Culture of Belarus in the second half of the XIX century. - History of Belarus

Question 44. Culture of Belarus in the second half of the 19th century

The needs of capitalist development led to the further reform of the education system. The school reform of 1864 democratized the education system, making it more accessible to the lower strata of society. The statute of gymnasiums and progymnasiums on November 19, 1864 divided secondary schools into classical and real ones. Program progymnasium corresponded to 4 classes of the gymnasium. In the gymnasium, children of all classes and religions were accepted, but there was a high tuition fee. The classical gymnasiums were dominated by the subjects of the humanitarian cycle. The end of the gymnasium gave the right to enter universities. Real high schools (since 1871 - real schools) trained cadres for industry and trade. At the end of XIX century. There were 13 gymnasiums, 3 progymnasiums, and more than 20 district schools in Belarus. In 1899 there were more than 6 thousand people's and parish schools. Personnel teachers for primary schools prepared teachers' seminaries in Molodechno (1864), Nesvizh (1872), Svisloch (1876) and Polotsk. According to the census of 1897 the level of literacy of the population of Belarus was 25.7%. After the closure in 1864 of the Mountain-Gorki Agricultural Institute, there were no higher educational institutions on the territory of Belarus. Along with the state there were private educational institutions. In the second half of the XIX century. In Belarus there were professional schools and colleges: the Gorets-Gorki Agricultural College. Polotsk Cadet Corps, theological seminaries, crafts, agricultural schools.

In the second half of the XIX century. the study of history and language became more active. culture of the Belarusian people by representatives of United States scientific institutions and local intelligentsia. The main center for the study of the Belarusian provinces in 1867-1915. became North-West Branch of the Imperial United States Geographical Society (Vilna). His collaborators were ethnographers P. Shane. Y. Krachkovsky, E. Romanov, etc. I. Nosovich in 1870 in St. Petersburg published the "Dictionary of the Belarusian dialect". The historian A. Sapunov investigated the history of Vitebsk region. Founder of West-United Statesism M. Koyalovich and his followers from Orthodox positions illuminated the history of the GDL and Rzeczpospolita.

Periodic printing Belarus was represented by the official government "Gubernskie Vedomosti", "Vilensky messenger", orthodox "Diocesan statements". Since 1886, . the first non-governmental newspaper "The Minsk leaf" has been published.

In the second half of the XIX century. The Belarusian literature was characterized by the desire to show the ethno-cultural characteristics of the Belarusians and the independence of the Belarusian language. Creativity F. Bogushevich (collections "Dudka BeloUnited States", and "Smyk Belarusian") was aimed at awakening the civil and national consciousness of the Belarusian peasantry. Narodnik direction in the Belarusian literature represented A. Gurinovich, Tetka (A. Pashkevich), Y. Luchina, Karus Kaganets (K. Kostrovitsky).

In 1890 a permanent theater was opened in Minsk, the Society of Art Lovers was created. Amateur theatrical collectives became widespread. Popular among the common people used the "batleika".

In the fine arts of the second half of the XIX century. the main style of stasis realism (N. Silivanovic, A. Goravsky). In the work K. Alkhimovich combined late romanticism and realism. The most common genres of painting were historical, landscape, portrait, household. Architecture of Belarusian cities in the second half of the XIX - early XX century. combined elements of different art styles (eclecticism). Neo-Byzantine (Neo-Arian), Neo-Gothic, Neo-Romance styles became widespread.

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