently of warlordism) is a culture of militarization, something which may have lasted to nowadays. Barre's institutions got but just a little legitimacy, legislation was rather required by armed forces means. Following the coup in 1991, weaponry could be found almost atlanta divorce attorneys family, metaphorically spoken. Weapons have been used to settle quarrels between people and also have even been traded on open marketplaces. To create conditions a whole lot worse, several observes spotted that some Somali warlords are recognized from the neigbouring countries, who don't seek a peaceful solution, but their own goals and hobbies. Main stars are Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Yemen, who deliver their weapon-cargos though plug-ins in Boosaaso, Marha and Kismaayo. This is a significant problem for warlords, as they slowly started to lose control over their enthusiasts, as well as clan elders has lost much of their authority. Legislations was a one big uknown. Since any accountability could be seen and impunity became common in Somalia, situation received worse very quickly. (warlords were oppressing local people, using them as a forced labour or influenced them out).

Without any express authority, a genuine electric power lied in the hands of these who were equipped - militiamen, their leaders and teenagers, who sought in battle their own earnings (these men were often rather children, as some observes estimate that about 200 000 (5 %) of Somali children had been involved in militia activities).

Weapons that warlords demand and with that they deal with are usually following - low-cost assault rifles, pistols, palm grenades, rocket propelled grenades, mortars, heavy and medium machine weapons and anti-aircraft cannons deployed in a ground-attack role. However, warlords commonly do not interfere straight with weapon dealers, they alternatively authorize another person to acquire merchandise for the coffee lover.

Luckily, before several years, clashes between clan-leaders and local people are not so frequent, but nonetheless most people keep their weapons, because they dread for their property and for his or her lives. This is applicable especially for south-central Somalia, the region without the form of effective and strong government. On the other hand, Somaliland and Puntland have made a signficant progress in demobilization, as their market leaders know that without a secure and peaceful environment, no development, overseas investment and trade is possible.

4 Changes in tender relations

Warlordism and civil battle have both evolved the role of women in Somali population and relationships between a guy and a women. And both in negative and postitive way. Although some changes have occured, still some major characteristics of Somali world linger on. It means a patriarchial culture, a communal system predicated on exagamous relationship (exogamous matrimony is a wide-spread culture rule indentifying an exagamous group, from which young men and women cannot choose their companions. This means that they can not marry a person using their company group and have see them outside it. These groups are often kins, clans, tribes, totems and so on ) and especially the thought of that women remain inferior compared to men. Women also experienced greatly during the first many years of civil wars, as their faimilies were torn aside, children were taken from them, they lost their family members and were frequently victims of assault. Offences comitted on were large-scale very brutal, especially terrible especially so-called rape camps" that occured in Mogadishu in the first 1990s, when kidnapped women were placed in warlordss villas and were subjected to repeated rape and other varieties of sexual maltreatment. Warlords chose rather women from foe clans or those with weakened clan affilations and for that reason little clan safeguard.

Yet, Somali women could actually capture some opportunities also to acquire some benefits. Because many men were lacking in young families during civil war, whether were they deceased, kidnapped, imprisoned or serving warlords, women abruptly became market leaders of family members and acquired all responsibility for his or her family members, especially in pastoral neighborhoods. Here they released some new arrangments, f. e. in herd management tactics or in livestock trade.

Women also have turned out their negotiating skills and were often in charge of peacefully resolved issues in Somaliland (they resolved down intra-clan disputes within the ruling clan of Isaaq142 and were able to persuade local faction leaders to achieve inter-clan reconciliation) and in northeast Kenya. Although they are generally excluded from formal negotiations and peace meetings and aren't certified to speak at general population meetings, these were still able to find their ways to support and create tranquility. One of the main of these ways concerns the sooner mentioned Somali system of relationship, so-called exogamous relationship. Since women (and men) are not permitted to marry a person from group to that they belong, they have to seek him elsewhere - in other clans. With their loyalty for both teams, they can now provide as messengers between both of these clans, even in times of battle, being that they are the one ones who are able to travel throughout hostile areas without being attacked. With the negotiating skills, they can try to persuade warlords to solve a conflict in a peaceful way and also to lower tensions between hostile clans. Furthermore, they become mediotars not only on inter-clan level, but also on in their loved ones (or in expanded people) or between associates of an clan.


Somalia experienced greatly under the guideline of warlords. Within my research I found that almost every one of Somali warlords cares no more than his personal benefits and his only desire is to keep chaos to be able never to lose his ability. Of course we can not expect a warlord to be always a kind and nice person, but atrocities dedicated on Somalis mainly in the 1990s were bad. One can have its power and wealth, yet still he can care about his country. That's what warlords weren't in a position to do.

Luckily people found their vitality and drove the majority of militiamen away. Everything started with entrepreneurs, whose affairs were crossed by warlords' activities. Warlordism was also weakened by the Islamic Courts in 2006, which suggested to make a new Islamic talk about with adding of Islamic laws Shaira and ruling of clerics. With their come, a new kind of warlordism have arisen - clan-based Islamic warlordism, which brings an Islamist ideology as a prevailing factor of fighting groups.

The Islamists were ousted by Ethiopia, whose soldiers stayed in the united states for almost 3 years (2006-2009). Regrettable local warlords were prefered by the Ethiopian federal government to the Islamists, therefore past warlordism have slightly arisen again. Obviously Islamists fighters didn't give up so easily. They needed their positions in the south-central parts plus they still try to overrun Mogadishu. To make situation more complicated, the US plane, seeking Islamic terrorists from al-Qaeda, started out to drop bombs at Islamists centres. Fights for Mogadishu still continue, as much inhabitants flee from the capital to flee this problem (about about 350 000 people).

So what may be the future for Somalia?

The time 2008 brought finally a new hope for Somalis, as the transitional government and a moderate band of Islamists - The Alliance for the Reliberation of Somalia - made an arrangement on tranquility. In January 2009, the Somali's parliament elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmad, a moderate Islamic cleric, as a leader. Somalis pray that the new leader will stabilizace their country and will put an end to the 18 years long-term anarchy. Along with the support of Western countries, he must most importantly come with an contract with radical Islamists, who currently operate in organizations Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam. Their assaults have strengthened from Apr, as they continue in problems (often suicidial) in Mogadishu, requesting an establishing of a fresh Islamic state. Not even an adopting of Islamic regulation Sharia, as a sort of peace offering, had not been enough for Al-Shabaab. The reaction of Ethiopia was quick - re-entering Somalia with their own troops in order to prevent overthrowing of the transitional federal. In addition, more and more former political factions are splitting nowadays, getting more and more intra- and interclan battles.

The resolution of Somali problem appears to be far away these days.


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[15] http://daccess-dds-ny. un. org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N03/580/59/IMG/N0358059. pdf?OpenElement

(may possibly not be accessible now)

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